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WlTH lentiments of the higheft refpect, the Publifher is felicitous to *x> 
prefs his acknowledgments to his Friends for the extenfive patronage he hats 
experienced in this undertaking. He hopes that, on his part, no requifite 
expence or care has been withheld to render this the moll complete and the 
cheapeft topographical hiftory of any province in the ifland. Much diligence 
in refearch, and the greateft caution in admitting any thing as fa&, have been 
ufed in its execution. * 

For the very handfqme manner in which the two firft chapters were furnifhed 
by the Revd. Mr. Grant of Elgin, and the other two by the Revd. Mr. Leflie 
of Darkland, he offers this teftimony of his grateful remembrance. 

Nor can he omit expreffing his fenfe of obligation to Mr. William Millar, 
Engineer of the Sutherland Coal Work, for the moft accurate Map of the Pro^ 
vince of Moray ever offered to public notice. His View of the Elgin Cathedral 
does him the higheft honour, being the moil corrc&aad ftriking yet exhibited 
of that magnificent ruin. 7 / / 



CHAP. I. ' 



THIRST Inhabitants— Celts, 
* Pifis, 

, Scots, 

Surnames in Moray, -^ 

Thanes, ^r— -~ -h— — 

Marls of Moray, « ■■ 

Family of Gordon, - — -* 

Grant, . 

Shewglie, - ■ ■ t 

/jtaij, .~— — 

Bfodie^ . — : 


Kilravock, r — - 


Gravgehill and Durn, 
J- Corny n of Altre, — — 
Frafer of Lovat, - ■ ■■«■-■ 

Mackintofh, - — 

Macpherfon, — - 

Macdonalds. of Qlengafy, 
Duff, Earl Fife, .— 
GordojtJlown t . . « ■ ■ 
Lethin,. ——•* — 

Findrafjie, • ■■■ - 

Murrejfs of Duff us, 
Population of Mm ay, r— 

1 . — > 

• " 











^ - 


k , 

page 4 <j»a? addition page. 
l~ 6 

■ • -^ ■ 7 i 

,— io and addition page* 

— n ■ 

— 13 

— 16 

— 1% and addition page. 

— 27 and addition page. 

— 2 8 

-r- 30 and addition page . 

— 3 1 

— 3« 

■ — 33 . 

— — addition page, 

— 34 

— 36 

— 37 

— 38 • 

— 39 

-> *K 

— 41 

~ .4»- 

— i£. 

— 43. 

— 46 and addition page, 



^tOMAN Progrefs in Moray, 
yitrijied Forts, ■■■ . ," 

— 5° 

— # 



Obelijk at Forres, .^— page 64 

Farts and Caftles, *. ■ *— 6y 

Religious Houfes — Urquhart, — 72 

Kinlofs, — 73 and addition page. 

Plufcarden, — 77 - 

St, Nicholas, at Bridge 
ofSpey, ~- 8a 

Cathedral, , » ■ . • ■ > ■ ■ — 81 

J&Jhop's Palaces, .— « — -_ 84 

Revenues of Bijhoprick, ■ . ■■■ — 86 

Catalogue of Biffiopsy > ■■ — 90 



Parifk of Speymoutk, *-. page 94- 

■ ■ ■ j ■ Urquhart, ' —. ■ ^ * ■■ • ■ u p — 102 

• s — 5/. Andrews Lhanbryd, '< ■ - . . — 106 „ 

-^— — —n— Brainy, *-— — - »■ ■ ■ « ' ■■ ■ ■ • ■•'• — ■ 117 

•^ — Duffus, .' *— — - — 123 

. ■ ■ Spynie, » « • - ; ■ - — 127 

. ,— Elgin, « — — 135 

w» Birnie t ■ - ■■ » ■■■■ u : — i^e 

■ Alves, * — — » — '- — 14^5 

. Kinlofs, -'■ ' '. ■■ ' ■ . » " - ■■ ■ > - . -— 14^ 

- Forres, '• r- — J 56 

; — - Raff or d, ■ ■ « — — 160 

~ r— • Dollas, ^- *- — ^- — 164 

.—■ — r EdinAiellie, - . — - ' • — 1^7 

Dyke, -^ - — .*— ~ j 7 t 

> — Auldearn, —rrr- » v ■■■ — - jfrt 

— : Nairn, »■■ » ■■ ■■ ■**— • — i8jr 

Airderfer, — £— . ' — ™* '— 190 

Ogy* _ — - — xp^ 

■ Ardclack, . > " * ■ • 77 — 203 

. » ■ ■ *. Moy and Dalarojfie, ■■■ ■■*■ ■ - — 20,5 

■ • Daviot.andDunligkby,. . ■""■n * — ft 08 

•— s r- Durris, ' — ~— t — sj,i« 

» »■ - p. P<f/ty, • ; rr — ; ^— — a*4 


yl +*■!■ CONTENTS. ; S*'U**& "*" ' 

ftrijkof Invetntjs % ~ . . < ■ " » page 21S 

~ KirkhiU, « — - — * « ■ — 225 

■■ » Killtarlity, . 1— 229 

♦•~" — —Urquhart* - ■ »-. .~-r — * 234 

' " ■■ ' ■ Bole/kin, • ^_ — . ^, ^ j 

— — Laggan, — r — *5t 

■ " Kinguifich, * — • -*~ 255 

— — — - ^4/t;ie, - '«■■— - — ■ -- « ■'■■■ > — 259 

— — Duthel* — « — >— «*— 262 

* Abtruetkyi ■ — ■■ * ■ — r* — 26$ 

Cromialty ■ ■ » - " t ■ • «~~ 269 

* ■■ » ' - ' 

- Kirkmicheul, ■■ ■ ^ - « ■ . ■ ■■- — ■" 275 

- Invcraxian* « »■ » . ■ * .-*-* 277 

- Aberhzur, — — ^ — - > — 28^ 

-^ Martlach* — ~~ *r— — 288 

-" , Boharm^ — « — ■■■■ ■ * — «• — 294 

-r*- Keith* ■ ■■ — ■■ — ' ' , — 29^ 

•*— /?<>/£«, . ~ r — ' 305 

■r Bcllte % — ■ ■ , * " » "» -** 309 



Agriculture* whenfirjk introduced into tke Province* page 319 

- — ■ prefejd State, and Hints for Improvement of, 323 

Roads > State of, — ■ — — 332 

« Diftancesfrom Invernefs to Edinburgh, — 334 

» , to Kirkwail % *-* — - 338 


As are generally vifitcd by Strangers in the Province of Moray, 
defcribcdintheWork. . 

BATTLE (Field of), at Altcchoilacban, — page 281 ' 

■ ■ ■ . at Auldern, — 185 

» ». m - < at CuHoden, — *95 

Battle g 


feattle (Field of) at Mortlacb, — — , ~~^» page 28$ 

Caftle Grant, — -*— — 270 

Coves of Caufea, ■ ■ — — - — — 122 

Catrngorum Mountain, — — '— - &6$ 

Coryafioch Mountain, « » ' — 251 

Darnaway Cattle, • — 172 

Elgin Cathedral, ■ — 81 

fall of Kilmorae, — « — 23* 

*— : Invermorifton, • — ■ , — 237 

— ' . ■■■ - Foyers, ■■ ■ — • «'i— ■ m — 247 

Foreft of Glenmore, • — - : — — — 99 

Strathglafs, - ■■ T > ■ ■ • — — — 230 

— Rothiemurchus, « — *— — -— — 263 

•— « -Abernethy, ■ ■ ~- — 267* 

Fort George-, —— *• — - — — 66 

Fort Auguftut, ■ ■ — 69 

Gordon Caftle, — - — - ' — — - — 311" 

Innes-Houfe, * — , — ., — -^ 10 g* 

Kinlofs Abbey, ■**+ — » 73 

Mhalfourvinnich Mountain and Lake, . — 235 

Nefs Lake, ■ * ■ ■■ *■ ■ ", — 246 

Plufcarden Priory, ~— — * ■ 1 1— jj 

Sands of Culbin, •— — —■ ~- xyj 

Spynie Caftle and Lake, — « >■ ■ — in 

$cene of the meeting betwixt Macbeth and the Weird Sifters, 

Agreeable to Shakefpeare, — -~ — ; — *~. 17^ 



JIHE following Account of the Province of Moray is ref- 
pe&fully, prefented to the Public. The limited nature of 
the work prevents a diffufe and detailed information of par- 
ticulars, many of which ate indeed of no importance be* 
yond the circle of a narrow country. 

In the two firft chapters, it was the Editor's wifli to give 
authentic relations, without being a dupe to tradition, or 
giving implicit credit to the tales of former ages. * With 
this view, he has drawn information from the pureft fources 
and bed vouchers within his reach. Ptolemy of Alexandria^ 
Richard of C?rence/ier 9 and the difcoveries that modern re- 
fear ch has made on the face of the country, have been con- 
fulted. The Chartulary of Moray * Fordun y John Ferrerius 9 
MSS. Hiftory of the Abbey of Kinlofs and Abbots, Sir 
James and Sir David Dalrymple's works, have been of avail, 
as has Sir William Jones's. Had accefs to original charters 
been more extenfive, the hiftory of families would have 
been more particular and accurate. 

Mr* Shaw's account of families is 1 in general adopted, 
where it appears he had examined their charters. As to 
others, many alterations and additions have been made, 
when fupported by original writings and genuine hiftory. 
Thefe are the only vouchers that are to be depended on, 
and not oral tradition, * which is uncertain among any peo- 
ple, but is fo in an uncommon degree, if they are unfettled, 
turbulent, and illiterate. 

Sir Thomas JJrquharf of Cromarty, in the true fpirit of 
Rabelais; his favourite author, ha* expojfed and condemned 


viii . PREFACE. 

this futile rage for traditional genealogy, in his pedigree and 
lineal defcent of the family of Urquhart of Cromarty from 
Adam to 1652. In the way of genuine burlefque, he gives 
names, marriages, and dates, with the fame precifion as. 
if the records of their hiftoriographers had been preferved 
pure and incorrupt. 

• To the various authorities for the two laft chapters 
which wei;e enumerated in the printed propofals, ttamely* 
the ancient and modern hiftorians-of the kingdom, the nu- 
merous publications of intelligent travellers, and the Statif- 
tical Account of Scotland, many direft particular commu* 
nications have been moreover procured from gentlemen hi 
various quarters of the. country. Thefe have been beftowecfc" 
with the moft handfome liberality, and with the higheft re- 
fpe£t they are acknowledged by the Editor, who, having' 
no partialities to gratify, feeks only to avoid mifreprefenta- 
tion, and neither to hurt the feelings of any perfoft, nor 
provoke refentment in any quarter. 

The reader is to give attention to the correftions and ad- 
ditions printed at the end of this wot k, as they illuftrate and 
confirm many particulars. 







THE ancient natives of Britain came originally from the eaft* 
and were defcended bf a people who had made diftinguifhed 
progrefs in the arts and fciences, in agriculture, and the other 
occupations of civil life* In time, they were reduced to a ftate de- 
nominated- barbarous, and became a people whofe hiftory only be-' 
Comes an object as connected with that of the prefent inhabitants,, 
a powerful ancfcpolilhed nation. 

We are interefted in the early accounts of them, and wifh to b^. 
informed of their origin, their manners, their mode of government 
their internal revolutions, with their various gradations from 
fpfol wildnefs to modern cultivation. 

Our progref? in this refearch mud be imperfect, as the ancient 
hiftory of the ifland is involved in great obfcurity, and, after all 
our induftry, will remain highly uncertain. ' 

The wandering tribes and barbarous clans who occupied the 
country in thefe remote times gave little attention to their own hif- 
tory, and had few advantages for preferving accounts of their (late 
and actions. This limits the knowledge of the Aborigines of our 
country in 'early periods to a few facts, conveyed to us, through the 
medium of foreign language and manners, from a lettered people, 
who* by trade cr> conquer?,-. had acquired fome acquaintance with' 
them; or to conjecture and reafoning, founded on a few public 
monuments, with remains of their language, and fome anticnt 
ufages that were obferved, until hiftory became eftablifhed on pofi- 
tive evidence. 

The conjectural part of our hiftory is highly uncertain, if not, in 
many particulars, fabulous. Before the ufe of letters, neither the 
pames nqr the actions of men could be preferved little more than 

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Tacitus informs us, that in the age of Agricola our ifland was 
inhabited by the people of Caledonia, the Silures and Cumhri. He 
eftimated the Caledonians to be of German extraftion, from their 
appearance and fize ; the Silures, he judged, came from Spain, and 
therefore were Iberians and Phoenicians, and that the Cumbrians 
were of Gallic extract, from their fimilarity in language and reli- 
gious inftitutions. The- Caledonians probably fpoke one of the 
Gothic dialefts mingled with the language of the Celtee, who re- 
treated northward on the irruption of the Belgae and Romans, and 
# relinquishing their Sylva Caledonia, on the banks of the Thames, 
preferred that name in Caledonia, afterwards Scotland. 

The united body of thefe Celtae and the Scandinavian colonies 
formed that nation afterwards called PiHi by the Romans. The 
Cumbrians fpoke a dialed of the Celtic and Gothic languages, and 
were thofe Celtae, Belgse, Pi£ti, and other Britons, who, after the 
Saxon invafion, occupied the weftern coaft, from Antoninus's Wall 
to Land's-end. 

Bede, who died in 735, informs us, that in his age there were 
five languages ufed in Britain : the Saxon', Britijh, ScMiJk* PiBiJh, 
and Roman* The Saxon and Pi&iih were dlale&s of the Gothic, 
being fpoken by people of the fame origin. The BritiCh language 
was compofed of the Celtic and Gothic diale£fcs,. introduced by the 
* Belgae. The Scottifti was partly Celtic and partly Irifli ; the Scots 
and Irilh being one and the fame people. When the Romans 
conquered a nation, they introduced their language among them ; 
but before Bede's time it had^ceafed to be in common ufe in this 
Jfland, and was only adopted in religious fervices, and as a learned 
language. s , 

From the intercourfe between thefe races of men, and the con- 
fufion of language that muft neceflarily arife, we cannot imagine* 
that their language could be preferved pure and unmixed to mo- 
dem times. A medley would be formed, that makes it new diffi- 
cult, if nbt im^offibie, to define with accuracy and precifion the 
boundaries between thefe different languages, and decidedly fay to 
which 6F them innumerable words, both antient and modern* 

This proves how' fundamentally many "fail in their etymological- 
enquiries. In this" there is a fafhion, as in other branches of re- 
. fearch. It is the mode with many at'jttfefent/ to derive all the* 
v names 


names of places in Scotland from the modern Gaelic, a mafs of 
Gothic, Britifh, Celtic, and Iberiih words, yet dignified with the 
character of aniitnt Celtic. There can be no doubt that many of 
thefe can be derived from no other fourcej but this cannot with 
propriety be univerfally done. This. puts one in mind of the an- 
cient. Greeks, who adopted a fimilar plan, which created the ut- 
moft confufion in hiftory, and, inftead of truth, made it a tifiue oF 
fable. That the Erfe is a dialeft, in general, of the Celtic com- 
bined with the Iberifh, admits of no doubt; but it is a diale& 
abounding with innumerable Gothic words. Befides, from the 
laple of time, and the want of written ftandards, it muft materially 
vary from what it originally was when thefe names were appropri- 
ated. We mould never make ufe of a language which is modern or 
comparatively modern, to deduce the etymology of ancient words : 
more particularly as. the moderns, in general, implicitly copy the 
ancients in being guided by the ear> which renders all their concep- 
tions on that fubjecl: precarious and uncertain, as appears in ety- 
jnojogifts fo widely differing from each other. 

This appears to be a probable account of the ancient inhabitants. 
of Britain : The Celts and Belgae from Gaul ; the Scythians or 
Goths from Germany, who in time v/ere called Caledonians and 
Pifts, with Phoenicians and Iberians from Ireland: befides thefe* 
in more modern times, many ftraggling colonies came into Scot- 
land from Denmark, Norway, and Ireland. Among thefe were 
the Scots, who, originally poffeffing a fmall part .of the ifland in 
Argyle, gradually fpread abroad. At length they conquered the 
Pi&s and Cumbrians ; and as the Angles gave their name to Eng- 
land, fo they impofed the name of Scotland on the other part of 
the ifland. 

There has been mueh ingenuity, not a little learning, with a 
confiderable fliare of acrimony employed by the Irifli ami Scots, in 
determining the original of the latter, and the rife of the appella- 
tion. It appears highly probable, that they both at firft were one 
and the fame people, as the north of Ireland might have been par- 
tially colonized from the neighbouring parts of Caledonia; This 
circumftance, and their Vicinity, would keep up frequent commu- 
nications between both iflands, and a frequent' interchange of colo-. 
nies. At. length, twpor three centuries after the Chriftian rera, a 
colony from Ireland, under .Fergus , ox Riada % or fom other un- 


known leader, was . eftablifhed in Caledonia, and the appellation 
Scots firft ufed within Britain. Bede, who lived at no great dis- 
tance of time from that period, fixes this colony on the northern 
banks of the Clyde. They gradually pufhed their conquefts on the 
weftern fhores, till they reached Caithnefs ; and in time all to the 
north of the river Forth was called Scotland, and the Firth of Forth 
W3S named Mare Scoticum. The Piers or Caledonians occupied 
the eaitern fhores and low countries. This diilinftion between the 
boundaries of the Pi£b and Scots was 'preferved long in even the 
province of Moray. It can be traced in the names and hills through* 
out the whole of the province. 

.Among the charters of Dunbar of Grange, there is one granted 
in 1121 by King Alexander II. to the Abbacy of Kinlofs, of the 
lands of Burgy, in Which a boundary is, Rune Pittorum, the Pitts' 
Cairn. In another charter from Richard, biftiop of Moray, after 
the year 1187, to, the fame abbacy, is mentioned, Scoticum molen-t 
dinum ; and to this day, a road from the highlands to the low dif- 
tri&s of the province is called the Scots Rodd. It is through the 
hilis to the caft of Dollas. 

After a variety of fortune and much bloodfhed, the Scots, Pitts y 
and Caledonians, in the 9th century, united themfelves under one 
fovereign, and took the fingle name of Scots, though that of Pitts 
alfo remained in Tome parts of the kingdom many years ^fter this. 

It is difficult to give a fatisfa£tory account of the origin of the 
appellation Scots. Probability leads us to judge, that Scot and 
ScytJd are the Tame names,' and that Scoz was'afterwards applied 
to them as a term of reproach, on account of their plundering and 
rapacious manners. One particular is certain, that it was im- 
ported from Ireland, which was the antient Scotia, and its inha- 
bitants were called Scots after the year 1400. 

Tradition is filent with regard to the time when the firft colo- 
nies came into the north of Scotland from Scandinavia and Ger- 
many. We learn from Glaudian, that the Saxons were in the Ork- 
neys before' the year 390, and the Pi£rs in Thule, by which he 
means the north of Scotland. Tafous infflf nrs us, that about 927 
the Norwegians, under the command of Siglnd earl of. Orkney, 
conquered 'Moray, where probably they built Elgin. At that, pe- 
riod, or rather oeforc it, the Pifts occupied a Roman ftation on 
the Moray Firth called Pt<jrotan % which they named tie Bwgh> 


Cfiap. U movince of mobay. ^ 

and eftablifhed themfelvea under its protection in great numbers, 
as appears by the ruins, of houfes that extend along the feafliore 
to thceaft almoft two miles. This, and more ancient colonies of 
'the fame people, .mingling with the Britifti,' impelled northwards 
by the invasions of the Belgse, Iberians, Romans, and Saxons, 
peopled the province of Moray. 

We are entirely ignorant of their internal ftate and 'partial re- 
volutions; biit.w$ have every reafon . to Relieve, that they were 
a /neccffitous, turbulent, unfettled people. This is confirmed by 
tlieir killing King Malcolm I. at Ulrin, which, by the chartulary of 
Moray, is the Gaftle of Forres. They alfo murdered KingDuiTus at 
Forres about 966, when he came to punifii them for their crimes. 
They rebelled in the reign of Mafcolm IV. who, about 1160, led 
an army againft them. They fubmitted \ but, to break their future 
licentioufnefs, in 1161 he tranfplanted all thofe engaged in the in- 
furrection into. the other counties of Scotland, from Caithnefs to 

In conformity to. the praftice fometime before introduced into 
Scotland, of firnames being taken from names of places, theii ge- 
neral firname was Murref] after their country ; but many altered • 
this into that of the place where they, were eftablifhed. Thcfe 
called Sutherland, Earls of Sutherland, were originally Murrefs, as 
appears from a protection granted by Edward, king of England, to 
William de Murrefs fon of thp Earl of Sutherland. It is dated 
28th Jan. 1367. The firft of the family of Sutherland in record is 
Hugo Frejkyn, between 11 86 and 12 14. "When this tranfporta- 
tion of the inhabitants of Moray took place, it is highly probable, 
that the King granted their lands to others, who founded new fa- 
milies, of whom many of the prefent inhabitants are defcended. 

Malcolm III. and his fucceffors received with open arms many 
exiles and difcontented ptxfons of rank from England, of -Saxon 
and Norman extraction : they alfo received adventurers from the 
Continent,: fo that. imperceptibly the greateft part of the property 
in Scotland belonged to thefe ftranger3. . At this day, rnoft of the 
nobility of Scotland, and many commoners of ancient families, are 
of their blood. 

At this period it was, probably,, that the Rofes of Kilravock 

came from Englafid, and received their land within the province : 

their being corrimonly called Barons of 'Kilravock, an Englifii 

"title, fupposts the, conjecture. % 

' . The 


Thelnms'soflnnesy it is likely^ were eftabliflied at the fame 
time. The founder of that family is named in the charter granted 
by Malcolm IV. about 1160, Beroaldus Flandrienfisy or Beroatd 
tke*Flandrian* Beroald is a name common in the Low Countries, 
but unknown in Scotland. ; 

It may throw fome light on the ancient inhabitants of the pro- 
vince, arid aid in diiUnguiihing what race they were defcended of, 
to mention the names of perfons as formerly »ufcd. Before the 
reign of Malcolm Canmore, ail is darknefs in the hiftoryof Scot- 
landj at large ; and ftill lefs can we exp'eft any authentic docu- 
ments of what regafds the province of Moray. The moft ancient 
one is the chartulary of Moray : it contains a feries of charters from 
about the 1200 to 1529,, in which a variety of names are mehtioned| 
of Pi&ifli, Saxon, Irifh, and Low Country origin. The names are 

* numerous, fome local, fome patronymics, fome from occupation, 
and others from caufes now- inexplicable. The modern pra&ic^e of 
clan names does not appear to have prevailed in any great degree 
in thejfe days y but afterwards, many people uniting for their joint 
defence, aflumed the name of their common chieftain, or of the 
moft powerful body of the affociation. Unentertaining as it may 
be, it is proper to mention fome of the names in the chartulary 
and other charters in thefe different periods. 
, From the 1200 to the 1400— Bricius Malcolm, Robert Gilmakel, 
Macljeth, Patrick, Gillefbred, Walter, Stephen, Symon, all clergy- 
men, with the names of their livings annexed ; Hnghfon of Fref- 
kyn, Walter of Moray, William de Rift, William Agnus (Lamb) 
Malice, Archibald Lambert, Gillemer, John de Hedon, Morgand 
Ranold, Gillemallovock Macknakingelle, Sythak Mackmalion, Ro- 
bert Hado, Archibald de Dufphus miles, Hugh Douglafs, Auguf- 
tine of Elgin, William Wifeman, Walter Innes, Adam Gurmund 
miles, Gyllimaked Macgillipatrick, Gilcrift Grathack, Maryhus, 
Sumerlet of Bucharyn, John Byfeth, William Stephen, Hugh Cor- 
bet, Wadyn Gamell, Hutyn^ Mar (hall, John Prat, Thomas Syband, 
Hugh Lormac, Gilmalnoc MacThomas, Regunald de Chin, Mac- 
Crather Macquoin, Duncan Frafer, John Corbeth, Robert de Joni- 
ftori, Dugal, Alexander Black, John Cambron, Malcungy Malli- 
nack, Macbeth, Macferchar, Walter Crawford, Murin, William 
Noreys, William de Fenton, Dominus Barth, Flamang, Laurence 

- and Robert Grant, Thomas Man, Bredan fon of Fergus, Martin 
More > Maldowney Beg, Maldowney Mac^artin, Bredfin Breach, 



Martin McColy, Donymore, Michael Mulfwavn, Maldowney Mac- 
Robe, Colin MacGiibride, Al xander Menerys, John de Forbes, 
Michael Schapmar, William Vaus, Henry Portar, Falconaf , Huf- 
band, Mail, Wood, Orlet, Elias Sifter, John de Killour, Thomas 
Holland, Thomas de Dalton, John Tullois/John Bully, James Su- 
ter, Walter Thorald, Faucounere of Lethinbar, Rofs, Vylgus, Wil- . 
liam Fope, William Screys, Henery Scypard, Robert Mykel, Malin, 
Glaud, Hugh Grene, Lulack Mclman, John Scott, William Wal-< 
kere, Stephen Skinner, Alexander Irynpins, William Tavernire* 
John Gray, Adam Flemynges, Thomas Urchard, John Sibbald, 
William de Dun, Chriftian McKinnach Gaitned, Robert Curry, 
Donald Rogerfton, Ninynus de Achors, Eva • Murtach, Murriei 
Pollock, Morgund, Alexander Chilholm, Hugh Fr afer de Loveth. 

From the 1400 — Fotheringhams, Dunbars, Gordons, Winches- 
ters, Stewarts, Cummings, Carrowe, Clerk, Kill, Tait, Quorfqus, 
Wilfon, Ogilvie, Flemyng, Duffs, &c. are the molt numerous 
names. After the 1529, there are no accounts of any great change 
of the inhabitants or names, but what might naturally happen dur-, 
ing the lapfe of years, from the change of property, and the rife 
and fall of different families and names. 

After this general account of the inhabitants of the province, 
a fliort detail is to be given of the principal families, beginning 
with thofe nobilitated, according to their antiquity in Moray : but 
previous to confidering thofe vefted with modern titles, it may noli 
be improper to inquire into the import and dignity of Thane, which 
was the appellation of perfons of rank and confequence in Scot- 
land before the days o£ Malcolm III. They were the nobility and 
gentry of thofe days, and the title, long remained after thofe of Earl 
and Baron were introduced by Malcolm Canrnore, who began to 
reign in 1057. There were many Thanes in Rofs and "the other 
counties in Scotland in the reign of William the Lion : they ex- 
ifled in the province of Moray till about 1500. 

. Scotland was divided into tkantdoms, and the title was origi- 
nally borrowed from the Danes or Norwegians, and the Saxons 
in England. It fignifics the K:?ig's Mirsjier. There is great un- 
certainty as to their privilcr-cs and rank, as thefe can only be learned 
by record, and few records remain of thefe ancient days. v It ap- 
pears by the Regiam MagiftaUm, that the Ttiarclut of the daugh- 
ter of a. Thane was two cows, or twelve (hillings y but that of an 

C - Earl'* 


Earl's daughter was twelve cows ;. and that of a freeman's daughter, 
not lord of the village, one cow. This Marcheta Mulierum was 
a covenant between the lord and the villain, when his unmarried 
daughter was debauched; or alfo, when the foke-man or villain 
obtained his lord's permiffion to marry his daughter : he paid an 
acknowledgment, or fine, when he did it without permiffion. The 
Cro of an Earl was 140 cows ; of an Earl's fon, and a Thane, was 
100 cows; 'and that of a hufbandman, was 16 cows. At this 
period, therefore, there was a middle rank between the nobility 
and freemen. 

This is alfo confirmed by an aflize, mentioned in the chaitulary 
of Moray, of William the Lion, at Perth, in which the rank is 
Biihops, Abbots, Earls, Barons, Thanes, and all the Community. 
In the fame chartulary, there is a charter of Alexander II. about 
1232, where Thani Regis and Firmarii, or King's Thanes and 
Tenants, are clafled together, whofe lands might be changed as 
he pleafed. 

The fame King had alio rents paid him by his feodijirmarii, in 
Moythas, Brothyn, and Dyke, which were thanedoms. In a fub- 
mifiion between Andrew, Bifhop of Moray, and Hugh Rofe, Ba- 
ron of Kilravock, in 1492, wrote in Latin ; among the arbiters are 
William Calder of Calder and John Brodie of Brodie. In this deed 
they are promifcuoufly called Thane, or de eodem, of that ilk ; but 
in the decreet arbitral, wrote in Eiiglilh, the defignation is Thani. 
From this it appears, that Thane, or Gentleman, the head of the 
name, are the fame. 

The thanedoms, or grants of land, were probably at fir ft during 

■ plcafure ; then, for a certain number of years; and at length, were 

for life, and hereditary. About the 1200, there were fcveral Thanes 

of different families, in a fliort fpace erf time, ovei a thanedom in 

the Mearns, now a part of the eftate of Arbuthnot. 

They conduced their followers to the field, as it was an eflential 
part of their drefs, to go abroad with a fpear in their hands. It 
appears by the laws of King David, that Thanes held of the King 
and alfo of Earls ; as Thanes of both descriptions were fubjefted 
to certain penalties, if they were abfent from the loyal army; and 
are diftinguifhed from Barons and Milites. 

They no doubt paid out of their lands' a certain yearly revenue 
in kind, to thofe from whom they had their grants. It is uncer- 

Chap. r. * province of jio'rat: ij 

tain what jurifdiftion they had in their domains, or if they appear- 
ed before the King's or Earl's judges. By an order of William the 
Lion, when the Villanus or Rujlicus refufes to pay tithes, his 
Thane % or Dominus, if he has a Do minus, {hall feize them frorh 
him ; but if the Thanfc or Lord negleft this, then the Vice-Comes, or 
Sheriff, and failing him, the King's Jujliciar> {hall feize the tithes, 
and the penalty for negleft of payment. 

A thanedom was lefs than a (herifFdom or county, as there were 
feveral thanedoms in Moray. In Banff-Qiire, there were alfo many 
of them, as the thanedom of the Boyne, of Conwath, of Aberkir- 
dor, T Nathdole, &c. And in the foundation charter of the bifhop- 
prick of Aberdeen by Malcolm IV. he endows it, among other re- 
venues, with the tithes of his thanages in the counties of Aberdeen 
and Banff. 

In the province of Moray, there was the thanedom of Moray \ 
that included the lands of Ligate, Newton, and Ardgaoith. There 
was the Thane of Brodie, the anceftor of that family ; the lands of 
Moithes, or Moynefs, were alfo a thanedom in 1295. John do 
Dolais was Thane of Cromdale in 1367. Calders were Thanes of 
Calder, fo low as the 1500. Moray was early an earldom * but there 
being no reeords extant of that line, and hiflory alfo imperfedt, 
nothing deqifive, beyond conjedure, can be determined about ijs 
nature ; as it exifted before the sera of genuine hiftory. 

Fordoun mentions, that Angus, Earl of Moray, was flain by the 
Scots at Stricathrow, about 1x31 ; and Selden informs us, that in 
1171 William the Lion promifed to grant the earldom of Moray 
to MoVgund, fon of Gillocherus, Earl of Man, 

The fame King alfo appointed Malcolm, Earl of Fife, Cujlos of 
Moray; and after him, William Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, and 
Jufticiar of Scotland, was alfo Cujlos. 

There are no accounts of any others to be depended on, until 
about 1314, when King Robert Bruce erected his lands In Moray 
into a earldom, and bellowed it on his nephew, Thomas Randolph, 
•whom Pitfcottie calls chief of the Clan- Allan. 

The boundaries of this earldom were extenfive ; beginning at 
"where the river Spey falls into the fea, and including all the territory 
to the north of that river, to the fea fhore j as alfo the lands of Fo- 
chabers and Boharm, on the eaft ; and they follow its bed to the 
snatches pf Badenach : they include the lands of Kyncardyn and 

C 2 Glcncaini! 

*4 „ INHABITANTS Or THfi Chap* !• 

Glencairn,Badenach,Maymez,Locharkedh, Glengary and Glenelg, 
to the- weft fea; and along the fca fhore, to the north-weft boun- 
• daries of Argyle •, and then to thofe of the earldom of Rofs, _till 
they reach the river of Forne, or Farar, and the eaft fea. 

The charter of ere&ion is extant, and throws great light on the 
nature of ancient peerages. At that period, the grant of the digni- 
fied fe.e conferred the dignity ; and, in particular, the grant of the 
comitates, or earldom, conferred the title Comes, or EarL The 
title of honour was infeparably connected with the territory ; fo that 
one diverted cf the eitate of the earldom ceafed to enjoy the dig- 
nity. The lands not formerly an earldom, but only the King's 
-lands, in Moray, are erected intp a comitates; and Thomas Ran- 
dolph, not formerly an Earl, but Miles* upon the grarit of the comi- 
tatus to him, is called Co?nes, or EarL This Earl died in 133 r, 
arid was fuccceded by his fon, Thomas, who fell in the battle of 
Dupplin, 1332. His brother, John, fucceeded him, who was killed 
in the battle cf Durham, 1346. Had not the earldom been limited 
in the original charter to heirs male, Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, 
in right of his wife Agnes, daughter of the firft Earl Thomas, Would 
have' fucceeded to the eftate and earldom; for female fucceflion to 
land efcates, and titles of honour, was eftaklifhcd in the'ufage and 
law of Scotland, as far back as records and hiftory reach. Before 
the 12 r 4, the title and earldo,m went to heirs general : in this they 
refembled the laws and practice of England, which originated from 
the education of the Kings of Scotland in that country ; and moffc 
of the nobility,' and many of their minifters, were Englilh. Even 
jurifdi&ion dtfeended to females, as during the non-age of the fe- 
male heir, the Sovereign held pofTcflion, by right of ward, and then 
he provided her with an hufbamd : but if after non-age (he was un- 
married, or if (he became a widow, fhe could appoint a deputy, to- 
officiate in her ftead : and thus jurifdidion was, in every event, 
properly admiriiftered. 

Notwithstanding the limitation in the charter, Patrick Dunbar 
was called Comes Marckia et Moravice^V.zxX of March and Moray 5 - 
hut John, his fecond fon, was made Earl of Moray in 1372, with 
the exception of, Lochaber, and Urquhart. Upon the 
demife of John, Thomas, his fon, fucceeded ; and on his death* 
without male iffue, James, his nephew, fucceeded, who left two 
daughters. • The youngeft of them, Elizabeth, married Archibald 

Dou£lafs % 


Douglqfs, brother to the Earl of Douglafs. From the influence of 
the Douglaffes, he was made Eirl of Moray in 1446: but, joining 
in his brother's rebellion in 1452, was killed in 1455; anc * tne ear l~ 
dom, now forfeited, was annexed to jthe Crov/n. In 1501 James 
IV. granted the earldom of Moray to his baftard fon James Stewart,- 
who died in 1544. It again reverted to the Crown, and Queen 
Mary, in 1548 beftowed it on George, Earl of H x untly. He was 
deprived of it in 1554. In 1562k was bellowed on James, baftard 
fon of James V. Prior of St. Andrews, and afterwards Regent; of 
whom the prefent JLarls of Moray are defcended. 

There is fome intricacy in the grants of the family of Moray. 
On 7th February 1561-2, the Prior of St. Andrews rcteived the 
grant of the earldom of Moray. On 22d January 1563-4, he ob- 
tained from Queen Mary another charter of the earldom, limited 
to himfelf and his heirs male, whom failing, to return to the Crown. 
In Jihie 1566, this Earl of Moray obtained another charter from 
Queen Mary and her hufba'nd Henry, to himfelf and his heirs ge- 
neral. In 1567 he obtained a ratification in Parliament of the 
charter 1563, limiting the earldom to himfelf and his heirs male, 
but without mention of the intermediate charter of 1566. He was 
flain 1570-1. On the footing of the charters 1562 and 1563, and 
of the ratification in. Parliament in 1567, the eftate and dignity re- 
verted to the Crown, as the Regent had no heirs male of his body. 
In 1580, James VI. gifted the ward. and marriage of Elizabeth 
and Margaret, daughters and heirefles of the deceafed Earl of Mo- 
ray, to James Stewart, fon and heir of James Stewart of Doun. 
A few days after, James Stewart married Lady Elizabeth, the eldcft 
daughter, and aflumed the title of Earl of Moray. As he could 
not be Earl of Moray in his own right, unlefs by the charter of 
1566, which, from the future charters, would be rather a doubtful 
title, in 1592 James VI. and the Scots Parliament ratified to James , 
Earl of Moray, and fon of James Stewart and Lady Elizabeth, 
Queen Mary's and her hulband Henry's charter of ift June 1566,* 
and all other charters, to the Regent and his daughter Elizabeth. 

This rendered the fucceffion of the family of Moray inexplicable, 
as it confirmed the charter 1566, and all other charters. To rec- 
tify this, James, Earl of Moray, loft no time to obtain a charter of 
the earldom of Moray, limiting the fucceffion to heirs male. 
This Earl was murdered in 1592, and his fon Jswe^fuccecded, 



who died in 16333 and was fucceeded by his Ton James, who died, 
1653. To him fucceeded his fon Alexander, who died in 1700;' 
james , Lord Doun, the fon of this Alexander, died .before his fa- 
ther, and left two daughters ; the eldeft, Elizabeth, married Bri- 
gadier-General Grant of Grant, and the fecond married Thomas 
Trafer of Strichen : but, agreeable to the limitation of the eftate and 
peerage to heirs male, Charles, next brother to Lord Doun, fuc- 
ceeded as EaH of Moray 5 and, dying without ifTue in 1735, was • 
fucceeded by his furviving 1 brother, Francis , who died in 1739: 
his eldeft fon, James, fucceeded him : he died In 17 , and was 
fucceeded by the prefent Earl, Francis, his fon, who in 1 763 mar- 
ried Mifs Gray, daughter of Lord Gray, and has iflue, Lord D&un, 
married to Mifs Scott, fecond daughter of General Scott. In 1 796 
this Earl was created a Britifh Peer, under the title of Lord Stewart 
4ff Cajlle-Stezaart. 

The family of Gordon is ancient and noble, and has poflefled 
very considerable property in this province fmce the reign of King 
Robert Bruce. It has been deeply concerned in many of the 
greateft and moft important public tranfattions of the kingdom. 
Their original is probably from France, and came to England with 
William the Conqueror. The firft account we hear of their efta- 
bl: foment in Scotland is in the Merfe, where they had the lands of 
Gordun, and probably were of the number of thofe refugees and 
foreign adventurers, whom Malcolm Canmore and his fuccefibrs 
encouraged fo much to eftablifh themfelves in their kingdom. 
v In the chartulary of Kelfo, there are donations by Adam de Gor- 
dun, fon of Adam — by Richard de Gordun — by his fon, Thomas 
Jhiior — by his fon, Thomas junior — by his heirefs and daughter 
Alicia, to the abbacy of Kelfo. Thefe donations are prior to 1 270 ; 
and it is probable, that the donors were the anceftors of Sir Adam 
Gordon, who gallantly fupported Robert Bruce againft the Cum- 
mins, particularly at the battle of Inverury. In reward of his Cer- 
vices, he had a grant of the 48 davochs in the lordflnp of Strath- 
bolgie. They belonged at this period to one of the Cummins, as 
Fordun informs us, that John Comyn, Dominus de, Strathbolgie* 
fuirendered himfelf to Edward I. at Forfar in the 1296. In 1376 
Robert II. renewed the grant to Sir John Gordon, {on of Sir Alex- 
ander, fon of Sir Adam. Prior to this laft grant cf Strathbolgie, 
King David Bruce had given the foreft of Enzie and Boyne to that 
~ * Sir 

4hap. i. ■ province of Moray. if 

Sir John Gordon, who was flain in the battle of Ottcrburn in 138&. 
His fon, Sir Adam, was flain at HamUdun in 1401. 

This Sir Adam left no iffue but a daughter and heirefs, Eliza- 
beth, who married Alexander Seton, fon of Sir William Seton of 
Winton. Of this mairiage was Alexander, who in 142 1 and 1439 
is called Alexander de Seton, do minus de Gordon; and it was not 
till 1449, tnat tne family refumed the furname of Gordon, when 
created Earl of Huntly. * 

Alexander, fon and heir of Elizabeth Gordon, was thrice mar- 
ried. By his firft wife he had no children. By his fecond, Giles 
Hay, daughter and heirefs of John Hay of Tullibody, he had a fon, 
Alexander Seton de Gordon. By his third wife, Elizabeth Crichton, 
daughter of William lord Crichtcn, he had a fon, George. Upon 
the death of this Alexander, firft Earl of Huntly, George, the fori 
of the third marriage, fucceeded to the efta'te and dignity of Huntly, 
Alexander, the eldeft.fon, obtained only hi,§ mother's eftate. of Tul- 
libody, Touch, &e. ; and his descendants retain the name of Seton 
to this day. 

This firft Earl was of important fervice to James II. by defeating 
the Earl of Crawford in the battle of Brechin, 18th May 1452. For 
this he obtained the braes of Badenach and Lochaber, as before that 
he had the lordfhip of Badenpch, and caftle of Ruthven. He died 
in 1479. 

His fon George fucceeded him, who built Gordon -Caftle. He 
left four fons: Alexander, hisfucceflbr; Adam of Aboyne, who 
married the Countefs of Sutherland ; William of Gight ; James, 
anceftor on Letterfurie. Alexander, Earl of Huntly, died in 1523, 
arid was fucceeded by a grandfon, by his fon John, named George, 
of boundlefs ambition and crafty policy. 

He was chancellor of Scotland, and in 1 549 was Earl of Moray, 
adminiftrator of the earldoms of Mar and Orkney, and of the lord- 
Clip of Sheftland, and bailliery of Strathdee. In 1544 he was di- 
vefted of thefe pofleflions, and loft his life in the battle of Corxichie 
in 1556. He was fucceeded by his fon George, whofe fon George f 
\t is faid, promoted the murder of the Earl of Moray, at Dunibrifle, 
1592 •, fought the battle of Gleniivat, 1594 ; was created Marquis 
of Huntly, 1599; and died, 1636. His fon George fucceeded him. 
This Marqura was£*p*ain!of the Scots guards, or Scots gensd'armes, 
in France, vsflhco "atTfixfit wei& . called, .f£t King of France his archers* 



■who attended his -perfon, and were armed with bows and arrows. 
Charles VII. inftituted them about 1445. Their firft commander 
was Robert Patillock of. Dundee. The fons of the Scottifli mo- 
narchs were their ufual Captains. Charles I. enjoyed the honours 
and emoluments, James VII. when Duke of York, enjoyed it till 
1667, when he refigned his commifiion into the hands of the King 
of France ; andlfince that time, no native of Great Britain has had 
it. This Marquis was beheaded by the Covenanters in 1649, an( ^ 
was fucceeded by his fon Lezois, who died in 1653, and, by a daugh- 
ter of the Laird of Grant, was father of George, who was created 
a JDuAe-i 1684. His fon Alexander fucceeded him in 17 16, who 
'was fucceeded by His fon Coftno George in 1728, who was fucceed- 
ed by his fon, the prefent Duke, Alexander, in 1752J who was 
created a feritifti Peer, July 3, 1 784, under the title of Earl of Nor - 
wick, and Baron Gordon of Huntly in Gloucefterfiiire. In 1767 
he married Mifs Maxwell, daughter of Sir .William Maxwell of 
Monreith, by whom he has a numerous family. His eldeft daugh- 
ter, Lady Charlotte, is married to Colonel Lenox, nephew to the 
Duke of Richmond. His fecond daughter, Lady Magdalene, mar- 
ried Sir Robert Sinclair of Stevenfon. His third daughter, Lady : 
Sufan, married the Duke of Manchefter : and his fourth, Lady 
Louifa, Vifcount Brome, fon of Marquis Cornwallis. Lady Geor- 
gina is unmarried 5 his two fons are, the Marquis of Huntly and 
Lord Alexander. 

The name of Grant is ancient, and the family refpeftable. Many 
accounts of it are in MSS. and printed"; but they are in general 
legendary and fabulous, and unfupported either by hiftory or char- 
ters. The following fliort account of the name and family may be 
depended on, fo far as it goes, as fupported by authentic vouchers. 

The general tradition is, that they came from Norway at an. 
early period. The different colonies that came to Scotland from 
tl^it country give fome countenance to this report; particularly 
as Rollo, who afterwards founded the dukedom ni Normandy in 
France, on his emigration from Norway, firft took refuge in the 
Hebrides and Weft Highlands, and fome of his followers might 
have remained there. But this opinion is directly oppofed by the 
earlieft mode of writing the name, as appears from charters and 
records: this mode was, le Graunt fometimes, de Grazcnt or Grants 
a/*d the chief of the family figned his namey afters 5.00, John 

» the 



, the Grant of Pruchy. D and T being fynonimous letters, it ap- 
pears to be the French name le Grand. 

They probably may be of Norwegian extra&ion, but came into 
England, 'with 'William the Conqueror ^from Normandy, and from 
thence into Scotland. It is uncertain where their firft eftablifli- 
ment was, in Scotland. The earlieft mention of the name is in an 
agreement, recorded in the chartulary of Moray, between Archi- 
bald, Biftiop of Moray, and John Byfeth, with regard to his lands 
of the Ard, to which Domini Laurentius et Robertus Grant are 
witneffes: it is datdd 1228. This Jojm was probably the father. 
of Walter Byfeth of Strathharkk, or Strathharic, mentioned in 
Rymer's Fcedera; and the prefumption is, that thefe Grants, refided 
in that part of the* province of Moray, at that period. 

In 1270 Henry III. of England gives a prote£tion to William le 
Graunt, to go to the Crufades. 

In 1288 Peter le Graunt figns, among others, an obligation of 
the King of Arragon to the Prince of Salerno. 

In 1297 John de Graunt and Rodulpk de Graunt, with many 

of the Magnates Scotia, a^e included in an order of Edward I. of 

England, to ferve in war againft France. They are difcharged from 

. prifon on this condition, and were dependent on John Corny n, Lord 

of Badenoch, and David de Graham. 

In 1302 Edward I. addreffes letters to, many in Ireland, to pre- 
pare with men and horfes, for engaging in the Scots war, and 
amongft others to William le Grant and John Comyn. 

In 1335 Edward III. ojf England grants a fafe condu& *p John 
Graunt miles, to come to, and return from London. Some of our 
hiftorians fay, that this John Graunt was Scots ambaffador in 
France, and' negociated a treaty with that nation. 
. In 1363 Edward III. grants a fafe conduft to John de Graunt, 
de Scotia miles, and to Elizabeth his wife, to come to England, 
and have ten perfons, horfemen and footmen, in their retinue. At 
this period, many perfons received fuch fafe cqndu&s, but with 
no fuch numerous retinue to any, but to Robert de EVfkyne miles. , . 
In 1366 Edward III. grants a fafe condu£t to John Gtant miles 
de Scotia, with fix horfemen. In 1380 the chartulary of Moray , 
informs us, that A. Stewart, Lord of Badenoch, holds his court at 
Kingufy, and among others that attended is Male ol me le Graunt. 
In 1385 forty francs, or livres tournois, are given to Robert h 

D Graunt^ 

$<S Inhabit ants o* lift* '. thap.i* 

Graunt, Efcuier. They are part of 40,000, fent from France, to 
be diftributed among the Scots nobility. '• ' 

In 1394, in a bond of manrent between Thomas Dunbar, Earl 
of Moray, ^and Alexander, Lord of Lochaber, Malcolm de Graunt 
'had a twenty mark land, probably in Strathhefic, as appears from 
the chat tulary of Moray. 

In 141 7 Peter le Graunt Cappellanus is included in a prote&iort 
to the clergy of Normandy, from Henry V. of England. 

In 141 5 Simeon le Graunt, curate of the church of CrohTy, is 
mentioned in a prote&ion to part of Normandy, by Henry V.'of • 

In 1420 the King of England fecures their property to many in 
Normandy, who had fwore fealty to him, and, amongft- others, to" 
William le Graunt* 

In 1496 the community of Provins, and the neighbouring cities, 
ratify a peace between the Kings of France and England : many 
fign it, and, among others, jfohan Graunt dit Hqnnepon. 

All thefe fa£ts, where the authority is not quoted, are extra&ed 
from Rymer's Fcsdera. Boethius mentions, that foon after 1424, 
Henry Graunt was one of the honourable perfons, who attended 
Margaret, daughter of James I. of Scotland, into France, on her 
marriage with Lewis, fon of Charles VII. 

Thefe detached fafts prove, that the name of Grant was known 
in Spain, France, England, and Scotland-, in which laft country 
fome of- them had rifen to confequence, as appears from the fafe ' 
conducts and retinues allowed. 

By this, rank and diftindlion were afcertained in thefe days. 
But thefe fa£ts, being unconnected, give no regular information 
concerning individuals, or the heads of the family. However, this 
in fome meafure is fupplied by a feries of charters, in poffeflion of 
the family of Grant, from the era of William the Lion, down- 

In this feries^ of writs, the firft grant mentioned is, Robert le 
Grawnt, who obtains the lands of Cloumanachs or Culmony in * 
Ardclach parifh, from John Prat, who, by other charters, was a. 
miles, and had Daltely in Morayia, or Daltulich. One of the wit- 
uefles to this charter was John Byfet, 2nd was granted about the 
1268. , 

The next is John le Grawnt> who in v *346 is appointed by Jolin, 


$hap~ *• JfcOVJliJCE, OF uokax« ** 

Randolph, Earl df Moray, heritable keeper of the caftle of Tarne- 
way, and of his foreft, beyond the bounds of his park: he alfo gets 
the lands of Dovely. It is dated at Elgin, and is given under the 
great feal of the Earl's chancery. 

r The next mentioned is Patrick It Grawnt> laird of Stratharthoe, 
who gives his davoch of Kildreke and half davoch of Glenbegis, in 
fcis lands of Jnneralyane, to William, called Pilch) burgefs of Inver- 
nefs, and his heirs by Margaret, daughter of Patrick, his wife> 
which failing, to return to Patrick and his heirs. By this deed k 
appears, that Patrick's father, who is not named, had been infeft in 
Inveralyan. It is not dated 5 but Alexander, bilhop of Rofs, is a 
. wituefs, who came to thatYee about 1357, and wasbifhop in 1404, 
In 1419/a noble woman, Elizabeth ly Grant y Domina de Strath- 
arachy declares in a deed, that {he had never given away thefe 
lands, but, now does it tocher dear fon James Macintoche, and gives 
him all the title {he ever liad to them, in feu or heritably. 

Jn 1464 an inqueft at Invernefs, of the moft rcfpe&a.ble gentle- 
men finds,, that Gilbert of Glencharn'y, grandfather of Duncan 
Graunty miles r, died infeft in the lands of Kunnyngais, and that the 
faid Duncan is lawful heir of the faid Gilbert. 

King James II. grants an order, founded on an inqueft of a jury, 
to infeft Duncan le Grant, fon and lawful heir of Matilda of Glert- 
cherny, in the fifth part of the barony of Rothes, Wifeman, and 
Burnemikity, in both the. Fochabris, the half of Imefton, and two 
marks yearly out of the town of Thprnhill. This order is faid to 
Jiave been granted, becaufe the earldom of Moray was then in the 
hands of the Crown. It is dated the 29th year of our reign^ -which 
*is 1488. * 

To difcover who this' heirefs, Matilda of . GleRcharny, and h&c 
father Gilbert were, we are to look backj and among this feries of 
charters, we find— 

That William the Lion, after 1187, confirms the grant made by 
Gilleb. de Stradhern, to GiUriJl his fon, of Kinnebethin and Glan- 
carnen, to be held of the faid Earl and his heirs, in feu or heri- 
tably. . ^ . . . - 
The title of Earl of Strathern is among the molt ancient in Scet- 
land. It is thought to have originated in the reign of Malcolm Ilf. 
Earl Fertith.died in 1 \*]t. They were Strather» of Strathern 3 a^cl 
the title continued in the family till the reign of Robert I.; t wii*n 
■ * ' D i Johana 


Johana, the Countefs, with her hufband, the Earl of Warren in. 
England, forfeited it, on account of a confpifacy to betray the king- 
dom to England. This grant of Gilleb. de Stradhern, Comes, to 
his fon Gillecrift of Kinnebethin and Glancarnen, is alfo confirmed 
by Alexander II. between the 1222 and 1232, as appears by the 
witnefles. . 

This Gilcrift of Glencarnen, or Glennegerin, had a fon, Gilbert, 
who married Margery, filler of John Prat, miles, as King Alexan- 
der III. confirms a grant made by John Prat, to Gilbert de Glenne- 
gerin younger, and his wife and their children, of Daltely in Mo- 
ray. It is about 1268, as Colban, Earl of Fife, is a witnefs, who 
died 1270. " » 

This Gilbert had 2 Ton, Gilbert, who lived about the 1270, as 
Alan, hoftiarius Scotia, who lived about this time, grants to Domi- 
no Gilberto de Glenkerny, the half of his lands -of Tullachfyn in. 
Karr. . '* 

"This Gilbert the fecond had a fon, called Gilbertus iertius, Do- 
minus de Glenkerny, miles, who, with confent of his wife Matilda 
in 1290, grants his lands of Gerbothy to Gilbert his eldeft fon % 

This Gilbert the third gives to Duncan de Feryndrawth, as por- 
tion with his daughter and their heirs, the eaft davoch of Conynges 
in Aberythin. It is granted between 1281 and 1298. 

Gilbert de Glencharny % probably the fourth, furrenders all the 
lands of his barony of Glcncharny, into the hands of David II. who 
grants them again to Gilbert, and the heirs of his body, which fail- 
ing, to Duncan Frafer and Criftiane his wife, filler to Gilbert. 
This is dated in the 33d year of his reign, about 1362. 

In 1364 Hay of Tillybothvyll, fheriff of Invernefs, iflues a pre- 
cept to M'Crather M'Yom, his macers and fubftitute, to infeft 
Gilbert de Glenkerny, in Glenkerny. 

In 1398 Gilbert of Glencherny, then lorde of Fochaberris, fells 
to a noble Lord and a mychty, Thomas of Dunbar, Erril of Mur- 
xef, the twa tounes of Fochaberris, for an hunder pund of fter- 
Jinges of the ufuall monay of Scotland. 

In 1499 James IV. grants a precept of feafine to an honourable 
man, John Grant of Freuchy, on the lands of Glcncharny and 
Balnadalauch, and allows infeftment to be at Mulquharde, tanquam 
ad prineipale mrjfuagium di&arum terrarum. This John was pro- 
bably fon of Duncan, and appears to have had two fons, James, 


Chap. U WOVIKCfi 6F MORAY. fig 

his heir, and Patrick, who had the lands of Ballindalloch before the 
1521, as appears by the family charters of Ballindalloch : as alfo, 
James Grant of Freuchie grants in 1536 an indenture to infeft John 
Grant in Ballindalloch, within the lordfnip of Glencherny, which 
John was probably his nephew. 

There is an order from King James, and (igned James V. and 
fealed to Patrick, Bifhop of Moray, to fet in feu ferme to James 
Grant of Freuchie, the lands of the barony of Strathfpey, not fet 
in feu before. It is dated at St. Andrews in 1540, 'and addrefled 
,** To our w= lovit clerkes y e Dene and Cheptoure of Murray/' 

James Grant of Freuchie was Baillie to Robert Reid, Abbot of 
Kiniofs, and in 1544 conftitutejs his weil belufit and traift friend 
Alexander Cnmmvng of Alteir, his Baillie depute. 

In 1553 there is an inqueft at Invernefs, before the moft refpec- 
table gentlemen in the county, ambngft whom is John Grant of 
Carroun f and it appears before them, that James Grant of Frew- 
r quhye, father of John Grant of Mulbayne, died infeft in the lands 
of Frewquhye, Urquhart, Louchbrwin, half of Lochcarroune, KeP 
foryne, Lochqualfche, Morarand, Sleyfmene ; and that John Grant 
is neareft heir to the deceafed James. From this deed it appears, 
that Lochalfche and Keflbryne formerly belonged to Eugenius Do- 
na! dfon \ that Lochcarroune, Lochbrwn, Sleyfmene, and Morar, 
formerly belonged to Glengary, Alexander Macanne, McAlafter, 
which were held, in, capite, for the ufual fervice ; but Urquhart, 
with the caftle, were holden of our Queen in feu. 

In 1571 John Grant' of Freuquhy entered into a contract with 
Angus McAIlafter of Glengarie, and it is agreed, that Donald 
McAngus McAIlafter is to marry Helen Grant, daughter of John. 
In this contract, there is a Angular condition ; that if there. are no 
heirs male of the marriage, then, Angus pays 6000 merks to John 
Grant and his heirs ; and if there is one daughter of the marriage, 
Ihe is to have rooo merks of tocher ; if two daughters, 1200 merks 
to each; and if three, 600 merks to each: Angus alfo obliges 
himfelf to enter into a bond of manrent with John Grant, and his 
heirs and fucceflbrs. : and if Angus preferves this agreement, then 
John agrees to infeft Glengarie, and his heirs male, in the lands 
of Glengarie, which John poffeffes by virtue of comprifing and in- 
feftment :' but if Glengarie fails in the bond of manrent, thea the 

v * iufeftment 


infeftment falls to the ground, is caffat and afinullat, as if never 
• made. One of the witnefles is Patrick Grant of Dalweye. 

In 1572 there is a bond of irjanrent between ryt. hole, men, John 
Grant of Freuchie and Colin McKenzie of Kintsfil, particularly to - 
defend Colin againft Heu Frafer of Lovat, his airs and kyne ; and 
the faid John againft Lauchlan'McKintofche of Duna&an. 

It appears that this Colin was married to Barbara, daughter o£ 
John Grant, and obtained Lochbrowne with her j for it is agreed 
between them, in 1572, that if Colin McKenzie repudiates her* 
then John Grant and his heirs {hall, have ingvefs and egref§ to half 
the lands of Lochbrowne. 1 

This John's eldeft fon, Duncan, died before him : for there i$ 
from King James, in 1582, a ctarc conftat, that Duncan apparent 
de Fruguhy, father of John Grant, Uteris pr<zfentium y died infeft 
and feized in the lands of Cdrremone, Morie, Mikles, Lochlettye^ 
Auchinlomoraik, Dowcathe, and the half of Meikle Clune* 

Some time after the 1582^ there is. an agreement between John 
the Grant of Frcucky, fon of Duncan, and John Cummin of Er» 
nifhed at Altre, for a marriage with John Cummin's apparent heif 
and fon, with a daughter of John the Grant, who gives, 100 merk.s 
with his daughter; and John Cummin gives 30 pounds worth q$ 
lands ; and John the Grant gives /\\ merka worth of lands to them : • 
thefe lands he gives are the fyvs part of Souraftoun, half of Ger* 
bothy, half lands of Cardny, and little Belnabroth. It is fubferibed 
John the Grant of Fruchay, John Cuming of Ernifhed. 

In 1593 there is a difcharge from King James to John Grant of 
Frewchie, of the pane and unlaw of 5000 marks incurrit by him, 
for his part, as one of the cautioners of George Earl of Huntly t 
for keeping quietnefs in the country, and dutiful obedience to u$ 
after the brig, of Dee. 

In 1597 there is a bond of manrent between John Grant of Freu* 
chie, and Donald Mc Angus of Glengarie, much in terms of the 
former bond of this nature, which is referred to, as made between 
John Grant's grandfather and Donald's father. One of the witnefles 
is Mr. James Grant of Ardnely e ; and Patrick Grant of Rothemorchi* 
is mentioned. , 

Shaw fays, this Jojm died in 1622, and was fucceeded by his 
fon Sir John; who, 'by Mary Qgilvie, daughter of Fin&later, ha4 


th&p. U PROVINCE OF MOflAW 4£ 

dight fons, viz. James, who fucceeded him ; Colonels John and 
Patrick, who had no male iffue 5 nor had Alexander, nor George, 
• governor of Dunbarton 5 but Mungo was anceftor to Knockando 
. and Kinchirdy •, Robert of Muckirach's family is extinft ; as are 
the heirs of Thomas of Bellimacaan. John died in 1637 : and his " 
fbn, James, died in 1663, and left two fons by Mary, daughter o£ 
the Earl of Moray 5 JLudovick, his heir, and Patrick of Wefter 
Elchifs, whofe male iffue is extinft. ' 

Ludovick married Janet Brodte, and died 17 18. He was fuo> 
ceeded by hi& fon, Brigadier Alexander, ,who died without iffue in 
17*19, and was fucceeded by his brother, Sir James ,. who had a, ' 
numerous family by his wife, the heirefs of Lufs : they were Sir 
Zudoviciy his heir, Sir James Colquhoun of Lufs, General Charles, 
and Francis, a Captain in the Navy. His eldeft daughter married 
Duff of Braco, afterwards Earl Fife; his next was married to Sir , 
Harry Innes of Innes ; another to Alexander Grant of Ballindaloch, 
her coxiGn german, by his mother Anne, fifter of Sir James ; another 
married Sir William Dunbar of Durn ; and Sophia died unmarried. 

Sir Ludovkk died 1773, ana * h* s f° n > Sir James, fucceeded him,' 
who married Jean Duff, heirefs of Hatton, his near relation, an4 
has a numerous family. 

An ancient Cadet of the family of Grant, is Grant of Ballin- 
daloch. The axlceftor was Patrick, ^probably fon to John Grant 
of Freuchie, who had the lands of Ballindaloch before 1521, as then 
he purchafed the lands of Tullochcarron from Hugh Bron Lamb, 
and is defigned Patrick Grant of Ballindaloch. 

In 1536 there is an indentured and obligation from James Grant 
of Freuchie, to infeft John Grant of Ballindaloch, fon of Patrick, 
in thefe lands lying within the lordfliip of Glenchernlck. His fon, 
Patrick, fucceeded about 1553; whofe fon, Patrick, fucceeded 
about 1595. His fon, John, fucceeded about 1619 ; who wasfuc~ 
ceedby his fon, James, about 1628. His fon, John, fucceeded 
about 1649, who was fucceeded by his fon, John, about 1680; 
who died after 4 72 1. ' 

Brigadier Grant of Grant bought this eftate about 1704, and 
fold it, about 171 1, to Colonel William Grant , a fon of the family 
of Rothiemurchus, .who had married Anne, the Brigadier's fifter* 
He had two fons. Alexander fucceeded him ; and by his wife> 
Pcnucl, daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, had a fcn, William* 



who fucceeded him; but dying without iflue, in 1770, was fuo 
ceeded by General James Grant, the Colonel's other fon. General 
Grant entered, into the army in early life, and was employed in 
various important military fervices. He was Governor of Florida ; 
he defeated Count D'Eftaing with an inferior force ; and con- 
quered St. Lucia, in 1779 : he has now the eleventh regiment of 
foot, and is Governor of Stirling Caftle. During his occafional 
refidende in the country, he has made material improvements on 
his eftate, by cultivating moors, and dreffing his other fields, agree- 
ably to the moft approved methods of modern agriculture. 

The anceftor of Rothiemurchus was Patrick, fon of John Grant 
of Freuchie, who, about 1590, received the lands of Muckerach as 
his' appendage, and exchanged them for Rothiemurchus, from John 
Grant of Freuchie, 1600. He is now reprefented by John Peter 

Archibald of Ballintomb was the younger brother of this anceftor 
of Rothiemurchus : of him are defcended the families of Munimufk 
and Arndillie* Of the family of Munimufk, was Francis, a Lord 
of Seffion, by the title of Cullen ; he purchafed the eftate of Muni- 
mufk about the beginning of this century, and was created a Baronet 
in 1 705 ; and is now reprefented by his great grandfon, Archibald* 
the third of that name., William Grant of Preftongrange, late 
Lord of Sefiion and Jufticiary, was. a fon of this family, and grand 
uncle to the prefent Sir Archibald. 

f f he heirefs of Amdillie lately married David Macdowal, a bro- 
ther of Garthland, and has children. 

The anceftor of Moynefs was James Grant of Ardnelzie in 
Rothes, and Edenvillie in Aberlour : he was the fon of Duncan, 
who died, about 1581, before his father, John Grant of Freuchie* 
He, was much employed in the tranfaftions of the family of Grant, 
from 1597 to 1623. He purchafed Logie ; and was fucceeded by 
his fon, John, who bought the lands of Moynefs in Auldearn, in 
1663 ; and his fon, James, fold them to Sir Hugh Campbell of 
Calder. It is reported that this John was knighted, but as it has 
not been lately inveftigated,- it remains uncertain ; only, in a printed 
oolledYion of Scotch monumental inscriptions,, publifhed in 1 7 1 4> 
tjiat appears to be accurate, there is one at Fortrofe, of Jean, lawful 
daughter of Sir James Grant of Moynefs, who died 1688, aetat 26. 
This James had a fon killed near to Caftle-Grant. when in purfuit 


Chap; t* province of moray- • £7 

of his cattle, ftole by' Lochaber thieves, whom Brigadier Grant 
brought to condign punifliment, 

He was fucceeded by his coufm John, a merchant at Nairn, 
whofe fon Hugh died, minifter of Knockando, 1763 ; and his fon 
John is now minifter of Elgin. James of Moynefs* had two 
younger brothers: Patrick, anceflor of the family of Eafter Elchies, 
of whom was descended Peter ; who was a Lord of Seffion and Jus- 
ticiary, and died 1754: the youngeft brother was Robert, progeni- 
tor of the family of Lurg, 

There were Grants in poffeflion of the eftate of Dalvey in 1752, 
and in 1680 it? was fold to James Grant of Gartenbeg. He was 
Icing's Advocate, and knighted, in 1688 ; and dying, as did his bro- 
ther Lewis, without ifiue, the eftate came to* Patrick Gr % ant of In- 
xierlaidnen, who fold it to Brigadier Grant* Patrick's fon, Alex~ 
ander, purchafed Grangehill, in the parifh of Dyke, and called it 
Dalvey. He 'revived in his perfon the dormant title, and is now 
reprefented by his nephew Sir Alexander, fon of Sir t LudovicL 

Colonel Hugh Grant, a fon of Shewglie, in Urquhart, was fortu- 
nate in the Eaft Indies, and has bought Moy, near Forres ; and his 
nephew, James, has purchafed the valuable eftate of Redcaftie in 
Rofs, and is a gentleman of fuperior information. 

Robert Grant of Elchies, a cadet of the firft Grants of Ballinda- 
loch, being fuccefsful in trade, has purchafed the extenfiye property 
of Carron, Alachie, Wefter' Elchies, Ealentomb, Knockando, and 
Craigmiln, and has a numerous family. His nephew is William 
Grant, Counfellor of Law at London, and member of Parliament 
for the county of Banff — a young lawyer of uncommon merit. 

There are many other families of the name of Grant, as Glen- 
morifton, Corriemonie, Shewglie, Tullochgorum, Auchernick, De- 
lachaple, Gartenbeg, &c. : but there being no accefs to the writs 
and documents, and from the nature of the prefent confined pub- 
lication, it is impofBbie to give any detail of them. 

But, befides thefe, there are three or four branches that tradition 
reports to have come into Strathfpey with the Grants, on their 
migration from Stratheric. We have feen how little traditionary 
accounts are to be depended on, when the MSS.' and printed ac- 
counts of this family are compared with the one now given, that is 
fupported by hiftory and original writs : we cannot therefore but 
look on thefe tales with a fufpicious eye. Thefe branches are the 

. E Clan- 

** INHABITANTS OF TKt €hap:i> . 

Clan- Allan, ClanXhiaran, and the Clan-Phadrick. Tfee probabi- 
lity is, that fome of them are the remains of the inhabitants who 
were eftablifhed in the country, before the Grants obtained pof- 
feflion of Strathfpey by purchafe or marriage, and that others after- 
wards fettled there. They enjoyed protection, and in time united 
in a bond of amity with a. more powerful family, and aflumed the 
name of Grant, as many fmall tribes do that of Maclntofli. Of the 
firft is the Clan-Phadrick; as it appears from the chartulary of 
Moray, that about the 1223 the MacGillipatricks had Finlarig. Of 
the latter, perhaps, is the Clan- Allan; as in Pifcottie's Hiftory of 
Scotland, Sir Thomas Randolph of Stratherne is called chief of the 
Clan- Allan, before he was created Earl of Moray. Abernethy in 
Strathfpey was part of the Moray eftate •, and alfo there was a par- 
ticular connection between the Randolphs and the Grants-; fo that 
it is highly probable, fome of the Clan-Allan early fettled in Aber- 
nethy, and aflumed the name of Grant, but ftill preferred the me- 
morial of their original. 

The family and name of Innes is of great antiquity in the pro- 
vince of Moray. Some other families, perhaps, may be more an- 
cient 5 but they cannot fo well inftruct the sera of their eftablifh- 
ment. The firft charter is granted by Malcolm IV. in 1 157 to 
Beroaldus Flandrenjis, on the lands of Innes and Efter Urchard. 
At and foon after this period, it appears, that many emigrated from 
Flanders into Scotland, and are mentioned in different charters un- 
der the appellations of Flandrenfis, Flamang, It Flamang, Flama- 
ticus. In the fouth they were named Fleeming ; but this Beroald 
aflumed the local name of bines, from' the ifland or peninfala in 
which, at that period, part of his property was fituated. The fea 
then covered a confiderable tracT: of the low parts of Moray, and 
communicated with the loch of Spyny 5 fo that only the high land* 
of Innes and-Uiquhart were above the water. 

Mr. Shaw appears to have perufed the family papers, and his ac- 
count is : 

Alexander II. by his charter in 1226, confirmed the lands of In- 
nes to Walter, the fon of John, the fon of Berwald. To Walter 
fucceeded his fon Sir Alexander, whofe fon William was defigned 
Dominus de Innes in 1298. His fon William de Innes is defigned 
Baro de Innes in 1330. His fon Robert de Innes is defigned Domi- 
nus ejufdem in 1360. His fon Alexander had two fon* : Sir Robert , 



who fucceeded him, and John, who was feven years Biihop of Moray, 
and died 1414. This Bifhop of Moray promoted the' rebuilding of 
the cathedral, and laid the foundations of the great fteeple. Sir 
Robert Innes married Janet, heireis of Sir David Aberkerd, r, thane 
of Aberkerder, now Marnoch, by whom he had a great addition to 
his eftate. His /on, Sir Walter Innes, obtained a charter of confirma- 
tion of his mother's lands from James II. 1450. His Ton, Sir Robert, 
was of great avail to the royal caufe in the battle of Brechin, 1452; 
and on his fucceflion was infeft about the 1456. He had three 
ions : James, who fucceeded him ; Walter, anceftor of the families 
of Innermarkic, Balvenie,. Coxtown, Innerbrakie, Ortown, Auchin- 
toul, &c. His third fon, Robert, was progenitor of the Innes's of 
Drainie. James Innts was retoured heir to his father 1464, and 
was fucceeded by a collateral Robert Innts of Cromby, who was 
fucceeded by his fon James, who died in the battle of Pinkie, 
1547, and was fucceeded by his fon Alexander, Robert Innes, fori 
of Alexander, fucceeded him. His fon, Robert, was created by 
Charles L a baronet of Nova Scotia, with deftination to his heirs 
male .whatever. The patent is dated at Whitehall, 29th May 1625 » 
and they are the fecond in precedency of that order of Baronets. 
He married Lady Grizel Stewart, daughter of the Earl of Moray. 
He died before the Restoration, and was fucceeded by his eldeft 
fon, Sir Robert, who: married Jean, daughter of James Lord Rofs 
of Halkhead. To him fucceeded his fon, Sir James, who by his 
wife Lady Margaret, daughter of Henry Lord Kerr, apparent heir 
of Robert, Earl of Roxburgh, had his fon Sir Henry, who married 
Jean, .daughter of Duncan Forbes of Culioden, by whom he had 
Sir Henry , his heir, John Innes of Inchbroom, and two daughters. 
Inchbroom died without ifTue \ and one of his daughters was mar- 
ried to Pro vo ft James Stephen of Elgin, and their fon is Dr. Tho- 
* irias Stephen, phyfician there. Sir Henry Innes married Anne, 
daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, by whom he had James, 
his heir, and Robert. He had alfo five daughters, of whom the 
only furyiving one is Anna. He died in 1762. Sir James fuc- 
ceeded his father Sir Henry, and foon after fold the eftate of Innes 
to Earl Fife- He married an heirefs in England, and has added the 
name of NorclifF to that of Innes, but has no ifTue. He is the 
iixth Baronet in this family, 1 and the. twenty-fecond generation in 
a direft male line fiom Eeroaldus. 

U . Ta 


To the north of Bvodie houfe, on to the village of Dyke, is a hoi- 
low mire, that has given the name to both places-, as Broth in Iriffi, 
and Dyke in Saxon, fignifies a bog fo fituated. Anciently it was 
written Brothie, and, now changed into Brodie, has given the fur- 
name to the ancient family of Brodie. Their old writs, were either 
' carried away or deilroyed, when Lord Lewis Gordon, afterwards 
Marquis of Huntly, burnt the houfe of Brodie in 1645. From 
this it is uncertain, whether they were of the Aborigines of the 
country, or new fettlersj or when the prefent family obtained pof- 
feffion of thefe lands. Yet they can be traced far back. 
■ Malcolm was Thane of Brodie in the reign of Alexander III, 
His fon Michael, Thane of Brodie and Dyke, had a charter from 
Robert Bruce about 131 1. There was a John dc Brothie about 
1376, The chartulary of Moray mentions a Thomas Brothie, pro- 
bably of Brodie, about 1386. Jokit of Br ctkie affifted the Mac- 
tenzies againft the Macdonalds, in the action at Park in 1466: and 
John, Thane of Brodie, is mentioned in the chartulary of Moray 
in 1492. Some time after this, there was a David of Brodie, who 
died in 1627, leaving feveral fons : David, who fucceeded him ; 
Alexander, who purchafed the lands of Lethin from Sir John 
Grant of Freuchie ; Francis, who purchafed the lands of Milton, 
near Elgin, whofe great-great-grandfon is William Brodie of Mil- 
ton ; Jofeph 3 whofe reprefentative is Captain Brodie. He had 
pther fons. 

David had two fons : Alexander, his fucceffor, and Jcfeph of 
Aflifk. Alexander was a Lord of Seflion in 1649, DUt *° on re ^g n - 
ed. He was one cf the commiflioners fent to treat With Charles 
II. at the Hague and at Breda. He died in 1679, and by his wife, 
a daughter cf Sir Robert Innes, had James, his fucceffor, and a 
daughter, married to Sir Robert Dunbar 6f Grangehill. James 
married Lady Mary Kerr, daughter of the Earl of Lothian, and dy- 
ing in 1708, left nine daughters : Anne, married to Lord Forbes, 
Katharine to Robert Dunbar of Grangehill, Elizabeth to Cummin 
cf Altyre, Grizel to Dunbar cf Dumphail,' Emilia to Brodie of Af- 
lifk, Margaret 'to Brodie of Whitehill, VeTe to Brodie cf Muir- 
fccufe, Mary to Chivez of Muirtown, and Henrietta died unmar- 
jied, " 

The heir male, George, fon of Jofep'h of Afltflc, fuc£e£dcd. He 
died in 17 16, and left two fons, James and Alexander, and two 

daughters \ 

Chap. I. PROVINCE OF MOKAt. '3 1 

-daughters ;\ the one married Sinclair of Ulbfter, and the other" 
-Munro of Navarre. James fucoeecied.his father* He died in 1720, 
and was fucceeded by his brother Alexander ■, who was appointed 
liord Lyon in 1727. He died in 1754, and, left a fon, Alexander, 
'*who fucceeded him, and a daughter, married 7 to the Laird Mac- 
leod. > Alexander died a bachelor in 1759, and was fucceeied by 
James\ fon of James Brodie of Spynic, and grandfori of James B<ro- 
die of Whitehill, who was brother to George of Afli/k, who fuc- 
xeeded to the eftate of Brodie, a«d died in 17 16. James married 
Lady Margaret Duff, daughter of the late Earl Fife, by whom he 
has two fons and three daughters. He is Lord Lieutenant of the 
county of Nairn, as is Sir James Gr^nt of that of Invcrriefs,* and 
the Earl of Moray of Elgin and Forres. He is al(o member of Paj> 
iiament for the county of Moray, being elefted in 1 796. 

This account of the family of Brodie is chiefly extracted from 
Mr. Shaw, as is the following account of the family of Calder, 
.^hofe writs he had infpe&ed. The furname of Caldzr is local and 
is ancient. Dovenaldus, Thanus de Colder ■, was one of the eftima- 
tor$ of the baronies of Kilravock and Qeddes in 1295. His fon 
William had frem Robert Bruce in 1310 the thanedom of Kaledor, 
for the ufual fervices in the time of Alexander III. His fon An- 
drew was killed by Sir Alexander Raite, whofe fon Donald was 
ferved heir to his father in 1405, and in the fucceeding year was 
faifed in the offices of Sheriff and Conftahle of Nairn. His fon 
William was infeft in 1442. In 1450 he built the Tower of Cal- 
cic r, by a royal licence. His fon William in 147 1 bought the miln 
of Nairn, from the mafter of the hofpital of Spey, at Boat of 
Bridge.' In 1476 thofe parts of ,his eftate that lay in the (hires of 
Invernefs or Forres, were annexed to that of Nairn. ( From this, 
Ferintofh, Moy, Dunmaglafs, are parts of the (hire of Nairn. He 
lived to about the 1500. His fon, John, who died in 1494, left 
one pofthumous child, Muiriel or Marion. Argyle obtained the 
ward of Muiriel's marriage. In 15 10 me was* married to Sir John 
Campbell, third fon of Argyle, Sir John Campbell of Caldcr in 
1533 purchafed 'from John Ogilvie of Carnoufic, R.aite and the 
fort of it, and in 1525 purchafed from David Earl of Crawford, 
thp barony of Strathnairn, and fortalice of Caftle Davie. He died 
in 1546, and was fucceeded by his fon Archibald^ who died in 
1 553. His fon John fucceeded him, and" was murdered in 1592.. 



His fon John fucceeded him, who mortgaged and fold confider- 
able parts of his eftate, that he might purchafe, or rather conquer, 
the ifland of Hay. He was fucceeded by his fon John Dow, who 
was alive in 1650, and was fucceeded by his nephew Sir Hugh, 
who died in 17 16. His fon, Sir Alexander, married Elizabeth, 
fiftcr to Sir Gilbert Lord of Stackpole in South Wales, and died 
in 1700, and was fucceeded by his fon John, who fold Iiay and 
Muckarn to pay his debts. He married Mary Pryfe, heirefs of 
Gogirthen in North Wales. His eldeft fon, Pryfe, died in 1768; 
and his eldeft fon, John> fucceeded his grandfather. He is mar- 
Tied to a daughter of tSe Earl of Carlifle, and in 1767 was created 
a Britifn Peer, with the title of Lord Cawdor. 

1*he family of Rose of Kilravock is defcended of the Rofs's in 
the fouth country, who came from England. Their family writ- 
ings were deftroyed, when the cathedral of Moray was burnt in 
1390. . This obfcures their early hiftory, and prevents ascertaining 
the aera of their firft fettlement in the north. The barpny of Ged- 
des, in the parifti of Nairn, was their ancient inheritance. Hugo 
de Roos, Dominus de Gea'des, is a witnefs in the foundation charter 
of the Priory of Beaulie, 1230. Sir John BifTet of Lovat had three 
daughters, coheirefles : one of thefe, Elizabeth, Domina de Kilra- 
voth f married Sir Andrew Wood, of Redcaftle :. their daughter 
" Mary married Hugh Rofe, Baron of Geddes, and they obtained 
a charter on the barony of Kilravock from king John Baliol, 1293. 
In 1295 the barony of Kilravock was eftimated by an inqueft to 
L.24, and that of Geddes to L.12, of yearly rent. Their fon Wil- 
liam fucceeded. His fon Hugh died about 1363. His fon Hugh 
died about 1388. His fon Hugh died in 1420. His fon John 
was cdive in 1433. His fon Hugh died in 1494, and his fon Hugh 
died in 1517. His fecond fon John was anceftor of the Rofes of 
Eellivat ; but his eldeft fon Hugh fucceeded him, and died in 1543. 
His fon Hugh died in 1597, and was fucceeded by his fon William, 
who died in 161*1. His fon Hugh died 1643. ^ ls *° n Hugh died 

, 1649, aIK * was fucceeded by his fon Hugh, who was fucceeded by 
his fon Hugh XII. He died in 1732, and was fucceeded by his 
fon Hugh, who died in 1755. He was married to Elizabeth, 

- daughter to Ludovick Grant of Grant, by whom he had Hugh, 
who died in 1772, leaving a fon, Hugh, and a daughter, Elizabeth. 
liu^h fucceeded him, and died without children j and the fuccef- 

' # . Con 

tkap. 1. PROVINCE OF MORAY. $$ 

fion divided between the heir male, Dr. Hugh Rofe's fon by his 
firft marriage, and the fon of Elizabeth, who was the fecond wife 
. of Dr. Rofe. The Doctor's fon Hugh is the fixteenth of this 

.Gofpatrick, Earl of Northumberland, appeared rather to coun- 
tenance the murder of Earl Robert Cumine at Durham, and fled 
from the refentment of William the Conqueror, and took refuge 
with Malcolm III. who gave him the lands of Dunbar in the Merfe. 
Of him are defcended, in a dito£k line, the" Earls of Dunbar and 
March, as alfo the Homes and DuridafTes, &c. The earldom of 
March remained with father and fon, fill the forfeiture of the 
eleventh Earl in 1434, through the ambition of the houfe of Dou- 

John' Dunbar, ftcond fon of George the eleventh Earl of March, 
obtained in 1372 the earldom of Moray. His grandfon, Earl James, 
died about 1446; and his fon Alexander, by Ifabel Innes, a daugh- 
ter 1 of the Laird of Innes, bught to have fucceeded him'; but, as his 
mother Ifabel Was within the degrees, forbidden by the canon law, 
to her hufband, and dying before a dilpenfation could be obtained, 
the Douglafles got Alexander declared illegitimate, and Archibald 
Douglas, hufband of his youngeft fitter, was created Earl of Moray 
in 1446. Though thus deprived of the earldom, he was knighted, 
made heritable fherifF of Moray, and got an opulent eftate. He 
had the barony of Weftfield : he had alfo the lands of Carnoufie, 
Pitterhoufe, Kilbuyack, Conzie, Durris, Tarras, Balnageth, Focha- 
bers, Clunies, Moynefs, Clavack, Golfurd, Barlow, &c. 

Sir Alexander Dunbar of Weftfield, by his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sutherland of Duffus, had Sir James of Cumnock; 
Sir John of Mochrum ; Alexander of Kilbuyack, anceftor to Sir 
Archibald Dunbar of North field and Thunderton; Gavin, bi(hop 
of Aberdeen ; David of Durris, which he fold, and bought Grange- 
hill; Patrick, chancellor of the diocefe of Aberdeen; Leonard, 
ftudent at Paris; and a boy who died young; and Janet Lady In- 
nerugie. ' This account was tranferibed from the family's monu- 
ment at Elgin about 1714. Sir Alexander was fucceeded by his 
fon Sir James: to him fucceeded his fon James, to whom Alex- 
ander his fon fucceeded. Alexander died in 1.576 ; his fon Patrick 
fucceeded, and, dying in 1577,. was fucceeded by his fon James; 
to him fucceeded Alexander, his nephew, fon of Patrick of Bog- 

34 v . INHABITANTS OF TtHE , Chap. I. 

hall, wjio was killed in 1592 with the Earl of Moray at Duni- 
briftle. To Alexander fucceedcd his brother John, who died in 
1622: to him fucceeded Alexander, who died without iflue in 
1646 5 and his brother Thomas became Weftfield, who was fucceed- 
ed by his fon Robert, who died in 1661, leaving the fucceffion to 
his fon Robert, who was fucceeded by Alexander, who died irr 
1702. To him fucceeded his eldeft fon James, who died in 172® 
unmanned; and then Robert, his fecond fon, came to the eftate, 
and died a batchelor in 1721. The collateral line fucceeded in Lu- 
dovick, fon of -Alexander of Moy, who was fon of Robert, who 
d,ied in 1661. He fold the (heriffftup to the Earl of Moray, and 
died in 1744 without iflue. To him fucceeded Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Alexander, who died 1702. She married Sir William, fon 
of Sir James Sutherland, fecond fon of James Lord Duffus, who 
aflumed the name of Dunbar. Their daughter Janet married 
Thomas Dunbar of Grangehill, by whom me has Alexander. This 
Thomas fold "Weftfield, and all his property in Moray, to Sir James 
Grant of Grant, who alfo fold it, and it is now \n the pofieffion 
of Francis Ruflel. 

The furname of Comyn is ot ccnfidcrable antiquity in Scotland, 
as it is probable they came into England with William the Con- 
queror, and were early eftablifhed into Scotland. 

There was a Comes Robertas Comyn appointed governor of Nor- 
thumberland ; but the inhabitants rofe in arms, and killed him, and 
700 of his followers, at Durham, 1060*. 

- In 1 142 William Comyn was chancellor to. David I. of Scotland, 1 
and pofleffed himfelf of the bilhopric of Durham for fome time, till 
Richard Comyn, his nephew, obtained fome lands in the bifhopric. 
This Richard is often a witnefs in the charters of Malcolm and 
William, kings of Scotland. He was the father of William Comyn, 
fir ft Earl of Buchan of that name, and Jufliciarius Scotia, \r\ the 
reign of king William, who died in 1 2 14, and appears to have been 
the fir ft of that name, of confequence and rank, who fettled in 

During the reign of Alexander III. the Comyns had the direc- : 
ticn of public affairs. At that period, there^ were thirty-two knight3 
cf the name in Scotland, befides Alexander Earl of Buchan, "Wil- 
liam Earl of Marr, Walter Earl of Monteith, and John Lord of 
Badenoch, , 



• In 1169 there was a difpute between the Earl of Athole, and 
John of Badenoch, becaufe John built a caftle at Blair. 

In 1296 John Corny n was dominus de Strathbolgy. 

In 1284 John Earl of Buchan was one of the guardians. of Scot- 
land to the north of the Forth, as John Lord of Badenoch was one 
of them to the fouth of that river. 

In 1305 Robert Bruce, afterwards king, tilled John Comyn, 
Lord Badenoch, furnamed the Red, at Dumfries, becaufe he dis- 
covered Bruce's defigns on the crown of Scotland to Edward I. 

Upon this murder, the powerful family of the. Comyns heartily 
Supported the Englifli views, and gave Bruce all the oppofition they 

In 1307 Comyn Earl of Buchan fled before Bruce, at Sliach, in 
the neighbourhood of Strathbogie, and next year was defeated by 
him at Inverury. Then Bruce's affairs taking a favourable turn, v 
he was crowned King, and foon expelled the Englilh from Scot- 
land. At his ieifure, he forfeited all the Comyns, and fo effectu- 
ally reduced their numbers and influence, that Fordun fays, their 
name was almoft extirpated off the earth, ~ , 

Ma^y of the furname are fcattered through Scotland ; and in the 
province of Moray, there are the three families of Allre, Logie, 
and Relucas, " ^ 

Tradition reports, that the family of Altre is defcended of 1 the^ 
Lord of Badenoch. One particular is certain, from the chartukry 
of Moray, that there was a Cdmyn of Aitre before 1492, who was 
employed in provincial- affairs of confequence, with the mod ref- 
jpe&able gentlemen in the country. The eflate, many years after 
this, was confidcrable, but fell low; though now, from the attention 
of Alexander Penrofe Comyn Gordon, who has made feveral pur- 
chafes, it is again become valuable. 

Sometime after t6$6 Robert Comyn of Altre, married Lucy, 
eldeft daughter of Sir Ludovick Gordon of Gordonftown. Of this % 
marriage the preferft A. P. JComyn Gordon is defcended. Sir 
William Gordon, great grandfon of Sir Ludovick, having no heirs 
of his body, nor indeed heirs male, reduced an entail made by his 
• grandfather, and conveyed the eilate of Gordonftown to Altre. , 
The Marchionefs of Tichfield, daughter of General Scott, and % 
grandchild of Lucy, only daughter of the entailer, and married t<f 
David Scott of Scotftarvet, father of the General; ha$ entered her 
\ " , T . claim 

36 Inhabitants of rnt ChapAi 

claim of fucceffion, upon the ground that Sir William Gordon could 
not alter the entail, in which her grandmother and defcendants 
were the fir ft fubftitutes. This law fuit is now in dependence. 

The prefent Altre married a fifter of Six James Grant of Grant, 
and has a numerous family. > 

The antiquity of the furname of Fraser is great ; but it is un- 
certain frpm what country they came originally, and what gave rife 
to the appellation. The firft account of them, in Scotland, is in 
Tweedale, where there was a Sir Simon Frafer of Oliver Caftlej 
who wa^s executed at London, after the battle of Methven, 1307. 

There was a Sir Alexander Frafer, who was Lord Chamberlanc* 
1325, and married Mary, filter of King Robert Bruce, and ob-, 
tained a grant of the thanedomof Cowie. His grandfon, Sir Alex- 
ander, married a daughter of the Earl of Rofs, with whom he had 
the lands of Philorth, in Buchari : and from him is defcended Lord 

Tradition reports that Gilbert, (heriff of Traquair, was anceftor 
of the family, of Lovat. His grandfon, Simon* married a descen- 
dant of Sir John BhTet of Lovat. 

By the chartulary of Moray it appears, that Hugh Friftle of Lo- 
vat did homage to the bifhop of Moray in 1367, for Kyntallargy 
and Efle. Hugh Frafer of Lovat is retoured, 1430. Between this 
period and 1480, the family was nobilitated, as in this laft year a 
Hugo is,.in a royal charter, called Do minus Frafer de Lovat< There 
was Hugh, killed at the battle of Flouden, 15 13. His ,fon, Thomas f 
died in 1526. His fon, Hugh, was killed at the conflift at Cean- 
Lochlochie, 1544. His fon, Alexander, was anceftor of Frafer of 
Strichen, and died in 1588. Hugh, Alexander's fon, died in 1576; 
to whorn fucceeded Simon, his fon, who was the anceftor of Inrxer- 
alachie. Simon died, 1633, and his fon Hugh fucceeded him. He 
had two foris: Hugh, his heir; and Thomas of Beaufort. , He died 
1646. His fon Hugh had Hugh, who died about 1672. His fon 
Hugh died 1696. By his wife, Emilia, daughter of the Marquis of 
Athole, he had only three daughters. The eldeft, Emilia, married 
Mackenzie of Preftonhall; and in the contract, the eftate was pro- 
vided to heirs whatfoever. Simon, fon of Thomas of Beaufort, 
claimed the honours before the Court of Seffion. The Court rightly, 
although incompetently, adjudged the honours of Lovat to him. 
This decilion was founded on a new charter obtained fiom the 


£hap.i. *kov!nce of moray; 37, 

King in 1539, by Hugh Lord Frafer of Lovat, on his refignation 
of his whole family eft ate. By this charter, it was united, created, 
and incorporated into one barony, and limited to the heirs male of 
the body of Hugh, and failing them, to his lawful and neareft 
male whatfoever. 

This Simon Lord Frafer of Lovat, on account of his treafonablc 
pra&ices, was beheaded, 9th April 1747, and his eftate forfeited. 
In 1774 the King granted to his fon Simon the eftate. This Si- 
mon's mother was a daughter of- Ludovick Grant of Grant. He 
died without children, and his brother Archibald fucceeded him, 
who has children; and his eldeft fon, Simon, is member of parlia- 
ment for the county of Invernefs. 

In the days of barbarifm and mifrule, when right and wrong 
were determined by the fword, feveral feeble and unimportant 
clans or families in Scotland united themfelves under one common 
head, for mutual protection and defence againft their more power- 
ful neighbours. In the province of Moray, the Macpherfons, 
JVfacbeans, Shaws, Macgillivrays, Macqueens, Macphails, Smiths, 
Catteighs, &c* &c. entered into a combination of this nature, and 
denominated themfelves the Clan Chattan, under the direction of 
the Laird of Maclntofh, who was called Captain of the Clan Chat- 
tan. Mac Intojk fignifies, the chief or leader's fon. The sera of 
this aflbciation is loft in tradition, as there are no written records 
of it. The tales of family oftentation are not to he depended on, 
and it would be an infult, in this enlightened age, to obtrude them 
as authentic genealogy or hiftory. That the family of Maclntojk 
is ancient cannot be queftioned. It is equally certain, that it has 
jnany cadets and refpeftable alliances, and has had confiderable 
Weight in many private and public tranfacYions in the country. 

The ftory of tradition is, that a fon of Duncan Macduff, fifth 
Earl of Fife, who died 1 1 54, came north, and had lands granted 
to him in the vicinity of Innernefs; and the fifth in defcent from 
him, Angus, married Eva, heirefsof Dowal Dal, chief of the Clan 
Chattan, and obtained his eftate. In a bond of manrent between 
the Laird of Maclntoffi and the Macpherfons, 1609, they acknow- 
ledge him to be their chief. , In many royal charters, royal letters, 
and other wjits, he is alfo rfefigned Captain of Clan Chattan. 

Angus' fon, William, fucceeded to. him. To William fucceed- 
f d his fon Lauchlan> and to him his fon Fcrquhar. To him hi& 

F % *ncl$ 


uncle, Malcolm Beg, He* died 1457. ^* s ^ on Duncan fucceeded; 
to him fucceeded his fon- Ferquhar, who died in 15 14 without 
male .iffue. His relation, William, grandfon of Malcolm by his 
third fon, Lauchlan, fucceeded, and was murdered in 15 15 by his 
clan. His brother Lauchlan fucceededy-and was alfo murdered 
by his clan, 1524. His fon William fucceeded, and was put to 
death, by the Earl of Huntly at Huntly Caftle in 15505 for which 
the Earl paid an affythment, or compenfation, of lands to a confi- 
derable extent, that as yet are parts of the Maclntofli eftate. His 
fon Lauchlan fucceeded, and died, 1606. He was fucceeded by 
his grandfon Sir Lauchlan, who died in 1622. His fon William 
died, 1660, -and was fucceeded by his fon Lauchlan, who died in 
1704. His fori Lauchlan died in 1731 without iffue, and was fuc- 
ceeded by William, his near relation, who died in 1740 without 
iffue. To him fucceeded his brother dingus, who married a 
daughter of Innercauld, and died without iffue in 1770, To him 
fucceeded JEneas, his near relation, who married a daughter of 
Sir Ludovick Grant of Dalve^, but has no children. 

The Macphersons are one of thofe fmall clans that affociated 
themfelves under the Captain of the Clan Chattan. It is faid, 
that they derive their name from an anceftor, who was parfon of 
Kingufie, and married. Be this as it may, they are numerous, and 
occupy great part of Badcnoch. Their chief is, Macpherfan of 
Clunie. In 1660 Andrew was laird of Clunie, whofe fon Etvan 
^was father of Duncan^ who died in 1722 without male iffue. The 
neareft male heir was Lauchlan cf Nuid, who was great-grand- 
nephew of the mentioned Andrew. Lauchlan *s fon Eman en- 
gaged in the rebellion of 1745, and was forfeited. He left a fon, 
Duncan, by Janet, daughter of Simon Lord Frafer of Lovat, who 
is a colonel in the army, and had his eftate reftored to him by a& 
of parliament in 1 7 , 

There is another refpe&ablc family of this name, Macpkerfon 
of Inner ijhie, who are of fome antiquity, and now an hand- 
fome eftate. George, the late proprietor, was married to a filler 
of General Grant of Ballindalloch, and, had two fons, and fevcral 
daughters;. His eldeft fon, William, is a batchelor, His other 
fon, John, was married, and retired from the army, to enjoy a 
country life. He has two fons and a daughter. 

From this country was the notorious James Macpherfon, the 




editor of^Oflian's Poems. He died in 1796, after purchafing con-« 
fiderable property in Badenoch. 

The Macdonalds are a numerous and opulent name, and have 
long occupied a confiderable part of the Weft Highlands of Scot- 
land. It is uncertain, whether they emigrated from Norway and 
the Orkneys, or from Ireland. Their own tradition is, that they 
a*e of Irifh extra£Uon. Be this as it may, they are flouriihirig, 
and often engaged in private and public tranfa&ions of various 
type. ~ 

' The family feat of the Macdonalds of Glengary is at Innergary. 
They are defcended of Clan Ranald of Moidart ; for there are 
blonds of manrent between Glengary and his neighbours, as far 
back as 1 57 1, in which he acknowledges Clan-Ranald for Jus 

It 'is faid, that John, Lord of the Ifles, had a grandfon, Donald 
ef Glengary, who was father of Alexander, who had Alexander^ 
\#ho died about 15 15, and left two fons: Alexander, his fucceflbr, 
and Angus, progenitor of Lord Macdonald of Aros. Alexander 
died about 1550, and his fucceflbr was his fon Alexander, who 
died about 1604. His grandfon Alexander had two fons : Donald 
Gorm, and Alexander. On the death of Lord Macdonald of Aros, 
in 1680, without iflue, Alexander obtained his eftate, and died 
about 1685. Donald Gorm was killed at Killycrankie, 1689, and 
unmarried. His brother Alexander fucceeded, and was in the 
conflifls of Cromdale, 1690, and Sherrifmuir, 1715, and died in 
1724. Hjs fon John fucceeded, and died in 1754. Alexander, hig 
fon, was imprifoned at London in' 1745 5 but Angus, another fon, 
led the tenants and vaffals of Glengary into the rebellion, and was 
killed by a random (hot at Falkirk, in January 1746. Alexander 
returned home, and died a bachelor, 1761. Angus' fon, by a 
niece of Struan, fuceeededj and was Duncan of Glengary. He 
married a daughtet of Sir Ludovick Grant of Dalvey, and had' 
iflue. He died in 1788, and his fon Alexander fucceeded. . 

The furname of Duff has within this century emerged, and 
rifen into uncommon opulence; and the family of their prefent 
head, the Eari Fife, has gone through the gradations of Irifh no* 
bility, till the prefent Earl in 1790 was created a Britifh Peer, by 
the title of Duff. Lord Fife. 

There was an old ,family of this name, proprietors of Muldavid 


40 INHABITANTS OF Tri£ Chap. I* 

and Craighead, in the immediate vicinity of Cullen. Through 
ten defcents, decently inftrihfted, the direct line at laft became 
£xtin£t., in the perfon of John Duff , who died in Holland, 1717. 
The grandfather of this John was twice married. A fin of his 
fecond marriage was Adavti who lived in Clunybeg orfAuchin- 
downl By his wife, a daughter of Gordon of Birkenburn, this 
Adam had Alexander of Keithmore ; Williarri, anceftor of Drum- 
muir and Crombie ; John, anceftor of Corfindae. Clunybeg died 
in 1677. , Alexander of Keithmore married Helen, daughter of 
Alexander Grant of Aliachie, an heirefs. By her he had Alex- 
ander of Braco, William of Dipple, and Patrick of Craigfton, 
Alexander purchafed the lands of Braco, and made many other 
acquifitions. He married a daughter of Sir William Gordon of 
Lefmore, and had feveral daughters. His only fon, William % 
fuceeded him, who died without male iffue. His uncle, William 
tif Dipple y fuccecded ; and by his wife, a daughter of Sir George 
Gordon of Edinglaffie, left feveral daughters, and a fon, William. 
v/ho fucceeded to the eftates of Braco and Dipple. He married 
Jean, daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant. In 1735 he was 
created Baron Braco of Kilbryde in Ireland, and by patent to him 
and his heirs male in 1759, he was created Vifcpunt Macduff and 
Earl Fife in that kingdom. He died in 1763, and was, fucceeded 
by his fon James Vifcount Macduff, who in 1 790 was created a 
Britifh Peer. , 

This William, Earl of Fife, had a numerous family, and gave 
landed property to all his younger fons,. Alexander got Eeht in 
Aberdeenfhire, and married a daughter of Skene of Skene, and 
has children, George got the eltate of Milntown and Bermuckity 
Dear Elgin, was married, and has a fon. Lewis had Blairrie 
near Forres, was married, but has no children. Arthur had Or- 
town, and remains a bachelor. His eldeft daughter, Lady Ann, 
married her near relation, Duff of Hatton, and had one daughter, 
Jean, an heirefs, married to her coufin, Sir James Grant of Grant. 
Lady Jane married Sir William Gordon of Park, and, after his 
death, Hay of Montblairy. Lady Janet married Keith Urquhart 
of Meldrum. Lady Margaret married James Brodie of Brodie. 
Lady Sophia married Mr. Wharton; and Lady Helen 'married 
Admiral Duff. James Earl Fife married the only child of Sin- 
clair Earl ©f Caithnefs, and has no ifiue. 


ihap. 1. fcttOVWCE OF MORAY* <fi 

William, fecond fon of Clunybeg, was father of Alexander, who 
| married Katherinc, eldeft daughter and heirefs of DufFof Drum- 
muir, and by her had Robert of Drummuir, John of Coubin, and , , 
William of Muirtown. To Robert of Drummuir fucceeded his 
fon, Archibald of Drummuir, who died a bachelor,! and was fuc- 
ceeded by hi3 coufin defcended of Coubin. William had a fecond 
fon, James, father of William Duff of Crombie. Of Clunybeg's 
third fori is defcended Duff of Corfindae. Of Keithmore's fon, 
| Patrick of Craigfton, are defcended Hatton, Premnay, Fettereffo, 

: &c. • 

The family of Gordonstown is now extinct in the male line 5 
but it would be improper to omit a fketch, as they were diftin- 
guiflied by their abilities, as alfo by their peculiarities. 

Sir Robert Gordon, the firft of Gordonftown, was fecond fort 

! of Alexander Earl of Sutherland. In May 1625 ne was created a 

knighf baronet of' the order of Nova Scotia, with precedence of 

all the knights of that order. In 1634 he was one of the Privy 

Council of Charles I. ; and in 1642 the Parliament made him a 

Privy Counfellor for life. He was grandfather, by his daughter 

Katharine, to the celebrated Robert Barclay, author of the Apo- 

togyfor the Quakers. In 1656 he was fucceeded by\his Ton Za- 

dovick. He had three daughters : Lucy, married to Robert Cu- 

myn of Altrev Katharine, married to Thomas Dunbar of Grange; 

and Elizabeth, married to Dunbar of Weftfield. The defcendants 

of the two firft exift to this day. His fon Robert, by his wife 

Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir William Dunbar of Hemprigs, had 

Robert, his heir, and Lucy, married to Scott of Scotftarvet, and 

mother to (General Scott. Robert fucceeded in 1701. His wife 

* was Agnes, daughter of Sir William Maxwell of Calderwood. He 

died in 1772. Two fons of this marriage furvived him. Robert* 

who died a bachelor in 1776, and was fucceeded by his brother 

William, who fettled his eft ate on Corny n of Altre, and alfo died 

a bachelor in 1795. 

Archibald Dunbar, of the Dunbars of Kijbuyack* bought a great 
part of the Duffus eftate from Jam^s Lord Duffus, and affumed. 
the title ofThunderton, He died, 1730. His eldeft daughter 
married her -coufin-german, Archibald Dunbar of Newton, and 
fucceeded to the eftate. Archibald died in 1769. Of this mar- 
riage was Alexander, who married Margaret, daughter of the Vik 


4* Inhabitants of mt €hap. r* 

Count of Arbuthnot. Sir Patrick Dunbar of Nortlifield, a def- 
cendent of Kilbuyack, dying without male iffue, this Alexander 
proved his propinquity to him, before an inqueft, and in 1776 
took up the title. He "died in 1791. Sir Alexander, by his mar- 
. riage, had two fons, Archibald and John, -and a daughter, married 
to Dr. Coull of Afihgrove. John is a Captain of dragoons, and 
Sir Archibald married Helen, daughter of Altre, and has iflue. 

Urquhart of Birdfyards, pear Forres, was a descendant of the 
Urquharts* of Cromarty. Tradition reports, that this family 
were appointed heritable keepers of the Caftle of Forres, by Ran- 
dolph, Earl of Moray. In 1390 there was a Thomas Urchard de 
Birdzardis, or Borrowzairdis^ who had Sherifmiln, and other 
lands near Elgin. The eftate continued in the family, till Robert 
fold it to George Grant from Jamaica, who now refides at San- 
char, which is happily fituated, as having a variety of the moft 
beautiful profpefts. 

Lethin belonged to Falconers, as early as the 1295,* and re- 
mained with them till John Grant of Freuchie purchafed it about 
the 1600." His fon, Sir John, fold it, about 1630, to jilexander* 
fecond fon of David Brodie of Brodie. He alfo purchafed the 
abbey lands of Kinlofs, from Thomas Bruce, Earl of Elgyn, and 
in 1651 and 1652 fold the materials of the abbey, and with them 
the citadel of Invernefs was built. He died in 1660, and was 
fucceeded by his fon Alexander, who died in 1696, leaving one 
daughter, Janet, married to Lewis Grant of Grant about 1676* 
To this Alexander fucceeded David, his brother, who died with- 
out iffue. To him fucceeded Alexander, fon of James Brodie of 
Kinlee, brother of David, who married Sophia, a daughter of Cal- 
mer, and had a numerous family. He died in 1744. To him his 
fon Alexander fucceeded, who married Henrietta, daughter of 
Colonel William Grant of Ballindaltrch, in 1754, and died 1770. 
His fon Alexander died in 1770, and his other fon, John, in 
*773> both unmarried. The heirefs by entail is his daughter 
Anne> unmarried. Her filler, Sophia, is lately married to her 
coufin, Dunbar of Grange. 

Lefly of Findraffie is defcended of Leflie Earl of Rothes, and 
afferts on plaufible grounds, that he is the heir-male, and in that 
line* ought to have the eftate and honours. This claim is be- 
come nugatory, as in 1558 Andrew Lejlie, fecond fon of the Fourth 



Earl of Rothes* fucceeded to the eftate and honour, in which he 
'was inverted, in corjfequence of his father's furrender and refigna- 
tion. In 1667 John, then Earl, and afterwards Duke of Rothes, 
refigned his honour into the hands of Charles II. and a charter 
■was expede undet the great fea) in favour of his heirs femah- ; by 
which Margaret, his daughter, fucceeded him in the title, and was 
Countefs of Rothes, on his death in io8i v " 

Be this as it may, Robert, the firft of Findraflie, brother of An* 
drew Earl of Rothes, was fucceeded by his fon Robert, who had 
two fons, Robert and John. Robert fucceeded him. His fon 
George fucceeded, and dying childlefs, Abraham, George's bro- 
ther, fucceeded, who alfo died without ifliie. A collateral John 
fucceeded, whofe father, John, was fon of Johri, fecond fon of 
Robert above-mentioned. This John married Margaret, daughter 
of Gordon of ^Glengerack, and had feveral children. His fon 
Alexander fucceeded; but all his children dying, his brother Abra- 
ham fucceeded; and on his death, his daughter, Caroline Jemima 
.Leflie, his heirefs Of entail, fucceeded, and married John L°Jlie % 
now of Findraflie, and have children. 

James Calder of Muirfcown was created a Baronet of Nova Sco- 
tia in 1686. In 17*0 he difponed his eftate to triiftves, and Kil- 
ravock purchafed it. His fon Thomas fucceeded to the title. To 
him fucceeded his fon James, who married advantageoufly in Eng- 
land, and his fon Henry fucceeded, and died a general officer^ 

leaving one fon, — ; — , a minor. 

There was a family of the furname of Mtjrreff or Moray of 
Duffus, who, and the cadets of it, had, in the reign of David I. 
and long after, mod extenGve eftates in this province, and in the 
neighbouring counties. This leads to conjettufe, that the rebel- 
lion of the Moravienfes in the reign of Malcolm IV* was neither 
fo univerfaj, as our monkifh hiftorians report, nor attended with 
fo general effe&s, as tranfplahting all the inhabitants, or that the 
new occupiers aifumed. the local name. 

However numerous and opulent thefe Morays of Diiflfus were, 
it is from the chartulary of Moray alone that we receive any au- 
thentic information concerning them. From a tranfcript of this 
record, it appears that 

In 1 190 Richard, bifhop of Moray, feus the lands of Logynan- 
dal w Duffus, to William % fon of Frefkyn. 

G About 

44 . INHABITANTS^ ©F THE Chap, tt 

About 1200 William, fon of William, foil of Frefkyri, was pa- 
tron of the church of Arthildol, or ArndiJlyi • 

About 1210 Frejkyn de Kerdal, or Kirdels, was uncle to Bri- 
cius, fcifhop of Moray, and patron of the church of Deveth, or 
Dalvey. His daughter, an heirefs, married Alexander dc Strivelyn. 

At the fame peribd Walter At Moravia was patron of the church 
of Inneraiien. '...".. 

" Before 1214 William, fon of Frefkyn, is a' witnefs to a charter 
of king William. 

Before 1216, when Pope Innocent III. died,' Bricius, bifhop of 
Moray, founds eight canonries at the cathedral of Spyny. One of 
them, is on the lands of Duldavy, and Lunyn, or Dunlichty— falva 
tenura Willie'lmi, jtlij Willi tl mi, JHij>FreJkyny ; as alfo on the 
lands of Logy near Duffus— -falva tenura Hugonis,Jilij Willielmi, 
Jilij Frejkyny. ' ' . * 

In 1 220 Andrew, bifhop of Moray, gives his lands of Butru- 
thin or Botriphny, Aginway, Artildol, Aberlour, and Corekyner- 
moneth or Kinnermoriy, to Walter dt Moravia, fon of the late M or avic^ 

In 1226 this laft agreement is renewed by bifhop Andrew, with 
the fame Walter, fon of the late William. He is called Walterus 
de Petyn, or Petty. iThe lands of Ardtrillen, Lunyn, Croyn, Dul- 
davy, are added 5 as alfo the prefentation to the churches of Croyn, 
Aberlour, Butrmhih, and Artildol. There Were many feals to it, 
and, among -others, that of Walter' de Moravia, fon of. the late 


In 1225 Andrew, bifhop of Moray, enters into an agreement 
with Walter, de Moravia, fon of Hugh, about Walter's rights over 
the muirs of Spyny, which Walter faid his anceftors had ab an- 
iiquo.- > 

About 1229 it appears that Walter, fon of William de % Mora- 
via, was patron of the churches of Petyn, Butruchin or Botriph- 
ny, Bracholy, Aberlour, and Dufphus or Duffus. 

In 1232 Dominus Walterus de Duffus, and Dominus Walterus 
de Petyn, milites, are witrieffes to a convention between bifhop 
Andrew and David de Strathbolgyn. 

In 1248 Simon, bifhop of Moray, confirm^ the agreement made 
by bifhop Andrew with Walter de Moravia, father of Frejkyn, and 
alfo ratifies the charters given by his predeceflbrs to the grandfa- 

Chap, u fKoviKci of moray. 


thsr and great grandfather of Freikyn, on the muirs of Spyny and 
Finroflie. ... 

In 1237 Andrew, bifliop of Moray, grants a Situation for a corn 
miln on his lands of Uchter Spyny, to Walter de Moravia. This 
is Sherrifmiln on Lofty, and was part of the Duffus eftate. Wil- 
liam de Sutherland is one of the witneffes. 

In 1240 Walter de Moravia, fon of Hugh, gives one toft and 
one croft to the church of St. Peter at Ductus. 

In 1286 the bifliop of Moray, Archibald, is guardian of an 
agreement between William Federeth, portioner of Duffus, and 
Reginald le Chene, about the four 3avachs of Strathnavyr, which 
Federeth and his wife, Chrijliana de Moravia, yield to Chene, 
who performs the third part of the free fervice of one knight, for 
that part of the barony of Strathbrock, or Weftfield, that William 
poffeffes. This William and Chriftiana were alive in 1294. 
! It appears from Prinn's collections, that in 1296 the Morays 
were numerous, and in many (hires of the kingdom. There were 
. Dominus Willielmus de Morravia, de Bothuyl miles; Willi el muz 
de Morravia y de Tullibardin del Conte de Perth, Sec. Sir Andrew 
Mordy of Bothwell was governor -of Scotland. <He died in the 
north, 1338, and was buried at Rofemarkie. 

The' family of Chene of JDuffus ended in two daughters. . Mary 
married Nicholas Sutherland, fecond fon of Kenneth, Earl of Su- 
■therland, f^in at Halidon Hill, 1333. Nicholas' grandfon, Alex- 
ander Sutherland, married Morella, heirefs of Chifholm of Quarfry- 
■wood. Alexander, the fifth in defcent from him, was created. 
Lord Duffus in 1650. Jame3, the fecend Lord, who died in 1 705^ 
fold the greateft part of the eftate to Archibald Duiibar of Thun- 
dertori. Kenfieth, the third Lord Duffus, was a captain in the 
navy; but, engaging in the rebellion of 17 15, was attainted. . His 
ifon Eric lived in Sutherland, whofe ion James re fides in the 

In giving an account of the Grants., it was omkted to men-. 
tion, that the Clan- Allan is represented by the family of Aucher^ 
nack, the ClariXhiaran by Dclhuhafle, and the Clqn-Phadnc/Lby 

The tradition of the country is, that the Clan-Allan* who came 
' north with Thomas Randolph, were Stewarts, now inStrathaven. 
'The family orAchernack, above 200 years ago, was opulent, and 
; piarried into refpectabie families!. Major Louis Grant is now the 

G % head 



chap. t. 

head of it. He refides at AchernacK", and is materially improving 
the old duchas. ' • 

To this it is to be added, .that Sir James Grant of Grant has re- 
peatedly been a member of Parliament for the counties of Moray 
and Banff, and now has a regiment of the line, the 97th, and the 
firft Scotch Fencible foot regiment, with a profitable place at the 
J5oard>of Excife. \ 



Elgin Prejbytery. 
S pey mouth 

St. Andrews Lhanbryd 
Drainy - > 


Birnic -.. 
Alves - * ' 

Forres Prejbytery. 

Rafford - 

Dollas , - 
Edinkillie . - 
Dyke - • . 

Nairn Prejbytery, 
Nairn . - 

Ardclach , 

Chap. i. 




2 4 








4 1 




Invernejs Prejbytery. 
Moy and Dallaroflie 
Daviot and Dunlichty 
Petty - 

Abertarff Prejbytery. 
Urquhart ... 

Abernethy Prejbytery. 
•Kinguffie ' m 
Alvie - 
Duthil and Rothymurphus 
Cromdale - 

Aberlaur, and part of 
Strathboggy Prejbyteries. 

Inveravon ,- - 





Rothes .. - ' - 

Keith - „ 

Bellie * 

^ 1755- 

in 1797. 







*3 6 <5 


2 49«5 


•~-J — \ 











« ■ ■ 






■ ' ■ - 








3 o6 3 











2 374 
12 3<5 
' 121 9 
















AbJlraR of Population Tabic. 

Chap, r. 

SumofPieib. of Elgin - - 
Forres - . - 
Nairn - 
Aberiaur, &c. 

in t 755- 

in 1797. 
















6 A5 








6 599 


1! 9 

By the above table, the population upon the amount of the 45 
^pariihes feems to have rather decreafed fince the year 1755. , 

In the country parifhes, the decreafe feems to be more general 
in tfce moll fertile and bed cultivated diftrifts, where the extent of 
the- farms has been of late increafed. In the interior parifhes, 
where much of the land is occupied in fmall poneffions, and where 
improvers have occafionally fettled in the fkirts of the country, the 
population feems to have rather increafed. 

In the parishes of Aulderne* Boharm, and Rothes, the" popula- 
tion, as publiihed in the Statiftical Account of Scotland, has been 
fomewhat altered. 

The parifli of Bundurcas was annexed to thofe of Boharm and 
Rothes, and its population, in 1755 about 946, has in this table 
been added to the refpeclive parifhes of which it now makes part. 

Upon the other fide,, the minifter of Aulderne, in a procef* 
for an augmentation of ftipend in the year 1754, ftates the popu- 
lation only at 1600, which at that time it could not have exceeded. 
- Upon the fame fide alfo, an error in Dr. "Webfter's Teport of 
the population of Elgin, as puMifhcd in the 5th vol. of the Statif- 
tical" Account of Scotland, mud at the leaft amount, to one thou- 
fand more than it confifted of about 1755. 

Several new houfes have of late been built, and a few that had 
remained uninhabited, perhaps Gnce the„y were burned by the Mar- 

• quis 

>Ckap.l. PROVINCE 01 MORAY- *4jJ 

quis of Montrofe, have v been rebuilt : feveral families Kavealfo 
come in from the country: from which it might be prefumedj 
that the population of the town is increafing. But people now 
require more room and larger houfes than formerly. Several alfo 
of the inferior artizans, to efcape the impofts of the royalty, have 
migrated to a fuburbs, the rifing 'village of Bifho.prnill, in the pa- 
rifh of Spynie. There is reafon therefore to fuppofe, that the 
prefent population of the town, about 3,000., has continued for 
many years with little variation, the country part only having de- 
creased about 400. By adding that number to its prefent- popula- 
tion of 1600, that of the year 1755 w ^ ke P rettv accurately as- 
certained, making the whole parifli $hen amount to about 5000 : 
and by this ftatement, the population of the whole province, in- 
stead of bein<j diminifhed, rnuft have really increafed about 900. 

C H.A P- 

£p ANTigomBS O* THE PROVINCE. [Ckaf. Kt« 



§. i. Roman Progrefs. 

THE idea of Caledonian independence long influenced the opi- 
nions of our hiftoriahs and antiquaries. It prevented their 
judging with candour of the proofs, that the Romans penetrated 
to the northern part of Scotland, Thefe prejudices now begin to 
fubfide \ and Scotfmen allow equal weight to the fame degree of 
evidence, of the Roman progrefs in their native country, as they 
do with regard to Germany, or any other province of that empire 
they are not particularly interefted in. ' 

This evidence and information is not to be derived from the le- 
gendary tales of our hiftorians, or the crude theories of our anti- 
quarians, founded in fiftion, and fupported by credulity. The 
genuine fources it is to be drawn from, are the Roman and Greek 
writers. The* hiftory they give us of the Roman progrefs in this 
ifland, is confirmed by thofe ftupendous monuments of their power 
and induftry that remain, as walls, ftations, military roads,, and 
ruins of towns. 

It is from -Tacitus' life of Agricola, that we obtain the firft cor- 
reft information of the fuccefs of the Roman arms in Scotland- 
He commanded their troops for nine. years, ami penetrated into Scot- 
land, as far as the foot of the Grampian mountains. Had Tacitus* 
account of Agricola's eight campaigns been attended to, the field of 
his battle with the Caledonian chief Galgicus, could' never be Con- | 
jeftured to have been in Strathern, near the kirk of Comrie, nor 
at Fortingal Camp, a place fomewhat farther on the other fide of 
the Tay. Thefe places are too inland, as that campaign was near ; 
the fea coaft* The land-army and fleet co-operated in attacking I 
the enemy, and fupporting each other. The failprs often were in | 
the Roman camps>-and detailed the dangers they encountered bf 
fea, to the legions, who related the hardfhips they were expofed to 
In their marches through hills and forefts. This was alfo tHe cafe 
in Agricola's fixth and feventh campaigns; and remains of his for- 


tificd camps are yet to he feen, from Camelon to his camp at 
Stonehaven, and the extenfive works on Finlyftone hill, near to 
Urie, where the hattle with Galgacus was fought. 

Though it is a little foreign to the prefeni inquiry, yet it throws 
light on the Roman progrefs at large, to mention the feries df 
Agricola's camps, during the three years he employed in his pro- 
grefs northward, after his croffing the Bodotna, or Forth, They 
are taken from a map that General Roy publiflied feveral years 
ago, and have all been verified : Camelon, Kier, Ardock, Camp 
Cajile, Strageth, Perth, Graffy walls, Burghtay, Lintroje, Coupar 
in Angus, Kirkboddo, Battle Dykes, Kiethick, For dun, Stonehaven. 
This dhain of pofts, not far diflant from the fea (hore, preferved 
the communication with his fleet, and fecured both his conquefts 
and retreat. The remains of a Roman camp were, forne years 
years ago, to be feen near the fliore at Stonehaven, but are now 
efraced. It was the ftation Agricola occupied, before his battle 
with Galgacus. The extenfive works on Finlyftone hill, about 
* two miles to the weft of Stonehaven, contain within the intrench- 
wents about 120 Scots acres. There the Caledonians encamped, 
who learned this art of fortification from the Romans, and had it 
ib large, as to contain their flocks and herds. The face of the 
ground between Stonehaven and Finlyftone hill correfponds to 
Tacitus* defcription, particularly at Campftone hill, a mile to the 
north eait, and near to the fea ftore, where was the field of battle ; 
as there are the remains of many fmall cairns, and foine fingle 
ftone obeliiks. 

It was Agricola's plan, according to Tacitus, to have penetrated 
to the extremities of Britain. With this view, his fleet failed 
round the ifland, and, as Juvenal informs, conquered the Orkney 
iflands. So enterprifing and fteady a general would have com* 
pleted his plan, had not Domitian's jealoufy recalled him. His 
fucceffor was Lucullus, who alfo appears to have been eminent in 
the military line ; and there is every degree of probability, that 
he pu(hed his conquefts at lead to Invernefs. This opinion is 
combated by national vanity and prejudice 5 but if the evidence it 
is fupported by is carefully examined, and impartially weighed, it 
will be found ftrong, if not decifive. 

Ptolemy of Alexandria flouriftied about the year 140 of the 
Chriftian *ra. He wrote a fyftejn of geography, which is yet 

H extant. 


: extant, and gives not only the, longitude and latitude* of the, fea 
coafts of Scotland, but that of fome of the 1 northern and inland 
places of it. He names the towns of Tuzffis, Ptoroton y Runatia> 

.Tamea, and the different clans of inhabitants who occupied, the 
whole country. This information he could only obtain from the 

. Romans ; and making fome allowances for the inaccuracy of the 
obfervaiions communicated, to him, ox from perhaps the errors in 

,lhe manufcripts of his work, there is mere exaftnefs in the relative 

.fituation he gives of places, than at .firft could be fuppofe.d. The 
toft in modern maps is the wsfl in his. . Notwithstanding thjis, and 

.that he makes the coafts of Scotland trend to the eafl, ihftead of 
running norths or fo, yet he lays down the places agreeable to their 
yeal Situation, on the refpedtive fides of the ifland. • : 

His tables have been often mifreprefented, and tortured to fup- 
port hypothefis and .opinion. This 'arofe from not delineating a 
map agreeable to the degrees he affigns. Had this been done, 

.Ptoroton, or Caflra Alata> would never have been placed at Cra- 
mond, or Edinburgh, but where Ptolemy places it, on the Sinus 
Vararis y the Moray Firth. But allowing Ptolemy's geography 
*o be more inaccurate than it is, it decidedly proves that,, when 

: he wrote, the Romans were well acquainted with; the interior 
country of the north of Scotland, as well as the fea coafts. 

: . The inhabitants of tlfe province of Moray he names Vacomagi 
&nd:Caledonij. Among them, on the Sinus Vararis, or, Moray 
Eirth, he places Tueffis, which anfwers to much about wheue 
Gordon Cafile is. An Englifh mile to the north of Gordon Caftle, 
are the remains of an encampment, wljich, from its fquare figure, 

'.and ditch and. ramparts, and ports,, has every appearance of beitig 

yRoman, It no doubt was originally intended to. cover the ford on 

-the, river TucJJis, or Sp?y, which at that period ran at the foot of 
the bank on which the ft at ion was placed,- ' 

Ptolemy mentions Ptoroton Stratopedon y or Caflra Alata, in 
tHe country of the Vacomagi, which, from the fituation he afl^gns on the Moray Firth, and its. relative pofition to Tueflis, can 
be^no other than what is now called the Burgh, a fimer-town in 

• the parifli of Duffus. - It is a promontory, or#ncck of land, that on 
the north and weft fides has jleep rocks, waflied by the fea. The 

, elevation, of the asea qu the top is. about fixty feet above low wa- 
*er,. This area'is threes hundred feet long on the weft fi4e, five 




hundred and twenty feefc on the eaft fide; two hundred and ftxty 
feet on the north* and three hundred feet on the fouth fide. * It 
appears to have been furrounded with a rampart; about twenty 
feet high, built of ftorie and lime, with fome oak planks intermixed. 
• At a. fmail diftance without this, on 1 the fouth Me',* are three 
ditches, about thirty feet below the top of the area. Tney are 
fifam fixteen to twenty feet de^r> 9 ' and from twelve to fixteen feet 
wide at the bottom, and from forty to fifty feet wide at the top.. 
The ramparts and {paces between thefti are about forty feet in* 
breadth, ahd -inteffeft all t communication- front the land fide.* 
There is a bay and harbour to the weft, where the Roman fleet', 
could ride at anchor with fafety. Thi§ ftation was afterwards oc- 
cupied bythe Norwegians and Orkneymen, as a place of ftrength. 
and a protection for their barks, when they eftablifeed themfelves ' 
in Mor^y, and DufFeyras, or Duffus, in the eleventh century, when.; 
they conquered that country by their general, Helgy, the founder ' 
of Helgyn, or' Elgyn, as appears from Torfeus* hiftory of the Ork-; 
neys'.' They called it in their language Burgh, which Signifies a • 
town; but it is fingular,. that the old inhabitants of the Burgh, 
within thefe fifty years, called it Tory town y or Tkrytown^ which* 
approaches, near to' the na me- Ptolemy gives it of Ptorctcn. \ 

In the fame country of the Vacomagi; or province of Moray, the 
Alexandrian geographer mentions Banatia as in the neighbourhood * 
, of Tueffis and P 'tor ot on* When the river Nefs iflues from the > 
Z*>ch, it run's about five or fix hundred yards, and falls into anc-!» 
trier fmall loch, which is bent into a femicircular figure", and with 
the : river forms a peninfi^la. On this flip of ground, there.has been'* 
a military ftation of two fmall forts. The outer fort is a fquarc > 
of fifty paces by fifty-three, which on the one fide is protected by ' 
the river, and on the other by the fmall loch.; and next the field, 
is a rampart, and a ditch, fourteen'feet wide : on the inner fidc, l is 
another ditch and rampart,, of the former breadth. ' The inner • 
fort is built of rather modern mafonry, and is alio a fquare of' 
twenty-four paces on each fide. Thefe forts cover the only ford 
on the*Nefs, which is called* Bona, or Bumfs ; but in Erfe, the 
ancient dialeft of the country, it is called Bana. From this fimi- > 
larity of name, and being in the country of the Vaxornvgi) it pro- 
bably is the Banatia of Ptolemy. . 

Die CajfiuS) whom fome conjecture to. have been the Emperor 

H 2, Severus's 


Severus's private fecretary in ; hi$ Britifli. «3fpeditK>»Sy wrote hi* Kif- 
tory, by that Prince's particular defire* The information he $we& 
may be confidered authentic, in what regards Severus'a operation* 
in North Britain, as he relates events that either paffed under his» 
own eye, or were reported to him by thofe who w^re principally, 
engaged in them. J&tf teftimony is exprefa, that Severus loft 
50,000 men in the expedition, but penetrated, by land to the ut- 
raoft northern bounds of Scptland. This he confirms by the 
agronomical obfervations. that were made, on the different lengths 
of the days and nights in thefe regions, from what they were in: 
Italy. ^ . 

Befides thefe biftorical accounts, of the Roman conquefts, to the 
north of the Grampian chain of mountains, and the remains of 
fortifications that, from geography and their form> have every ap- 
pearance of being erefted by that warlike and industrious people, 
there have been urns, medals, and weapons difcovered> that alfo 
afford additional evidence of their progrefs. Two urna were lately, 
found in Findlater, at the farm of Brankanentkim* ia two large 
heaps of ftone. They were full of aihe$. One of them had a co- 
yer, with the figure of fomething like a pine apple an the top of > 
the cover, but was broke in digging it out. The other m*n had no 
cover but a flat ftone, and was ornamented with a variety of rude 
carvings. In the fame neighbourhood, feveral years ago, were difc 
covered fame medals^ which Gordon mentions in his Itinerarium^ . 

Another urn, likewife full of aihes, was difcovered near Gor- 
donftown, and is in excellent prefervation. Two more were dug 
out of a tumulus near to Lethin, but, from the precipitancy of the. 
labourers, were broke to pieces. 

Thefe urns may be confidered as Roman, as there is no evidence 
that our anceftors burned their dead. They buried them m ftone 
coffins, or under fmall arches of half-burnt clay, as in the muir at 
the kirk of Alvey in Badenoch. 

The heads of pilums of different figures, for foot and hoxfe fol- . 
diers, have heen alfo difcovered in Moray and Naim*fhires% It* ia 
true, they are of that fpecies of copper or brafs, which Pliny names 
caidarium, and it is faid, they axe the weapons of the natives* smd 
are not Roman. To this it may be replied, that Htroiiah affexts* 
that, in his time the natives of Britain know the ufe of ir6n * stud 


Chap, it.] ANTiQ^mEi ot fpz srotihcb. $£ 

therefore anight employ it for thck weaperfs, as well' a» the Re-* 
manfe Livy fays, that the ar ma of the firft clafe of Strvius werd! 
all of copper. Ca/ir ufed the fame mtital in- refitting his feips* 
aad\Z>*V Caffiur informs, that fcrmtJimes the point of the Romas* 
dagger was fteel, or iron, which implies that the remainder of the 
blade was of another metal, copper. It is alfo faid, that all the 
extant arms and tools of that iiluftrious peoplte. a*e copper, whiehr 
ihey had the art to temper and harden, in a very ftjgl* degree 

Thus the Roman progrefs is traced to Innernefs, by ancient 
geography and htftotry, encampments, weapons, coins* and urns. 
The proofs aTifimj from each of thefe fcurces, taken fingle andun- 
connected, might give a certain degree of credibility £0 the opi* 
nion;J>ut united, they have finch accumulated evidence on the 
whole, that eftabMies it as fcnft we may depend on." They receive 
additional weight from the geographical treatife* He Situ Britan~ 
met) and the map that accompanied it. 

The manufcript was discovered a©d publifhed by Charles Ber- 
tram, at Copenhagen in 1757. The author is fuppofed to-be 
Richard efCirence/lery a monk of Weftminfter, who made the- 
hiftory of Britain the objeft of mYftudies*. He lived under &er 
reign of Edward III. Whoever was the authof, the work hasuae- 
rit, and claims attention, as it Uluftrates the geography and hiftory 
of the ffland,. and though wroUe by a monk of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, is not to be claffed among the futile prod u&ions of that age.. 
It is the composition of one, converfant with the beft writers of 
antiquity, and who had the difceenment to felefl: what was varia- 
ble, and adapted to the nature of his diflertation. Csafar and Ta- 
citus* Lucan and Claudian, were familiar to ham. He ajfb ap- 
pears to have had other fourccs of information, equally important, 
that are now loft. From all thefe he acquired an accurate know- 
ledge of the htftory and geography of even the interior and nor- 
thern parte, of Scotland. 

By his map, he places Bandtia to the weft of Ptoroton, and 
both on the Sinus Vararis y in the country of the Vacomagi, or 
province ofMovap. He delineates the Tueffis, or river Spey, with 
accuracy, and has the ftation of Tuejfis at the mouth of *the river r 
He alfo inferts in his trcatife, an itinerary of a Roman officer ; 
from which he. gives a variety of routes, different fr&m thofe of 
Antoninus^ and defcribes two from BteroUm, on the Moray Firth : 


ffi AtttlQUrriBS OF Tilt- PROVINCE 1 * [ 

one" along trie fca coaft to Lugufafllium, or Carlifle ; arid. the othefc 
by Varis, or Forres, and T&mea, or Braemar Caftle, to Ifia Dant* 
nonibrum, or Exeter. The diftances were effaced in the manii* 
fcript, between many place's ; but in fo far asiegards the province 
of Moray, they are — between Selinam, or. Banff, an r d the ftation o£ 
TueJJis, xxviri m. p. — from that to Ptoroton,xhe number is want-* 
ing. By the inland remtejPtoroton is vrnmrp. from Varis~- > 
frorh Varis to %he river Tueffis > are xvin m. p t ~* from that to Tan 
mea 9 are xxvn m. p. 

. There can be no doubt that Richard's Varis. is Forres. It ap* 
pears by the direction and diftance. The provincial modeof pro* 
Bouncing die name at this day "is F arris ^ and, evsry one knows* 
that F and V are fynonimous letters. 

• The map is lingular. What ftamps it with value and authenti- 
city, .and demonftrates that Richard had his materials from then 
pureft fources, is, that the plaees he has laid down as Roman fta-. 
tions in Scotland, not only correfpond with Ptolemy, but have 
been verified by Roman works at- or near them, He mentions \ 
fome riot taken notice of by Ptolemy, as that one near Stonehaven,, 
aad calls it immane cafiru>n. Nay, his map has discovered a Ro-. 
man ftation, near the Cairns of Tarbet Nefs in Rofs-fhire, which". 
he calls arafinium imptrij Romani, and which, before -its piibli-** 
cation^ was not confiderechin that light; but now, upon invefti* 
gation,, indicates the labours of a foreign peoplej the Romans. " 
Though thefe cairns. and that ftation are not within the limits 
of the proyince of Moray, it is not improper to give a Jhort defcrip— * 
tion of them. > - 

. There are two cairns. Thcweftern one is raifed about five or 
fix feet, on a feafe of Seventy •two feet in circumference j- and upon 
that is built a fmall pyramid, "fix feet broad at the bottom, and ' 
elevated a few feet. This cairn is called Ulli-vacum r The other 
is eaft from the firft cairn about two hundred paces, and is. of a.; 
fimilar fhape, on a bafe of only half the circumference, but rifes 
to much about the fame height. . It is called Spddie-lingum. They .* 
are both conftru&ed without any art, of earth and the common ; 
muir ftones. . . 

A mile to the north-weft of them, is a place .on the fea fhore 
called Port-a-chaiflcl, where there is an excellent fmall harbour,. . 
and on a rifing ground .-that. commands it, are the veftiges of a mi-. 



litary. ftation, furrounded with two ditches, twenty feet afunder, 
and each of them twelve feet wide. The circumference of the 
area" indofed by the inner ditch is about an hundred feet, from 
which runs fouthward a rampart, about a quarter of a mile in 
length, with many curves and angles in it. * 
- Near the outer ditch, and not far from the pomt of the rock, 
, and above the harbour, is a fquare fortification, about one hundred 
paces of a fide* Through the muir, iiear a mile round, are Scat- 
tered many circular figures, about forty feet in circumference, 
with ramparts running from them fouthwards, in the fame ftile a» 
in the one mentioned before. This fquare has every appearance , 
of a Pratoriwn and camp. The other works have probably been 
barracks for hutting the trocps, or conftrucled by an oppofing 
enemy. * 

He mentions, in his map and defcription of Caledonia, a pro- 
vince, which the Romans occupied for a fhort time, that extended 
from Agricola's pratentura, between the^Forth and Clyde, to the 
-arajinium imperij Romani. It had the name of Vefpafiana from 
the imperial family, and was probably conquered in the reign of 
Domitian. Under the Emperor Theodofius, it was named Th uU. 
Richard is Angular in mentioning. this province, as no ancient 
miter, nor any of the middle ages, that have been publilhed, 
mention it. 

Though Richard's teftimony of this fa# Hands alone, inftead 
of being difregarded, it ought to have great weight, as in every 
•.other particular he is well informed, and has been faithful to 
iuch of his authorities as are publiflied, which we have an oppor- 
tunity of examining. But independently of this, partiality may, 
.be indulged to his relation, when we recollect the remains of the 
Romans that have beea difcovered within the limits of the Pro- 
vincia Vefpafiana. They demoriftrate their progrefs. through the 
whole of its extent, however fhort time they maintained pofifef- 
fion of it. This Richard allows was the, cafe, only from Domu 
tians reign to near the end of Marcus Aurelius's, when the Ro- 
dmans finally loft it, till it was recovered for a (hort period by Sc- 
l.rerus. • * . 

May it not be conje&ured,- that Agricola's fleet, in circumna*. 
i/rigating- the ifland, touched at Ptoroton, Bandtia, and Tarbtt 
\jA 7 <fs', that Lucullus fortified them and Tamca, and fo carried the 



Roman arms by land, from Finlyftone hill to the northern limits 
pf ihc Provincia Vefpafiana. 

The Romans foon relinquished the pofleffion of this province, 
a$, in its uncultivated ftate, and expofed to the vigorous attacks 
of the Caledonians, then crowded among, the hills, it was not 
worth holding. This accounts for the only remains they left in 
it, and province of Moray, being of the military kind. Infcrip* 
tions, baths, and military roads, are the works of peaceable times 
and permanent fettleroent. 

§.2. Vitrified Forts. 

IN the province of Moray, as well as in other parts of Scotland, 
our ancestors adopted various modes of building ihu&ures with 
Atone, for defence. Many of them bear marks of great antiquity, 
but, from their dificrent ftyles of architecture, appear to have been 
executed at very different periods. Where the ftone. could be 
quarried in fquare blocks, or fplit into thin coats, they ufed dry 
flone, without any cement, as in many places of Rofs, Sutherland, 
and Cakhncfs, and at Dun-Jardel on the fouth fide of Loch 
Nefe, about two miles to the eaft ward of the Fall of Fyres. This 
was alfo the mode at Dun-Evan and Caftle-Finlay^ in the county 
of Nairn, with the addition of earth. Thefe, with many others, 
were fo fituated, as the one could be fecn from the s other, and 
formed a chain of fortified hills, that commanded the view of an 
£xtenfive tra£fc of country, to communicate alarm, when necefiary. 
Dun-Evan and CqftU~Finlay could be feen from Craig, P&adrick^ ! 
jiear Innerneft. On the north fide of Loch Nefs is Dun-Sgrebim, 
difcernible alfirfrom Craig-Phadrick. Dun-Jardel is diftin£tiy 
-feen from Dun-Sgrebin. Near Fort Auguftus is Tor-Dun, which 
is diftinguithable from Duh-Jardd. Knock Farril in Ro& is 
vifible from Craig-Pkadrick. They are all built on the fummit | 
•of hills of a conic figure. ' ' 

Fortified chains of communication were ufual in the north of 
Scotland at a much later period, when lime was ufed as a cement- 
One in particular begins in the province of Moray, and runs 
from the Burgh to the eaft' fea, by the caftles of Dujfus, Edgy** 
Qauldwall, Achindotun, Shtnwall in the Cabran&j Canmore on , 



Deefide, and the Garran, at the foot of the Grampians in the 

The moft fingular of all thofe ancient fortifications, are thofe 
brought firft under public notice by Mr. John Williams, a mineral 
engineer, in the year 1777. He adopted a theory, . that their 
walls were the iiirork of art, arid cemented together by the means , 
of fire, which imperfeftly vitrified the (tones, with which they had 
been built. This hypothefi's was uncommon,, and eftimated at 
firft as visionary. Several intelligent perfons judged, that the 
mafles of femU vitrified matter Were volcanic effe&s, of the nature 
of tufas. Upon a more accurate inveftigation of thefe ruins, they 
bear the decided marks of human induftry, and the burnt fub-> 
ftance appears to be a mixture of fufible with infufible fubftances. 
There is no appearance of pumice ft one, nor have all t}ie mate* 
rials undergone' a change by fire. 

There is one of thefe extraordinary ftruftures in the province 
of Moray, Craig-Pkadricki near Innernefs. It has been molt 
accurately explored by the ingenious Mr. Tytler ; and the rcfult 
of his refearches is publiflied in the fecond volume of the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

Prom this account it appeats, that Craig-Pkadrick is a fmall 
conical hill, on the north-weft fide of Loch Nefs, about a mile to 
the north of Innernefs* It commands a profpe& on both fides of 
. the Moray Firth, to the diftance of forty miles. On the weft fide, 
is a road cut by art through the rock, from the bottom to the fum- 
mit, about ten feet broad, and nearly the fame depth. It winds in 
aneafy Terpentine direction about feventy feet, to gain an eafy af- 
tent to the top. On reaching the fumrriit of the hill by the wind- 
ing road, and a few feet below the^ampr.rt which crowns the top 
of the Jhill, there appears an outward wall, furrounding the whole* 
which appfoaches on the fides of the hjUl fo neat to the upper ram- 
part, as to leave only a trench of ten or twejve feet in width be- 
tween them; unlefs at the weft extremity,/ where this outward 
\fall extends itfelf to a greater diftance from the inner rampart, 
and forms a level platform, of fomething of a femi-circular lhape, 
about forty yards \n length, and fifteen at its greateft breadth. 

The outward wall is in many places fo low, as to be aim oil le- 
vel with the rock, though in other places it rifes to the height of 
two or three feet; hut even where it is loweft, the marks of it may 

I be 


be traced, by a line of vitrified matter flicking faft to the rock, aft 
along nearly of the fa'me breadth, which in mod places is about 
jiine feet. The remains of this wall are ftrongly vitrified, unlefs ' 
in one place, on the north fide, where, for about feventy yards, the 
rampart i,s formed only of dry ftones and earth. On this quarter, 
the fteepnefs of the rock fuperfeded the neceflity of much artifi- 
cial operation, .there being little hazard that an afiaiilt would ever 
be attempted on it. ^ 

Every-where elfe, this outward wall appears completely vitri- 
fied ; and at the eaft fide, where the hill is more acceflible, and the 
declivity more gradual, there is a prodigious mound of vitrified 
matter, extending itfelf to the thicknefs of above forty feet. At 
the fouth-eaft corner, and adjoining to this immenfe mound, is an 
out-work, confiding of two femicircular vitrified walls, with a 
narrow pafs cut through them in ,the middle. This appears to 
have been another and the principal entry td the fort. It was ne-r 

. cefTary that there fhould be two entries: one from the level ridge, 
which joins this hill, on the weft, to that chain of which it forms 
the extremity: the other, from the low country to the eaft. The 
entry to the weft was defended by four enormous ftones, placed by- 
art in fuch a manner, that a very few men could tumble them into 
the htfllow road, and fo block it up, that the pafs could eafily be 
defended by a few againft any number of affailants. The entry 
towards the eaft did not admit of a defence of the fame kind, but 
was fecured by three rarr.partsj and the opening through the femi- 
circular out-work was made fo narrow, as to be eafily defended. 

The inner wall furrounded the fummit of the hill, and mcicfed 
a level fpace of the form of an oblong fquare, about feventy- five 
yards in length, and thirty in breadth. It is rounded at each of 
the ends, like the outward wall. This inner wall is nearly of the 
fame thicknefs with the outward one, and is of confiderable height. 
There is feme appearance, that it had four baftions or turrets, as 
at regular diftances the wall enlarges itfelf confiderably in thick- 
nefs, in a circular figure, like the foundation of a fmall tower, 

' though perhaps they 'are only accidental irregularities. Within 
the inner fpace, are a number of fmall earthen tumuli, difpofed in 
a circle, with a fmgle (tone in the middle, that probably marked 
the place fct apart for the chief. They are at the fouth-weft cor- 
ner of the oblong fquare. On the north-eaft corner, there is a 
: portion 


portion of the internal fpace, which is feparated from the reft by 
two ranges of ftones ftrongly fixed in the ground, in the form of a 
parallelogram. Every other part of the inclofcd fummit has been 
mod carefully cleared from ftones. Perhaps it, ferved for the 
purpofes of devotion. , l . 

Towards the eaft end of the large area on the fummit, are the 
veftiges of a well, about fix feet in diameter, which has probably 
been dug deep in the rock, though it is now filled up with rubbifh 
to within a yard of the furface. 

Such are the appearances on the fummit of Craig-Pkadrick % 
which exhibit fuch unequivocal marks of artificial operation, that 
a difference of opinion concerning their origin can fcarcely be 

. Mr. Tytler alfo examined the fortified hill of Dun- Evan in the 
county of Nairn. On the fummit of that hill, there have been two 
, "walls or rampants, furrounding a level fpace, of the fame oblong 
form with that on Craig-Phadrick, though not quite fo large. 
There are likewife traces of a well within the inclofed area, and 
at the eaft end there are remains of an immenfe mound, or mafs 
pf buildings, much more extenfive than that which are to be re- 
marked upon the former hill. The form of thefe operations i$ 
perfectly fimilar to thofe on Craig-Pkadrick; but there are no 
marks of vitrification, or the effe&s of fire, fo far as could be per* 

He likewife vifited Dun-fardel, another fortified hill. The in- 
clofed area on its top is an oblong fquare, of twenty-five yards in 
Jength, and fifteen in breadth. It is fmallcr than any of the other 
two fortified hills ; but, from its fituation and form, muft have 
been, in the periods it was reforted to for defence, quite impreg- 
nable. The area on the fummit is levelled, cleared of ftones, and 
lias the remains of a well. It is furrounded with a very ftrong 
wall of dry ftones, which has formerly been of great height and 
thicknefs, as may be conjectured from the prodigious quantity of 
"ftones that have fallen only from one fide of the fortification, and 
has refted upon the level ridge on the fouth fide. 

The mode of conftrucling thefe vitrified fortifications can now 
be only conjectured from the prefent appearances, as their xra is 
loft in remote antiquity, neither tradition nor hiftory giving any 
Lint of it. Mr. Tytler 'fuppofes, with a degree of probability, 

I % ' that 


that the building was begun by raifing a double row of ftrong 
ftakes, of 'the* figure of the propofed ftru&ure, interlaced with 
branches of trees, laid very clofely together, fo as to form two 
fences running parallel to each, and To compact as to confine all 
the materials, of whatever nature or fize, thrown in between them* 
Into this intermediate fpace, were thrown trunks and boughs of 
trees, and ftones of all fizes, as they could be collected. The out- 
ward fences would keep the mound in fof m. In this way a ftrong 
bulwark might be reared; which, joined to the natural advantage 
of an inacciflible fituation, would form a defence anfwerihg every 
purpofe of fecurity. Fire would be the moft formidable engine of 
attack againft a ftru&ure of this kind, and no doubt would be 
pften fuccefsfully employed by a befieging enemy. If .there hap- 
pened to be any wind at the time, to increafe the intenfity of the 
teat, the ftony parts could not fail to come into fufion •, and the 
wood (inking away, there would remain a folid mafs of vitrified 
matter, tracking the fpot where the original rampart had flood. 
This wreck would be of an irregular and unequal height, from the 
unequal diftribution of the compofing ftony materials* 

This conjecture is fupported by a late examination of Finella's 
Caftle, near Balbegno in the Mearns, where, on cutting a trench, 
and piercing the outer embankment down till it came to the ori- 
ginal fqil, the embankment was found to cdnfift of a mound of 
ftones, of no very cqnfiderable fiz *, none of which had the appear- 
ance of fufFering by fire. Carrying on this trench to the founda- 
tion of the main or innermoft bulwark, there wef e found the moft 
decifive marks of human induftry. It confifted of flat ftones, from 
four to fix feet in length, piled above each other, to the height of 
about four feet, and breadth of three, with & fymmetry more exact 
than could have been expected. This foundation formed a cafing, 
within which were piled roundifh ftones, diminishing gradually in 
fize to the top. On all this mafs, the, effects of fire were very vi- 
fible. At the bottom, there were found quantities of charcoal; 
but thefe effects were much .lefs remarkable below, and appeared 
more and more ftrong upon the higher ftones, till it came to the 
top, where the mafs was completely vitrified. The lower part, 
being compofed of large ftones, would fuffer little from the heat; 
the middle part, more 5 but the uppermoft, if their fubftance ad- 
mitted of it, would be a&ually vitrified, both from the fize and 



lituation, the fire always a£Hng upwards, and the charcoal that 
found its way to t the bottom of the mafs, would not be totally con- 

It has been fuggefted as probable, that the effe& of fire on thefe 
hill fortifications has been entirely accidental, or, to fpeak more 
properly, that the fire has been employed not in the conftruftion* 
but Wwards the demolition of fuch buildings. This may indeed 
have been the cafe;, but if the report is true, of the difcovery faid 
to be made at the Caftle-hill of Finhaven in Angus, it is almoft 
certain, that fire has been employed as an engine in the conftruc- 
tion of thefe vitrified buildings. 

The iriclofed fpace on the fummit of the Caftle-hill of finhaven 
is of much greater extent than that upon Craig-Phadrick or D««- 
Evan. The area is about one hundred and forty yards in length, 
and above forty in breadth. The vitrified remains of a rampart 
are extremely vifible all round the fummit, which is cleared of 
ftones, and levelled, except at one end, where there is \ large 
hollow fpace, feparated from the reft of the aiea. The remains 
of ffrufture upon this hill are, in other refpe&s, nearly fimjlar to 
Jhofe on Cfaig-Phadrick and Dun-Evan. 

It has beeti faid, that a little time ago, in opening feveral tumult 
jon the fummit of this hill, feveral of them were heaps of fuch 
ftones as had been employed in the building, and piled up for ufej 
"that others of them were the plumb-pudding ftone, fueh as is 
near Stonehaven, and along the fea-coaft, broken into fmall pieces, 
and all the pebbles and water-worn fragments of granite carefully 
picked out. It is well known, that this material, when expofed 
to the fire, fuffers an imperfeft vitrification; and when mingled 
with the bullet* and other ftones, and expoied to the fire, would 
form a cement, to unite them into one common mafs. Thi6 dif- 
crimination of materials, fouiided in the ufes to which they may 
he applied, argues defign, and a certain knowledge of mineralogy* 
It is to be wilhed, that fome accurate and intelligent perfon would 
examine into the faft; and if it turns out as is reported, would 
'throw great light on the induftry and ingenuity of our anceftors. 

It. is to be obferved, that the ftone jwhich compofes the whole 
liill of Craig-Phadrick is plumb -pudding; and if this is not the 
«afe at the Caftle-hill of Finhaven, yet immenfe quantities of it 



are in the neighbourhood; and probably it will be fpund, that thi* 
ftorie is iti the vicinity of all thofe vitrified forts. 

On the whole, after every inquiry, the conje&ures as to the 
mode of erecting thefe ancient fortifications niuft be uncertain; 
and equally, if not more doubtful, muft be every refearch about 
the sera of their conftru&ion. It certainly was in remote anti- 
quity,' and before the Romans penetrated into the country, as 
there is'no mortar employed in them, the ufe of which as a ce- 
ment the Britons and Caledonians were inilrufted in by the Ro- 
mans. . . 

Some additional conjectures might be hazarded ; but the limited 
nature of this work forbids it: fo fome other ancient monuments 
become the fubject of another fection. i 

§.3. Obelijks. 

THERE are a few of thefe in the province of Moray, but par* 
ticularly that called the Forres Pillar, near a mile to the north- 
eaft of that town. It far furpaffes in magnificence and grandeur 
the other obelilks in Scotland, and is perhaps the molt {lately mo* 
nument of the kind in Europe. 

On the eaft fide of it, there are feveral diviCons, each of tliero 
charged with different fculptured ornaments. At the top are Go- 
thic ornaments; and in the firfl Mivifion underneath, are nine hor- 
fes, with their riders, marching in order. In the next, is a line 
of warriors on foot, brandifhing their weapons. The appearance 
of the third is dubious, the expreflion bfcing indefinite. In the 
fourth, feveral men, armed with fpears, appear to guard a canopy, 
. under which are human heads, that; appear to have belonged to 
bodies piled up on the left of the divifion. In the fifth, appears a 
body of horfe, followed by men on foot; the firft line having 
bows and arrows, and the three laft, fwords and targets. In the 
next and lowermoft divifion now vifible, the appearance is of hor- 
fes feized, their riders beheaded, with their heads thrown under 
an arched cover. 

The weft fide of the obelifk is, chiefly occupied by a magnificent 
crofs, and alfo is covered over with an uniform figure, elaborately 



raifed, and interwoven with great art and accuracy, that has the 
appearance of Runic knots. Under the crofs, are two figures, no 
doubt reprefenting two auguft perfonages, bending forward to 
each other, evidently in the attitude of friendfhip. 

On the north edge, are feme curious carvings, and below arc 
rows of human figures, joined hand in fyand, as a token of amity 
and confidence. 

This pillar or obelifk is above twenty feet in height, and four in 
treadth. Various are the opinions formed about the tranfaftion 
it refers to, and the sera of its erection, and there remains only 
room for endlefs conjecture. It certainly was erected to preferve 
the remembrance of an event of national and general importance. 
Torfeus, in his Orcades, p. 12. mentions, v that after the year 
poo, Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, aided by the Norwegians, conquered 
Caithncfs, Sutherland, Rofs, Moray, by his general Helgy, and 
built a town in the fouth part of Moray. This fhows that they 
had fettled a colony, "and eftablifhed therrifelves in Moray. 

Buchanan mentions, that in the beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury, under tho reign of Malcolm II. the Danes landed in Moray, 
and defeated the royal army. They feized the caftles of Nairn, 
Forres, and Elgin, and the Burgh, and fent for their wives and 
children. They were afterwards defeated at Mortlich-, but, on 
their retreat into Moray, Malcolm did not purfue, his troops hav- 
ing fuffered fo feverely. It is probable in fome degree, that at 
this time, a treaty of peace was concluded on between the Scots 
and Danes, and that this obelifk was fet up to keep the remem- 
brance of it alive. The fculptures reprefent battles' with great 
flaughter, and a treaty of peace between, the two leaders of the 
belligerent powers. This colony of Danes or Norwegians remained 
in the province of Moray, and probably from their difafFection 
were fo turbulent, till the Moravienfes were fcattcred over ScoN 
land at a later period. 

In his account of thefq tranfaftions, Buchanan appears not to 
have had an accurate idea of the geography of the country. He 
confounds the Burgh, the Roman Ptoroton> with Nairn; and the 
obelifk he mentions, as erected on the defeat of Camus, is proba- 
bly the one at Forres, as there are no appearances of any having 
been erected at a village; in the vicinity of the Burgh, ft ill called 
the Cam*. 



Some few years ago, in levelling and new-paving the ftraets of 
Forres, there was found, near the crofs, a good depth under the 
fand, a medallion of a compound fubftance, and chocolate colour* 
about 2 1 inches diameter, and £ of ail inch thicknefs. On the? 
one fide, flood ah elegant female figure, not like an armed god- 
defs, but rather in a civic Roman drefs, yet having in her hand a 
javelin or lance, reverfed, with its point touching the earth. She 
ilood between two altars. On the one, there feemed to be in- 
cenfe burning, and on the other, a difh like a Rorr&n ferculum. 
On the back ground of this fide, Was an imitation of one or two- 
diilant fleets, and the irifcription upon this fide was CONSERVAT 
UTRAMQUE. On the other fide 9 two warriors in the Roman 
drefs (the fhort veftment of one of them feeming to be party-co- 
loured, by a faint appearance of checkering), were in the aft of 
heaping on warlike inftruments or trophies on a globe. The in- 
scription uponahis fide was DURUS PRjELATA TROPJEIS. 
It was imagined, that the artift had by miftake put DURUS for 
DURIS, becaufe with fuch a fmall change, the two inscriptions 
(poke fenfe and grammar; and chimed into one hexameter vcrfe; 

Confer vat utramque * duris pralata traptzis. 

It feemed natural to ftippofe, that the female figure, with her 
lance pointed down, was an emblem of peace, which had preferveid 
two fleets or nations, and that the invaders and invaded had mu- 
tually preferred the bleflings of peace to their hard-won trophies, 
tand fealed their treaty of amity by fuch offerings^on jhe altars, as 
were fuitable to their refpe&ive modes of worfhip. 

.. This medallion was tranfmitted to the Secretary of the Anti* 
quarian Society at Edinburgh, requefting to have the opinion of 
that body 5 but they never took the proper notice of either the one 
Or the other. 

Had it been found near the obelifk at Forres, it might poflibly 
have been connected with that pillar •, but fuch connexion, is fo , 
Uncertain, that it is impoulble to decide with precifion. 

There is another obelifk, in the parifh of Alves, to the eaft of 
Injicllie, about ten feet' high; but it has no carvings, and even 
tradition is filent as to the caufe of its erection. 

It may not be improper to mention in this fedtton, that in dif- 


ferent muirs, all ovet the province of Moray* -there are immenfe 
numbets of cairns* or tumtlli of ftone3 \ and the uniform tradition 
is, that flrirmifties were fought there : which proves the military 
habits of oar anceftors, either in repel lirfg invasions, or by deadly 
internal feuds* Some of them are called Cairn Tojhach, the ge- 
neral's cairn* 

, §. 4. Forts* 

"THERE wa9 a royal cattle at Elgyn* as appears by a chartef 
front King William the Lyon, in the chartulary of Moray, to 
Richard, bifhop of Moray, in which he grants to the bifhop liberty 
to ere& a miln on Loffy, fubtus caftcllum meum dc Elgyn, now" 
called Bithopmlln. This charter was given about 1 188* 

It is uncertain when this fort was built* The ruins are vifibte 
on the fummit of a fmall hill now called Lady-Hill, at the weft 
end of the town, on the north fide. The area on the top is flat, 
and is eighty-five yards in length, by forty-five in breadth. By the- 
ruins it appears, that the walls were built with (lone and mortar 
of limeftone, and were thick and ftrong. Ail outfide wall fur- 
founded the fummit of the hill, and from the remains of the inte- 
rior buildings, it appears that the caftle was a fquare* There ard 
fome appearances of a well. 

The Earls of Moray were conftables of this fort, had the cuf- 
toms of the town, with the caft!e-lands, as their falar^, and are zU 
ways proprietors of the Lady-Hill. It is uncertain when it fell 
into ruin. 

' The caftle at Forres was fituated at the weft end of the town^ 
and probably was a fimilar edifice to' that at Elgyn. It is faid* 
that King Duffus was murdered in this fort about the 966, by Dd-» 
nald, governor of the caftle, and that it was then razed to thd 
ground. Be this as it may, John Randolph, Earl of Moray, had 
a caftle here, and dated fome of his charters from it, in 1346,' 
particularly one to John Grawnt and his heirs, by which he con- 
♦eyed to him the lands of Dovely. 

The family of JVeftjitld, defcended of the laft Dunbar, Earl of 
Moray, long preferved the property of the caftle and caftle lands, 
till ihey were lately fold to Sir James Grant of Grant. 

N K '"' .- There 


There was alfo a royal caftle at Nairn, built by King William 
the Lyon, fometime between the 1182 and 1 tg^y to proteft the 
country from the infurre&ions in Rofs and Caithnefs, that were 
frequent in that interval. In foL 38- r. of the chartulary of Mo- 
ray, King Alexander II. confirms to Bricius, bifliop. of Moray, the 
lands which his father King William gave in exchange for that 
land at Innernaren he took adjirmandum in ea cajlellum et bur- 
gum de Innernaren* to ere& a caftle, and eftabliih the burgh of 
Nairn. The fort was built on the weft bank of the river, a little 
above the prcfent bridge. The river and a precipice prote&ed it 
on the one fide, and a ditch and rampart on the other fides. The 
Thanes of Calder were heritable conftables of it, until Mr. Camp- 
bel fold it in 1747 to Government, in confequence of the. jurisdic- 
tion aft. 

The local fittfation of Inner nefs, in the mouth of the Highlands, 
always pointed it out as a proper place of defence, to check the 
reftlefs difpofitions of the furrounding country. With this view, 
the fortification on Craig-Phadrick was erefted, and the Romans 
fortified Banatia; and our hiftorians mention, that a caftle was 
uniformly at Inner nefs, through a long fcries of years. 

There was an ancient one, clofe by the river Nefs, that com- 
manded the town. There are no veftiges of its ruins remaining, 
but a ditch and rampart on three fides. About the beginning of 
the fifteenth century, the Earl of Huntly was appointed heritable 
conftable of it, with an cxtenfive grant of caftle-lands, the greateft 
part df which is now the property of the Laird of Maclntofh, as 
the price of his anceftorY blood, murdered at Huntly Caftle in 
1550. Oliver Cromwell in 165 1 begun the citadel of I.nnernefs, 
called Oliver's Fort, and finiihed it next year. It flood on the 
caft bank .of the river, near the mouth of it, and was a regularly- 
fortified pentagon. In 1662 it was demolifh,e<t by order of Go- 

Fort George was begun on the Caftle-hill of Innemefs, foon 

after the 17 15, by repairing the old caftle, and building barracks, 

. with a houfe for the governor, and furrounding the whole with, a 

ftrong wall. The 19th of February 1746, it was reduced, after a 

(hort fiege, by the rebels. 

There was a royal fort, twelve miles to the weft of Inrternefs, 
in Urquhart, built on a rock, hanging over the JLoch. It was 



ftrotigly fortified in the ftyle of the times. The Earls of Rofs had 
tjie command of it for a long time, and the eftate of Urquhart as 
caftle-lands. James IV. gave them to the family of Giant, whofe 
property they continue to-be. ' 

In 1303 Edward I. of England reduced this fort. In 1334 
Robert Lauder defended it againft the EnglMh forces. 

Lochindorb was a *«yal fort, fituated on an ifland in a loch of • 
that name, between Forres and Strathfpey. This ifland is but 
faall, and is fuf rounded with a wall, that mclofed feveral Hone, 
buildings. Edward I. of England in 1303 traverfed Scotland with 
his troops, and came in perfon to Lochindorb in September, where 
and at Kinlofs he •remained for forne time, and received the fub- 
miffion of the northern parts of the kingdom. 
' In 1336 Edward HI. of Windier, with Edward Baliol, came to' 
Perth; and King Edward III. with , a chofen body of his army, 
in Augttft marched over the hills to Lochindorb, then befieged by 
Andrew Moray, governor of the kingdom. He raifed the fiege, 
and takes out of the caftle J the wife, and the heir of David, Earl 
of A thole, that the Bruciang had nearly taken prifoners. • He then 
comes to Elgyn, which he burns, except the churches, and houfe* 
of the eccleftaftics. He laid wafte the J whole country, and def- 
troys Aberdeen, after leaving a garrifon in Lochindorb. .This ac- 
count is given Dy Fordun, who alfo relates, that the celebrated* 
William Bullock, who' abandoned the caufe of Baliol, and acquired 
honour* under King David II. was accufedbf jreafon, and died o£ 
cold and hunger in this caftle. After this its hiftory is loft in 
uncertainty, except that the Earl of Moray in i<>c6 fold it to 
Campbel of Calder. - 

Fort AuguftuSi Jbuilt by Government about the 1730, is fituated 
at the fouth end of Lochnefs, in the point between the rivers 
Eoich and Tarf, where they empty themfclves into the Loch. The 
reLels derrrolifhed it in 1745; but it has been fince rebuilt, and 
furrounded with a fofle and ramparts. A fmall galley is kept on 
Xiochnefs, for conveying ftores to this fort, * 

The barrack of Ruthvtn in Badcnoch was begun to be built 
about the 17 18, where the ruins of an old caftle were. In Fe- 
bruary 1746, Serjeant Mulloy, after a gallant refiftance, with only 
twelve men, obtained an honourable capitulation from the rebels, 
who burned the barrack. 

12 F*rt 


Fort George at Ardetfier was begun to he built abdut 174&, and 
completed, after feveral years labour, and an enormous expence. 
It is an irregular pentagon, fortified after the laft and naoft im- 
proved manner. It is alfo ftrohg by fituation, as' no grounds com- 
mand it, nearer than an Englifh mile ; and the natute of the ea^th 
is fuch, that it cannot be approached by mines or Capping. It 
commands the approach from the fea by batteries <•» razanU Frpm 
3 to 4000 troops can be accommodated in the barracks and bomb- 
proof cafematcs. It is completely furniihed with carinon and am- 
munition of every kind. . . ; . 

Befides thefe royal forts, or caftles, there w*re in the province, 
feveral places of defence*, ere&ed by the feudal barons in ancien* 

The eaftle of huff us was placed on a fmall mount* that has- 
every appearance of being artificial, and wa? at firft an ifraad, 
when the loch of Spynie was an arm of the fea, which it was aftet 
1383. By the ruins, it appears to have been a fquare, inclofedby 
walls of immenfe thicknefs, and fome outer works. It was built 
by the powerful family of the Frejkyns dt Moravia* ox -Murref, 
and certainly before the 1200. 

There was a place of defence at Rothes , far. back; but it is un-» 
certain when the houfe, or eaftle, prefently in ruins, was built. It 
Jfcs fet down on high ground, conne&ed with the fields by a narrow 
^eck of land, that has been cut by a deep ditch, over which had 
been a draw-bridge. The keep of the eaftle was Several ftories 
bigh, and vaulted to the .top. There were a number of law builds 
ings, but all inclofed with an high wall, and a draw-well' within* 
About 130 years ago, the country people burned it to the ground, 
%o prevent its continuing to be a retreat of thieves and* baaditti, 
who pillaged the neighbouring eft^tes. 

On an infulatcd flip of ground, hanging over the fmall ftreani 
pf Aldtrny, on the farm of Gauldwall, are the ruins of the eaftle 
of BoJiarm, or, as it was anciently galled, Buckarin. It had been 
a large pile of building, that fronted eaft, and meafured, infide 
the walla, 119 feet by 34. Fifty years ago, the walls were tole- 
rably entire, to the height of feveral ftories; but now they have 
fallen into great decay. They were eight feet thick, and built in 
frames, and grouted with lime mortar. The windows are only 
20 inches wide on the outfide. A partition wall fo divided it, 



that, on the ground floor, two halls were formed, theme 54 feet 
in length, the other 65. About fifty yards north, are the ruin* 
a£ a domeftic chapel, that William, {on of William Frefkynij o£ 
Xtafiiis built, with the confent of Bricius, bUhop of Moray, be«* 
tween 1203 and 122a. It was infide 24 feet by 12. This chapel 
was negle&ed, when king James, about 161 8, with a defign to 
promote civilization, built many churches in the north of Scotland, 
*e at Inneraven, Knockando, and Boharm. . The pariib of Boharnv 
was then new-modelled, from fome parts of the ancient parfondgc 
of Arndilly, or AitindoJ. The whole of thefe buildings were con- 
ftru&ed of free ftone, which muft have been- a work of great? 
labour and expcnce, as there are no ftone of that quality nearer 
than DufFus, .at the diftance of twenty mites. 
1 . The eaftle of Jbtlvenie, now in ruins, was built by John Stew- 
art, Earl of Athole, who obtained the lordfhip of Balvenie from 
his uterine brother, King James II. in 1460. It has been a latge 
and magnificent building, indole d within an high wall, with tur« 
vets: at each of the four corners. The Athole coat of arms, if 
earved on the front, with (he motto, Furth fortune* and f 11 tht 

Neither hiftory nor tradition inform when the eaftle of Mhin* 
down was built; but it may be conje&ured to have been one* of 
fthofeTfeftles erected between the iooo and 1200, for prote&ing 
the country, and preferring a communication from one fide of the 
ifhnd to. the other, on invafions or internal difturbances* There 
is nothing particular in ks.ftru&ure, but, built on a fifing ground, 
Jtas been very tenable. The Macintoshes, in revenge of their 
chieftain's murder in 1550, burned it foon after; but it was after* 
wards repaired, though now in ruins. 

The caftfe of Tar new ay y or, as it is called in the charters of John 
Randolph, Earl of Moray, his tower and manor-hauji, was begun 
hj r fhoj»as .Randolph, and has always remained in the pofieffion of 
the Earls of Moray, now being their residence in the north. It is 
an irregular edifice, built at different times. Thomas Randolph * 
at firft built the great baronial hall, a mod magnificent and exten- 
five apartment, 78 feet by 4®) that forms an immenfe area of 
3 1 20 feet. The fide walls originally were from 40 to 50 in height ; 
but James Earipf Morfry, ion of hioa who was murdered at Buni- 
fcrifsle* cgre&ed vaults fer domeftic accommodation in the law part, 
jjFOfg £0 to 12 feet high* Thit flutf up the original entrance to 
* . the 

7* ANTIQftJlTm OT THE FROVlflC^ [Chap, iXi 

theTiaH, and at theeaft end he ere&ed a ftair-cafe for a new one- 
The floor is laid with free-ftone flabs; and at foniediftance from : 
the chimney in the weft end, is a moulding, within which the* 
floor is raifed feveral inches. On this elevated fpace* the Comes, 
or Earl, with the great feudal barons, fat 5 and the vafFals and re* 
tainers occupied the lower part of the hall, agreeable to their rank 
ancLconfequence. ' 

The original roof remains, and is either of oak or Spanifti chef, 
nut, which, though now negle&ed, was. once a common wood in 
Scotland, and often employed for roofing in many private and 
public buildings in the kingdom* , f : 

The ftru&ure of the roof is pure Norman.; by which, with great 
ingenuity, a roof is thrown over a wide building, without employ* 
ing great logs of wood, or any above ten feet long, and fix inches 
fquare. . : 

Some derive the name Tarnetaay from Taran, tkundcrer, on a 
fuppofition that Jupiter Taranis was worshipped tfyere. It is. more 
probably to be deduced from a corruption of the Erfe name, of 
Raridulph, a$ the bridge of Rannick in the neighbourhood is evi-» 
dently from that. '/ ■ . 

The caftle of Ruthvthvsi Badenoch ftood on a neck of high 
ground ,: that ftretched out into a marfhy plaini where it termi«« 
nated into a conical mount, the fite of the "building. The area on 
the top. was ioo yards by 30. , The fouth wall was nine feet thick^ 
* the other walls were four feet, with two. turrets at. the angles of 
the north end. It was the feat of Corny n, Lord of Badenoch; 

There were many other fortalices, or ftrong towers, in differ* 
ent parts of the province, ereflred at different periods .by royal X IU 
cences, as Calder in 1454, pr by permiffion-of their -feudal lords, 
as the tower of Kilravock in 1460, by order of the Earl of |tofs. 
The greateft number were erected in. the reign of King James' 
II. when the rebellion of the Earls of Douglafs* Crawford, Rof$j 
&c. had convulfed the kingdom. 

' \ §.5. Religious Houfes. 

King David I. in 11 25 founded the priory of Urqukart, in the 
county of Moray. It was a cell of the monaftery of Dumferm- 
Jing, and occupied by Benedi&ine monks, called Black Monks, 



from die colour of < their habit. It was liberally endowed with 
lands, now called the lordfliip of Urquhart, the village of Fotho- 
pir, or Fochabers, a filhing on Spey, with a fiihing that belonged 
to the Thane of Fothopir, Penid near Auldearn, the lands of Dal- 
crofs, &c, with all the rights that belonged to- the monks of Dum- 
fermling in Moray. If there was a chartulary, it is now loft, and 
there is no account of its revenues. The v ruins of the buildings 
are to be difcovered with difficulty, in a hollow north-eaft of the 
prefent church of Urquhart. 

Alexander Seton in 1591 was created Lord Urquhart, and Earl 
of Dumfermling 1605. As commendator, he obtained the lands 
of the priory. James Earl of Dumfermling was forfeited, 1690. 
His creditors fecured the lordfliip of Urquhart and Fyvie. The 
Duke of Gordon bought Urquhart, and Lord Aberdeen, Fyvie, 
foon after 1730, at a judicial fale. 

The abbey of Kinlofs was founded by King David I. agreeable to 
I?crrerius , 'MSS. hiftory, in 114K It was confirmed by a papal 
bull in 1 1 74. The monks were of the Ciftercian order, brought * 
» from Melrofs, called mcnachi alii, as their drefe was white, with 
a black hood and fcapulary. 

King David endowed it liberally, and William the Lyon granted 
to it the lands of Strathyla near Keith, where at Grange, one of 
their farms, Thomas Chryftall, abbot, built a tower and fortalice 
in 1525, which is now razed for the foundation of a new church 
to the parifh of Grange. King Alexander II. in 1221 gave the 
lands of Burgy. 

In 1 216 there belonged to ijt, the farm of Kinlofs, Weft Grange* 
one in Crumbachin, Banff,. Invernefs, Nairn, Forres, Elgyn, Aber- 
deen, and Berwick. At the Reformation, they held many other 
cftates, for which Brodie of Lethin, come in place of the abbot, 
lias feu-duties : as the barony of Muirtown, Miln of Kinlofs, Win- 
dyhills, Coltfield, Weft Grange and Miln, Burgie, Hemprigs, the 
crofts of Kinlofs, Kirktown lands of Ordies, Freefield near Dun- 
durcas, Struthers, Tanachies, Fifliings of Forres, Burdfyards, Kin- 
corths, Fifliings of Grangehill and Coubin, Newtown near Nairn, 
Stryla, Lichnet, Kinminitie, Edingeith, Glengerrack, Lands in 
Ellon, befides Lethin's eftate in Kinlofs, and the precinft of the 
Abbey. Mr. Shaw ftates the revenues in 1561 to be L. 1152. is. 
Scots— 47 chalders of bear and meal, n bolls, x firiot, 3 pecks- 


AHT*fitnxm or tub rftovmcs* 

[Chap, Hi 

oats, 20 toll*, 3 firlots— 34 wedders> 41 gefcfe, 60 capons, 12$ 

Ferrerius* in his hiftory of the abbots, ftatqs the revenue lit 
14999 when Thomas Chryftall became abbot, to be, front the ba- 
rony of Kinlofs, 114 marks Scots; from Finderen, 20 marks * 
from the barony of Strathily, 147 marks ; from the town of Leith* 
not, 6 marks •> from the town of Freefield, 4 marks $ from Dun- 
durcas, 10 marks; from the church of Ellon, 2J25 from the church 
of Awache in Rofs, 72 marks; in all, -632— in, grain frorn the ba* 
jony of Kinlofs, 8 chalders, 2 bolls; from Strathily, 7 chalders; 
from their fifliings, 2 lafts of falmon ; by feu-duties and rents from 
Elgyn, 2 marks ; by rents from Inriemefs and Forres, 60 marks--' 
all which he doubled in a few years* 

There is a charter granted by Walter, abbot of Kinlofs in 1559, 
1 2th September, with exprefs confent of the members of tfye 
convent, by which he difpones to Euphame Dundafs their lands 
in Strathily, for the fum of L. 2000 Scots, paid in ready money, 
with £1.5. 1 os. Scots of augmentation of rent, to be holden of the 
abbot and convent of Kinlofs, for payment of certain duties and 
rents, contained in a rental. As this rental throws forne light on 
the value of land, with the nature of the rents paid, at that period, 
it is inferted. 

For Muiryfold - - 


Thorntowa - - 


Braco - - - 



Multures of ditto - 

Alehoufe of ditto - 


Multures of ditto - 

Grange, with Tower 


Augmentation rent 


O rt 

L. S. D. 

5 6 8 
3 3 
% 13 

6 o 

20 o 

3 6 

% o 

% o 
5 19 

4 o 
I o 

5 10 

60 19 4 

J". P 

% o 

7 » 



26151 62 38 

^ 8 


fi. *» F 

v <« 



& ffi 


And fairing vi&ual, there was to be paid for every boll of meal, 
f os. Scots, and for every boll of oats, 5 s. Scots, in the option of 
Eupharne Dundafs. 

. Ferrerius mentions* that in his time there were twenty, or more 
monks, who, oyer and above their ancient allowance, received 
from abbot Chryftali on flefli days four pennies, and on meagre 
days, one penny; and inftead of oat cakes, thirty-two ounces of 
wheat bread daily. 

Mr. Shaw ftates the annual expence of each monk to be cos.- 
for their clothes ; ten pennies a-day for fifth and flefh 5 for lentron 
meat, fire, butter, candle, and fpicery, twelve pound; for meat and 
drink, nineteen bolls, one firlot* two pecks. 

It appears' from Ferrerius, that they had a great number of ex- 
cellent buildings ; but his defcription conveys no idea of their ar- 
rangement, ' There was a dormitory, rcfe&ory, hofpital, brew-) 
houfe, kitchen, pigeon houfe, an excellent garden, and other do- 
meftic accommodations. The church was large, ornamented with 
paintings, ftatues, organs, and altars, to St. Jerome, St. Anne, the 
Virgin, St. Thomas, and other faints. The fteenle of the church 
feli in 1574. In 165! and 1652 Brodie of Lethin, who bought 
the lands and feu-duties from Edward Bruce, at firft commenda- , 
tor, and created in 1603' Lord Kirtlofs, fold moft of the materials* 
for building the citadel at Invernefs. The remaining part of the 
ftones were, fome years ago, employed in building a granary, by a- 
descendant of this Alexander Brodie, and now there are almoft no' 
ruinsrofthe edifices to be feen. 

The furniture was -ample and fplehdid. There were fifty fea- 
ther beds in the manaitery, and twenty-eight arras coverings, and 
two filk beds. The table was fupplied with'veffels of pewter, 
brought from England at a great expence. They appear to have 
been hofpitable, as they lived in a plentiful country. Fiom records 
in the taorraftery, it appears, that the Engl ifli, about 1303, when; 
they occupied it, confumed yearly fixty chalde^s of malt. 
' King Edward I. in 1303 refidedat Einlofs from the 20th of Sep- 
tember to tlfc 10th of October. 

They did not totally negleft learning, as there was a library y 
and, among others., the following books : .The Old and New Tef- 
* taments, in /fix volumes, with the glofie3 commonly in ufe ; four 
volumes of Vincent ; three ©f the Chronicle of Antoninus j three . 

L of 



{Chap, it* 

of the Epiftles of St. Jerome ; the wotks of St. Jerome, in five vo- 
lumes ; two of the works of Ambrofe ; four of the works of Chry- 
fyftom ; one of Gregory ; another of Bernard •, one of the Sum of 
Aquinas ; two of Scotus' Commentary on the Sentences ; two of 
John Major's on the Sentences; two of Aquinas' Commentary on 
the Epiftles of St. Paul; one of Auguftine's on the City of God; 
one of Auguftine on the Trinity; the whole Jus Pontifcium, 
"with glofles; with many books of Sermons; and two volumes, 
wrote on parchment, of Miffals ; the one a gradual, the other co- 
pied from that of Culrofs. 

Ferrerius came into Scotland, at the folicitation bf Robert Reid, 
in 1520, and refided with him at court three ye^rs. He obtained 
an annual penfion of L. 40 Scots, on the revenues of Kinlofs, and, 
after 1523, refided there five years, inftru&ing the monks by pri- 
vate lectures. The fubjedls of thefe lectures were derived from 
Melan&hon's Syntaxis, Cicero's Offices, Erafmus' Copia y the Dia- 
levies of George Trapezuntius, the Parva JLogicalia of Faber 
Stapulenfis, the books of Ariftotle of the Heavens and the World, 
from Stapulenfis' Paraphrafe, the Predicaments of Ariftotle, Me-^ 
lan&hon'g Inftitutions of Rhetoric, Cicero's Oration for Milo, Vir- 
gil's Paftorals, the fecond and fixth books of Virgil's JEneid, Ro- 
dolphus Agricola of \Logical Invention, the fourth book of Peter 
Lombard's Sentences, the Heavenly Hierarchy^of St. Dionyfius, 
with his Myftical Theology, and Ecclefiaftical Hierarchy. 

A Lift of trie Abbots of Kinlofs from Ferrerius. 

Anfelm, 1141, 
Rainerius - 
Rodolph - - 
Richard - - 
Henry - - 
Thomas -. - 
Richard - *- 


Thomas - 

The abbots were 

ob. 1 157 Adam 

ob. 1 1 89 Richard 

ob. 1219 Adam de Teras 

ob. 1233 William Blayr - 

ob. 1 241 John Flu tere - 

- ob. 1 25 1 John Ellen - 

ob. 1258 James Guttury 

ob. 1269 William Galbreth ob. 149 1. 

ob. 1289 William Culrofs ob. 1504. 

ob. 1303 Thomas Chryftall ob. 1535. 

ob. 1321 Robert Reid - ob. 1558. 

ob. Walter Hedon - ob. — — 

mitred, and had a feat in Parliament. 


ob. 1482. 



The priory of Phtfcarden was founded in 1230, by King Alex- 
ander II. in honour of St. Andrew, the tutelar faint of Scotland, 
and named Vallis Sti. Awjredt. The monks were Ciftercians, firft 
brought into Scotland by Malvoifin, bifliop of St. Andrews, and 
cftablifhed at this place, Beaulie, and Archattan in Argyle-fhire. 
The convent of Plufcarden was free from epifcopal jurifdi&ion ; 
but becoming licentious, foon after 1460 the white monks Were 
expelled, the black were introduced, and the priory made a cell 
ofDumfermling. , 

Their eftates and revenues were confiderable. They had the 
glen of Plufcarden, a fertile valley, and pi&urefque, from the na- , 
ture of the ground, and clumps of wood. The corn miln, com- 
monly called the Old Milns of Elgyn, was their property. To 
this miln, the burghage lands were reftrifted, before the middle of 
the 13th century 5 and in 1330, by a contra£l: between the con- . 
vent and burgeffes of Elgyn, this became a very heavy feudal fer- 
vice indeed, as omnia grana crefcentia, cum illatis et inveclif, v 
were to be ground at this miln. Thefe limitations ought tb be 
compromifed, and all perfons have the faculty of employing mil- 
lers, as they employ (hoemakers and ta/lors, who execute the work 
cheapeft and beft, • 

They had alfo lands in the parifh of Durris, and a Grangia, and 
cell of monks who fuperintended their farm and eftate of Grange- 
Iiill, now Dalvey, where they had a fmall regality of Stanefort- 
noon, and a fifhing on the river Spey. 

Mr. Shaw ftates the revenue at L.525. 10s. nt Scots; 1 chal- 
<ler, « boll, 2 firlots, wheat ; 5 1 chalders, 4 bolls, 3 firiots, 1 peck^ 
malt, meal and bear; oats, 5 cltalders, 13 bolls; dry multures, 9 
chalders, 11 bolls; 30 lads of Salmon; with grain, cain, cuftoms, 
poultry, and fervices. In 1563 there was allowed to each of five 
. monks, in kething and habite, L.16; and 1 chaldcr, 5 bolls, in 
vi&uaL • . 

There is another rental, from which it appears, that their yearly 
income was L.527. iod. id. Scots ; wheat, 1 boll, 1 firlot, 2 pecks; 
-60 chalders, 4 bolls, 3 firlots, bear ; 5 chalders of oats ; and 30 
lads of falmon. 

The feat of the priory was fix miles to the weft" of Elgin, and 
appears, from its prefent ftate, to have been magnificent and fu- 
perbj builrof free-ftone, pf which there are inexhauftible quarries 

• " ' itf 


in the vicinity. It is furrounded by a ftone vy all, about 15 feet 
high, inclofing an area of ten acres. The diftribution of the in- 
ternal buildings is after the plan of the French priories and con- 
vents of that aera. 

The firft edifice that prefents itfelf is the church, that was ori- 
ginally intended to have been built in the form of a crofs. The 
foundation of the weftcrn tranfept has been laid, but never finiftied. 
The plan of the whole had been repeatedly changed, as appears by 

jthe windows. Its dimenfions are : 


- 94 4y 

Length of the church from north to fouth - - 

(On the eaft has been a fuite of aifles.) 

Breadth of the church within the aifles - - 

Breadth, including the aifles - 

Length of the eaftern tranfept - - - . " 

Breadth of ditto - - - - " • m 

Contiguous to the church', on the fouth, is the Lady's, 
, or Virgin's Aifle, extending from E. to W. - - 
This long narrow vault is in breadth 
To the fouth of the Lady's Aifle is the chapter-houfe, 
fupported by a cluttered pillar, an elegant room, il- 
luminated by four very large windows. It is about 
30 feet fquare. 
Contiguous to this, on the fouth, is a vaulted lobby, 

leading to a cloiftered court on the weft. 
Beyond this, to the fouth, is the kitchen, a Jarge 
room, fupported by two pillars.— Its length - - 

Beneath the fouthmoft half of the kitchen, was a 
large vault, employed as a cemitery. The vault 
has been thrown down long ago; but the hollow* 
fpace it occupied, and the dpors leading to it, are 
to be feen. 
Contiguous to, and at right angles with the kitchen, 
on the weft, was the refeftory, a large hall, in 
length about ------- 

Beneath this there was a range of cellars. 
Pn the weft of the Lady's Aifle and chapter-houfe, 
&c. was a cloiftered court, for enjoying the benefit 

" ' . of 







94 o 


feet. Inch, 
of the open air in rainy weather. Its fouth wall 
formed by the noith wail of the refeftory. It 
was in - ... - Length - 99 8 

Breadth - 94 4, 
Along the, roofs of the Lady's Aifle, and chapter- 

houfe, and kitehen, was the dormitory—in length 114 .2 
s Breadth . 29 8 

It was 'divided by a paflage in the middle, into two 
fuites of bed-chambers, in number about thirteen. 
* At the fouth-eaft corner of the kitchen, flood the 
Prior's houfe, communicating with the church, by % 
a door in the fouth-eaft corner of the dormitory, 
thepaffage in the middle of which led by another 
door to the church. 
Immediately above the eaft gate of the gable of the 
Lady's Aifle, was a chamber, in which the Prior 
fpent the forenoon generally. 
Contiguous to the north fide of the eaft tranfept, and 
communicating with it by a door, was the veftry, 
a vaulted building, - In length - 16 o 

Breadth - 16 o 

The garden was well ftored with fruit trees, of the beft kinds* 
i A fig tree continued to bloflbm in it within thefe-few years. 

A ftream of water was conduced within the precinft wall, that 
i drove the miln for grinding their corns. 

The Prior was Lord of Regality, within the priory lands. In 
1565 Alexander Seton, afterwards Earl of Dumfermling, was com- 
xnendator of Plufcarden. He fold in 1595 to Kenneth Macken- 
zie of Kintail, the church lands of Durris, Grangehill, and the 
Jbajrony of Plufcarden, with Old Miln, including the decima gar- 
balia* or teind (haves of the barony. In 1633 the barony and Old 
Miln was the property of Thomas* fon of Kenneth Mackenzie. 
From him Sir George Mackenzie, of Tarbet obtained them in 
1649, w ^° difponed them to Major Bateman. Janet Brodie, wife 
of Ludovick Grant of Grant, bought them in 1677 for her fon 
Jame3, afterwards Sir James Grant of Grant, who fold them in 



1710 to William Duff of Dipplc, and they remain the property of 
Earl Fife. 

In the immediate vicinity of Elgyn, was ah preceptory and hos- 
pital, where preaching Brothers %nd fitters entertained ftrangers, 
land fed poor perfons. The chartulary of Moray informs, that be- 
tween 1 22 j and 1242 Andrew, bifhop of Moray, founded this 
Domus Dei, now called Mejfindezo, near the brook Taok, ,and the 
leper-houfe of Elgyn, and preferved the prefentations to k to his 
fucceflbrs in office. Bifhop Pilmore in 1343 declares, that he had 
feen a charter from King Alexander II. prior to 1237, confirmed 
by King David, by which they acquired the lands of Monbeen and 
Kelleys. This foundation had alfo the greateft part of Kirdels, 
with Petnafyr and Spittleftat. The crown fejzed thefe lands, 
with a confiderable field, their property, where the houfe was fitu- 
ated. In 1594 King James granted all the lands and fuperiorities 
to the Magiftrates of Elgyn, for maintaining fome poor, agreeable < 
to the original defign of the foundation. This was confirmed bf 
another charter in 1620, which eftabliflied the firft grant, and 
more, appointed them to fupport fome poor, and pay a falary to a 
fchoolmafter,.#</ docendum^muficarn, alio/que liberates artes, intra 
ditlum rwftrum burgum, in pojterjim. . Agreeable to this royal ap- 
pointment, the Magiftrates keep in, repair a houfe for accommo- 
dating four beidmen ' r and the remainder of the fund is applied tQ 
the maintenance of the fchools. 

There was another fuch hofpital, eftabliflied on the eaft bank of 
the river Spey, called £/. Nicholas 9 Hofpital. Some ruins of the 1 
buildings were lately to be feen at the boat of Bridge, in the parifh 
of Boharm. This hofpital was founded before the reign of King 
Alexander JI. in 1214* and the fituation was well chofen, as at 
that period there was a bridge over the Spey at that place ; for 
King Alexander in 1228 gives the land of Robynfield, adfujlenta- 
tionem pontis de Spe, quietam ab omni forinfeco fervitio. The 
grant is in the chartulary of Moray. The fame King Alexander 
granted to this chapel, /four merks yearly, out of the rents of his 
milns of Nairn. In 1238 Muriel de Pollock de Rothes gives to 
the hofpital of St. Nicholas, near the bridge of Spey, her miliv of 
Innerorkel, which is confirmed by her daughter, Eva Murtach, 
wjth the addition of the church of Rothes ; and Andrew, bilhop 


> ' . . 

of Moray, approves of this donation. At the fame period, Wal- 
ter de Murref grants to it the, lands of Agynway.' 

The Dominicans, or Black Friars, had a fmall convent in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Elgyn, at a place called Blackfriars 
Haugk. It is faid that King Alexander II. founded it about 1233. 
Their houfes were razed about forty years ago, and their burying 
ground converted into arable field. Many rings, fpoons, and coins, 
were found there ; but no observations were made on them. 
.. There was alfo a fmall convent of Grey Friars, or Fraricifcans, 
at Elgyn. It is faid to have been firft endowed by king Alexander 
II. The walls of the church belonging to it are yet entire, and 
the remains of the convent are part of the houfe of William King 
of Newmiln. Johp Inries, bifhop of Moray, made additions to their 
revenues about 1409. 

At Invernefs, was likewife a monaftery of Francifcans, founded 
by King Alexander II. about 1233. In 1359 kiiig David II. con- 
firms to them ten pounds fterling, given by his father king Robert 
Bruce in 13 14, oufof the royal rents of the burgh of Innernefs, 

§.5. The Cathedral/ 

At the beginning of the nth century, bifhops in Scotland wore 
blue gowns, with their hair tucked under a cap, and, having no 
particular diocefe afligned them, were itinerant. The precife sera 
of the ere&ion of Moray into a bifhoprick is uncertain, as the char- 
tulary goes "no farther back than 1 200 : but, before that period, 
the bifhops occafionally employed the churches of Bruneth, or 
Birney, of Spyny and Kinnedor, as the cathedral, and refided near 
them. Bifhop Bricius, foon after the 1200, with the approbation 
>f Pope Innocent HL eftablifhed the cathedral at Spyny. His fuc- 
refibr, bifhop Andrew de Murreff, tranfiate4 it to the church of 
&oly Trinity, near Elgyn. 

In June 1390 Alexander, fon of King Rooert II. commonly 
railed the Wolf of Badenock, from refentment againft Bifhop Barr, 
turned the town of Elgyn, St, Giles, the parifh church, MefEn« 
lew > eighteen houfes of the canons, and the cathedral. It is pro-. 
table Bifhop Barr began to rebuild the cathedral, and that the ca- 
10ns and other clergy did contribute to the expence. Bifhop Spy- 

, . ■ • nie 


t i 

nie continued the wotk ; but from the extent of the building, and | 
elegance of the workmanfhip, the progrefs was flow, Bifliop In- I 
ncs founded the great fteeple, in the middle of the church, and j 
confiderably advanced it. In 14 14 the chapter bound themfelyes • 
by an oath, that whoever fhould .be elected bifhop, fhould annu- ! 
ally contribute one-third of his revenue, for completing the ca- ; 
thedral, until it fhould be finifhed. It was at length rebuilt, and 
remained entire mahy years, till, in the beginning of the fixteentb 
century, about 1506, the great fteeple fell down* Next year, 
Bifliop Foreman began to rebuild it, and it was finifhed in 15381 
when the height of the tower and fpire was 198 feet. 

In this flare it remained till 1568, when, by an order of the' 
Privy Council at Edinburgh, the Earl of Huntly, (herirF of Aber- ] 
deen, with Sir Alexander Dunbar of Cumnock, fheriff of Elgyn ; 
and Forres, and the bifhops of Aberdeen and Moray, &c. were i 
appointed to take the lead from the cathedral churches of Aberdeen j 
and Elgyn, and fell it for the fu dentation of the men of war (fol- 1 
diers). The roofs were ftripped of the lead, and the fhip employed 1 
to carry it to Holland funk in the bay of Aberdeen. The whole \ 
fabrick, being uncovered, is gradually verging to decay. The great ( 
tower fell in 17 11. I 

This cathedral, when entire, was of Gothic, or rather Saracenic I 
architecture, uncommonly elegant and magnificent,' all built .of' 
free-ftone. Its pofition was due eaft and weft, and form, that of 
a paflion, or Jerufalem crofs, with five towers, of which two were 
en the corners of the eaft end, one in the middle, and two on the 
weft end.. Between the laft towers, was the great entrance. This 
gate, Ian arch terminating in an angle, is twenty-four feet broad at 
the bafe, and twenty -four feet in height. The elegant engraving 
given along with this publication reprefents it- to more advantage 
than any defcription. There were aifles on each fide of the churchj 
eaftward from the tranfept, which were eighteen feet broad out* 
fide the walls. To afford due light to fo extenfive a building, be* 
fides die Jarge windows in the aifles, there was a range of fmalt 
windows above the aifles, each fix feet high. In the weft gable, 
abovse the gate, there was a windpw, in form of an acufe-angiei 
arch, twenty- feven feet in height, and nineteen feet wide at ths 
bafe. In the eaft gable, was a range of five parallel windows 
each ten feet by two y and above thefe, five more,, each feven fed 


Chap. II. \ AtiTlgUlttES 6* fH£ PROtitfci, 83 

high, and over all a circular window, near to ten feet in dlarrieten 
In the middle of the wall of the church, and leading jfco the upper 
windows, is an alley round the whole building. Every part 01 the 
whole is richiy ornamented with carvings, foliage, devices, and 
embellifliments peculiar to this fpecies of archite£ture, and all 
finifhed in the beft and mod elegant manner. 

The chapter -houfe, commonly called the apprentice ai/le t placed 
on the north fide of the cathedral, near the eaft end, and commu- 
iiicating with the choir. by a vaulted veftry, is an uncommon piece 
of archite&ure. It is an o&agon, thirty-four feet high, and within 
walls the diagonal breadth is thirty-feven feet.* The vaulted roo£ 
is fupported by one cluttered pillar in the centre, nine feet in cir- 
cumference. From this pillar ribs fpread along the roof, to each 
angle of the oftagon. There is a large window in each of fevenv 
of the fides, and the eighth fide jpins the choir. In the north wall 
of the chapter-houfe, there were five flails, in nitches, for the 
bifliop and the dignified clergy to fit in. The middle ftall for the 
bifhdp, or dean, is larger, and raifed a ftep higher than the others. 
Some idea may be formed of the extent of the whole edifice, by 
the following meafurement : 

Length on the outfide - - 264 

s Breadth on the outfide - - 35 

Breadth within walls - - * - 28 

Length of tranfept over walls - - - 114 
Length of tranfept within - - - - no 
Height of weft tower - . - - - 84 

Ditto of centre tower and fpire - - - 198 
Height of eaftern turrets - - 60 

Breadth of great gate - - 24 

Height of great gate - • - 24 

Height of fide-walls - - - 36 , 

Height of chapter-houfe - - - - 34 
Diagonal breadth of ditto within walk - - 37 
Breadth of each fide - - 15 

Circumference of cluftered pillar - 9 

Height of ditto below the capital - 24 

Breadth of aifles on the fide - - 18 

Breadth of weft window - - - 19 


Height of weft window - * *- 27 

, x Height of eaft windows ' «■ - - - * 10 
Height of fecond row » - - - 7 

Diameter of circular window - - - 19 
N. B. Thefe measurements are not juft accurate. 
# A large fpace of ground was furrounded by an high (tone wall, 
in many places yet entire^ which inclofed what is now called the 
College, and contained not orfly the cathedral and burying ground, 
but the houfes, or manfes, with the fmall gardens, that belonged to 
the twenty-two canons, and dignitaries of the fee. The canons 
were,, the minifters of Auldearn, Forres, Alves, Inveravon, Kine- 
dar, Dallas, Raffbrt, Kingufie, Duthel, Adyie, Aberlaur, Dyple, 
Botarie, Innerkeithnie, Kinnore, Pettie, DufFus, Spynie, Rynie, 
M6y, Croy, and the parfon of Elgyn. The parfdn of Alves was 
chanter, of Forres archdean, of Inner avon chancellor, of Kinedar 
treafurer, of Auldearn dean. Ail thefe had manfes and gardens » 
within the precincT: of the college. Each canon, had a vicarage, 
Tor his better fupport. The gates of the ftcne wall' had an iron 
gate, and a porter's lodge. Without the precincT; on the weft, to- 
wards Elgin, was a fmall burgh, depending on the bifhop, and not 
within* the royalty. This burgh, with the, college, was plundered, 
arid part of it burned, 3d July 1402, by Alexander Macdonald, 
third fon of the Lord of the Ifles. He. was excommunicated ; but 
enfuing October, was abfolved ; and he, with his officers, prefented 
a fum of gold for repairing the lbfs, a confiderable part of which 
was applied to ereft a crofs and bell, where the bounds of the, 
college begins, towards the town. This is now called the little 
crofs. - ' . 

§.6. Bijkop's Palaces. > 

When Moray was firft erected into a bifhoprick, the biftiop's 
houfe was at Birney., There are no remains, of this edifice;* but 
^tradition reports, that it was at a place' called the Caflle-Jield. It 
then was no doubt plain and mean. Bifhop. Archibald built a 
houfe at Kinedar about 1280. A few years ago, the walls weic- 
in fome meafure remaining; but now the veftiges of them arc 
fcarcely vifible. It had been a large double houfe. 



It is not known when the palace at Spynie was begua, but pro- 
bably before or about 1222, when bilhop Brickis died, who had 
obtained permiffion from Pope Innocent to fix the cathedral at 
Spynie. / , . 

In the fouth-weft corner, was a ftrong tower, 60 feet by 39, and 
about 60 feet high* It is called Davie s Tower, being built by 
bilhop David Stewart, who died 1475: 

Over the gate of the fquare court, are trie arms of bifhop John 
Innes, three Jiars, and the initials of his name. He was confe- 
crated in 1406. This affords room for i cojjjefture, that he built 
this court, at leaft finiftied it. 

On the fouth wall of Davie* s Tower, are the arms of bilhopg 
David and Andrew Stewart, and Patrick Hepburn. 

The area occupied by the whole buildings is 'nearly a fquare, of 
60 yards.each fide. Davie's Tower had vaulted domeflic accom- 
modations on the ground floor. Above that there were four rooms ■ 
/ of ftate, and bed-rooms, with vaulted clofets in the walls, which 
are nine feet thick. The flair is eafy, broad, and winding to the 
top. It is vaulted over all, with a cape-houfe, and a crenated 

hi . ' 

In the other three corners, were fmall towers, with narrow 
rooms. r In the fouth fide of the area, between the towers, was a 
large tennis court, and parallel to it was the chapel. Thq saij 
fide, between the turrets, was occupied with (tables and other of- 

• flees. The north and weft fides were filled up with bed-rooms, 
cellars, and ftore-rooms. The gate was in the middle of the eaft 
wall, and had been fecured by an iron gate. 

The precinct, round this palace was fenced in with a high ftcne 
wall, and within were gardens and fruit trees. The bed of the ri- 

* ver of LoiTy was once immediately to the eaft of it. At the Re- 
volution, the palace and precinft were annexed to the^own, and 
pays into the Exchequer twelve pounds fterling of yearly rent. 
The lefices or tackfmen have carried away, and fold all the iron 
and wood-work; fo that the bare walls only remained of this {lately 
building; and thefe are now in. great ruin, being demolithed to 
obtain the lime mortar for the neighbouring farm-lands. 

Bifliop Patrick Hepburn built a houfe near the cathedral, for his 
town refidence, and had a large garden at it. This houfe is the 

M 2 property 



property of tie Duke of Gordon, fince that family purchafed the 
Earl of Dumfermlmg's eftate. It was lately inhabited, but is now 
in ruins- There is a bungling emblem of the Trinity on a part of 
this houfe, three faces on one head. 

$. 7. Revenues of the Bijhoprick. 

The revenues of the bifhoprick of Moray were no doubt at firft 
vtry limited j but by the bounty of our Kings, nobility, and pri- 
vate individuals, they in time became considerable indeed. King 
William the Lyon was a liberal donor, as were Alexander II.. and 
David II, So were the ancient Earls of Fife, of Rofs, and Tho- 
mas Randulph, Earl of Moray, the MurrefFs of Duffus, Petyn, and 
Kirdels, the Comyns of Badenoch, Byfeth of Stratharic, Frafer of 
Lovat, Graham of the Ard, Fenton of Bewford, Ladies of Rothes, 
Lawder of Brichmony, and Kinftary, Thane of Aberchirdor, and 
many other private perfons. 

When the reformation was approaching in Scotland, the clergy 
of all ranks, to fecure their own particular intereft, and that of 
their relations, fold and feued away cor fider able portions of their 
cftates; fo that it is now difficult to afcertain the original value of 
their livings. Fortunately there are extant two records of differ- 
ent periods, that determine the lands and the revenues of the 
bifhoprick of Moray. The one is a charter of confirmation by 
James II. to John Winchefter, bifhop of Moray, and his fuccef- 
fors, under date of the 8th of November 145 1. The other is a 
full rental of the bifhoprick, taken up by Mr. Archibald Lindefay, 
faftor or fie ward over it in 1565. 

The charter of confirmation contains thefe lands : the barony of 
Spine, the baronies of Kynedor, Byrneth, Rotluvtt or Roffert, Fo- 
themes, Keyth, The lands of both Keylunteis, of both Aoreochys, 
of AbertarJ, of Bullejkyn, of Forthir, the lands of the Morafs of 
' Stratkjpey, the^lands of Rothymurchus, the davach of the IncAe, 
the davach of Lagankenzie> with the lochs ancf fifhings pertain- 
ing to thefe lands, and t the tower in the loch of Lagankenzic, 
the middle davach of Colnakewell^ the lands of Anthmony and 

, ' JiirAmichcI, 


Kirimiehel, the i kmd* of Kipcardy and Kincardin, flic tffwn rf 
the kirk of Dole/michel, the* kirk-towns .of the churches of E/iytl 
and Duppil, and Rothes, and ^ftr<f, with (y Or^ of the fanse,, 
commonly called the Bifhop's 6rd, thekirk-town of the church c£ • 
Kynnore, the crofts and acres of the churches of Kingufit and /«- 
vtrtlzien, Wardlaw % and Dyck, Uullargufy y and the chapel of Rait 9 
the harbour and fiftrihg of LoJfy y the tenements of the kirk-towns 
of Deveth, Artralze, Croy, May, Diddawack> Ewan t Undift* 
tochlin or Innerin, Abtrlo%ir y Butruphin % Archildol t and the Cere 
of Kynermontki Alachy, Kintellargyn, with the Efs and fittiing* 
of the water of Feme, Dunbennan, Ruthven, Botary^ 3mmde/gt€ a 
Ryne, Jnverkethny, the lands of Rotkemay, and of Moifcn Dieu at 
Jjjgyn, all which are annexed to the- barony of Spyne* 


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To tliis- is to be added, IP3. n. o. bolls of oats with ftraw : and 

all was payable, termini sPentecoftis t.t Martini. 

There is alfo to be added, Rentale Ecclef. Epifcop. Moray. 
Newmill) decima; garbalis ecclef. de Dyke - L.16 o o 
Mains de Darneway .« - - -- 468 
Grangehill - - • - - - - 444 
Ecclefia de Rothanay - - '* - - 40 o o 

: Keyth - - - . - - 333 6 8 ' 

— Grantully & Drumdelgie - - 193 o o 

Wazdlaw - - - 40 o o 

Rothemurchus • - - 13 6 8 

. David • - - - - 38 13 4 

Tallatice - - - - 30 o o 

■ ■ -» Inner dicn - -„ - -30134 

L.743 16 8 

It appears by another rental of the thirds of the biihoprick of 
Moray, the abbey of Kinlofs, and priory of Plufcarden, under date 

That of the biflioprick — of bear 
The abbey of Kinlofs — of bear 
Priory of Plufcarden — malt, bear, meal, 

In eftimating tKe value of the money in this rental, it is to be 
obferved, that at this period the pound weight of filver was coined 
into eighteep pounds Scots; and in 1563, the boll of wheat was 
worth L.2; the boll of bear, L.i* 13s. 4d. ; the boll of meal, 
L.I. 13s. 4d.; the boll of malt, L.2; oats, 10s.; a carcafe of mut- 
ton, 9s. *, .a goofe, is.; the dozen of capons, 12s.; the dozen of 
poultry, 4s.; the ftone of cheefe, 6s. and 8 pennies; a fwine, 
1. 1 ; a kid, 1 pennie ; a barrel of falmon, L.4. 

From this fhort and incomplete furvey of the revenues of the 
bifhoprick of Moray, it is evident, that their amount was very 
valuable, not only in money, but from the variety of articles 
paid in kind ; and however much they have been frittered, and 
fold, and Squandered, the refidue is not contemptible. The bifliop 
Cents of Moray, as now collefted, amount to L.T92 fterling; and 
fc is to be recolie&ed, that this is only the feu-duties payable out 


C. B. 



25 »3 



15 15 



17 I 



S* AjmqurriEs or the province:. [Chap, it* 

o£Ian*sr, formerly thebifhop's property, of which he received the 
real rent. 

The eftates, or temporalia, of this biflioprick, with the patron-* 
ages belonging to the bifliop, remained after the Reformation in 
the crown, till 159a, when King James VI. afligned them all to 
Alexander Lindefay, a fon of the Earl of Crawford, and grand- 
fbn of Cardinal Beaton, for payment of 10,000 gold crowns of. 
the fun, which he had lent his Majefty when in Denmark. It 
was then ere&ed into- the temporal lordfhip of Spyfiie, and Mr. 
Lindefay created Lord Spynie. The grant of the eftates and pa- 
tronages was renewed m 1595 and 1604 and 1607. To obtain 
a revenue for the bifliop, the King prevailed on Lord Spynie to 
refTgn the lands, which \\t did in 1620, referving the patronages* 
and his 'Majefty ere&ed his Lordftiip's lands of Boyfack arid others 
in Forfar-fhire, into a lordfhip, to be called the Lordftiip of 

- The patronages difponed to Lord Spynie are thefe : Alves, Long* 
bride, Kinedwart, Effil, Kirkraichael, Inneraven, Knockando, Ur- 
quhart, Glenmorifton, Forres, Edinkillie, Dallas, Auldearn, Rap- 
pachj Ardclauch, Bonach, Aberlour, Skirdiftown, Advie, Cromb- 
dale, Dypple, Ruthven, Innerkeithny, Lundichty, Moy, Spynie, 
Kingufie, Croy, Moy, Duthil, Unthank, or chapel of DufFus, 
Bolefkin, Kinore, Dumbeniian, Botharie* Eichies, Glafs, Effie, 
Kincardine, Duffus, Alter, Allowae, Buccaben, Fairnway, Lag- 
gan, Aberhethy, Bornoch. In thefe are included, not only what 
belonged immediately to the bifliop, but thofe that belonged to 
the dignified clergy of the diocefe. Thefe patronages, upon the 
cxtin&ibn of the heir male of Lord Spynie in 1670, were re-af- 
fumed by the crown as ultimus hares* The crown conveyed 
them, by charter nth December 1674, to James, Earl of Airly, 
who difponed them to the Marquis of Huntly in 1682. 

It will be proper to conclude this account of the biflioprick, with 
Robert Keith's 

Catalogue of the Bijkops. 

Gregory - - 1115 ob. Simeon de Tone 1171 ob. 1184 

William - - 1150 ob. 1162 Richardv - -.1187 ob. 1203 
Fdix - - 1x7© ob. — — Bricius Murreff - 1203 ob. 1221 




Andrew Mureff 
Simon - - - 
Archibald ' - - 
David Mureff - 
Jo. Piimore 
Alex. Bar -, - 
William Spyirie 
Jo. Innes 
Hen. Leightori - 
David - - - 
Columba Dunbar 
Jo. Winchester 
James Stewart 
David Stewart 
William Tuiloch 
Alex. Stewart 

1223 °1>- l M* 
124206. 1253 
1253 qb. 1298 
1299 ob. 1326 
13260b. 1362 
1362 ob. 1397 
1397 ob; 1406 
1497 ob. 1414 


1429 ob. » 
1429 ob* 1435 
1437 ob. 145,8 

• 14596b. 1461 
14620b. 1476 

l 1477 ob. 1482 
1482 ob. 1501 

And. Foreman - 
James Hepburn 
Rob. Schaw 
Alex. Stewart - 
Patrick Hepburn 
Geo. Douglafs - 
Alex. Douglafs - 
Jo. Guthrie 
Mur. M'Kenzie 
James Aitkins * 
Colin Fakonar - 
Alexander Rofe 
William Hay - 

1501 to 1514 
15160b. 1524 
15240b. 1527 
1527 ob. 1534 
1535 depofed, 

*S7s3 ob - l 5*-> 
1606 ob. 1623 
1623 dep. 1638 
166a to 1677 
1677 to 168a 
16800b. 1686 
16860b. 1687 
1 685 deprived 
16890b. 1707 

By recent and accurate aftronomical qbfervations made at El- 
gyn, the latitude appears to be 57 43' north, and the longitude 
3 34' 45" weft from Greenwich* The difference of time is 14' 



9 s PRESENT STATfe OF THE PfcOVINCl^ ' {Ckaf, lift 



Preliminary Information. 

THE boundaries of the province of Moray were not limited 
to the extent of the jurifdi&ion of the fheriffdorn. Iri an- 
cient tiniest juftice was adminiftered. in the halls of the refpe&ire 
barons, and by the decifions of the church, more frequently than 
in the courts of the fheriff, which had then no influence in regulat- 
ing the ideas of the people, refpe£Hng the extent of countries. 

The boundaries of the province of Moray are afcertained by 
ecclefiaftical jurifdi&ion, . both ancient and modern; the extent 
of the provincial fynod having been but little altered from that of 
the epifcopalian diocefej and they have been originally fixed, nearly 
by the natural limits of the country. 

The Moray Frith, from the mouth of the river Spey, weftward 
to fhe influx of the Beaulie, at the termination of the eftuary, forms 
the northern boundary. The limits on the weft and fouth ftretch 
along the fummits of thofe mountains, which turn their waters 
into the Frith, between the banks, of the river Beaulie and the 
fources of the Spey j which may be regarded as the boundary on 
the eaft : but the values which open from its fouthern bank, and 
pour their ftreams into that river, form a part of its ecclefiaftical 
jurifdi&ion, and have ever been regarded as within the limits of 
the province. 

The low lands, or champaign, of Moray may be conceived as a 
long-extended valley, bounded by the Frith upon the north, and a 
winding range of mountains along its fouthern fide, which bears 
a ftriking uniformity to the mountains on the other fide of the 
Frith,; the conical hill of Cullen (landing againft the Morven 
(called the Pap of Caithness), and the valley opened by the Spey 
anfwering to that of the river of Helmfdale ; with other corref- 
ppnding elevations and deprdlions. Thefe ridges gradually ap- 

Chap. 111*3 MtESEllT STATUE OF THE PROVINCfc. 93 

proach each other, contra&ing the breadth both of the land and 
of the fea towards the weft, until they meet together, a few miles' 
above the head of the Frith, at the fall of Kfimorac, in the river 
Beaulie ; where fo great a change jn the appearance of the country , 
takes place, as naturally to terminate the bounds of the province at 

The low lands, thus fi tuated between the mountain and the Fifth, 
have their furface greatly diverfified by lower intervening hills, 
generally difpofed in (hort ridges parallel to the Frith- : It is alfo 
-interfefted by four other rivers, the Lofiy, Findorn, Nairn, and 
Neft, winding their courfes at unequal diftances, yet almoit 
parallel to eaeh other, from the mountain, actofs the plain, into 
the fea* • * 

. Such is the natural face of the country in the low lands of 
Moray 5 in length, from eaft to weft, about 60 Englifli miles, x 
and in breadth from 2 to 12, between tlje bottom of the mountain 
and the fea j the ; mean breadth, about 4, makes the fuperficies 
equal to 240 fquare miles. Its latitude is between the 57 and 58^ 
N. > and the longitude, at tfye mouth of the Spey, is 3 . 6'. W. 

The afpe£fc of the country in the highland quarter of the diitri£fc. 
is made up in a form veTy different from the low lands that have 
been defcribed. That which from the coaft appears to be only a 
narrow ridge, is a vaft mountain, extended even to the margin of 
the Atlantic ocean, increafed confiderably in its elevation as it re- 
, ' cedes from the eaftern fhore : it is extended far and wide on either 
hand, beyond the bounds of the province of Moray. Thofe fix 
rivers that have been mentioned, and the numerous ftr earns from 
which they grow, may be conceived as having cut out each for 
itfelf a valley in this mountain, differing from' each other in por- 
tion, and varying in the extent of their breadth and depth, in the 
proportion to the mafs of wateT, combined with the crumblinefe 
of the foil, through which each ftream refpeftively flows. 

This however is only fuggefted to convey more readily the idea 
of the face of this part of the country ; for it is not in every cafe, 
that fuch a fecondary caufe could have produced* this effeft, it being 
impoffible for the natural operation of the ftill water, which forms 
the expanfe of Lochnefs, to have excavated its bottom, generally 
put of folid rock, to a depth almoft unfathomable. 
• The bottoms and fides of thefe valleys occupy in whole about 

N 2 *h$ 


the third part of the fut face of the mountain* fo fa* as the province 
%of Moray extends, containing the whole of the people of the high- 
land diftrift, and, with little exception, the, whole of the ground 
fufceptible of cultivation, except certain tracks oh which, Wdod 
might with attention -be raifed. Such, in general, maybe con* 
ceived to be the natural face of the country in the highland divi* 
iion of the province* . * 

The prefcnt date of policy, cultivation, and art, is now to he 
- xonildered in each of the pariihes apart, following the arrangement 
that hath been fketched, beginning from Spey at the feaft, proceed- 
ing weftward along the Firth, and Jthert foutherly acrofs the moun- 
tains to the fourc€6 qf that river, and by its courfe completing 
the circuit of the p'rovince, marking the connexion of the parHhes 
with the different prefbyteries in ' which they are refpe&jvely 
ciafied. .' . '■ . 



Situation^ Soil, Climate.'] — This parUh lies, upon the northern 
bank of the river Spey, at its influx into the Moray Frith. Its 
length from north to fouth, along the courfe of the river, may be 
6\ miles, its breadth if, partly terminated by the eaftern end of the 
chain of mountain, which has been defcribed as ranging along the 
fouthern fide of the champaign of Moray ^ and partly by the limits 
of the parifh of Urquhart, which meets it on the plain. WJiere 
the-poft road approaches to the river, the country fwells roto a gentle 
eminence: exclufive of this, and of the mountain fide, it may be 
regarded ^s a plain, having one part funk below the level of the 
other about 50 feet, having the river winding on its farther edge, 
wjhich in the lower, part of its courfe fliifting at times its channel, 
and at times dividing its ftream, with a confuierable extent of fer- 
tile ground, mnch bare uncovered beach ,1$ alfo left : a great pro? 
portion of the plain above the bank is alfo uncultivated moor ; but, 
v/ith the application of iime, might be eafily brought into produc- 

Gkup. iii. j . Parish of Weymouth* 95 

tive cultivation. The arable field is partly a (hallow gravelly foil, 
partly a light fertile loam of fufficient depth, and in fome parts it 
( is a fandy foil. The climate, comparatively temperate and mild, 
is fcarcely fubjeft to any other inconvenience befides parching 
eafterly winds, which commonly prevail in April and May, often 
blafting the fruit in its bloflbm, and checking the growth of the 
grafs. This part of the country is fuppofed to be the dridt even in 
Moray, where it is faid there are forty days more of fair weather, 
than in any other country in the north of Scotland. A drought 
frequently fets in during the month of July, prejudicial to the crop 
.on the fhajlow foil. A fhowery fummer is accounted favourable : 
and a quantity of rain, that would be very hurtful in moft parts of 
the kingdom, is beneficial here. In the year 1782, when, from 
exceflive rain, there was a gfeneral failuTe of fhe crop over*Stotlan*d, 
•many perfons here made more than common profit. The mean 
depth of rain water falling in a year is about 24 inches. 

State df Property. ~] — Except the feuars of Garmach, holding of 
the Duke of Gordon, his Grace is the proprietor of the whole 
parift, and alfo of feven-ninth parts of the fiftiery : the other two- 
ninth parts appertain to the Earl of Moray. Garmach, the only 
village in the pariflh, is a burgh of barony, containing 620 inha-, 
bitarits : it has an annual fair, oh the 19th of June. * The lands are 
occupied for the greater part by the proprietors, feveral of whom, 
by purfuits in other occupations, are in opulent circumftances. 
The name of this village is.Gaelic ; but its fignification is not cer- 
tainly afcertaihcd : it may import the rough outlet, from the ripple 
of the tide at the influx of the river ; bat as it bore the fame name 
when the mouth of the river was more than 3 miles diftant, it 
fliay be rather a tompound* corrupted of var, water, augk, a 
plain on the bank of a Jlream, and na, the Gaelic of the article 
the. The walls of the greater number of_ the houfes in this vil- 
lage are compofed entirely of clay, made into mortar with ftraw, 
in fome cafes having a foot or two in height from the foundation 
built in alternate courfes of the fame mortar and ftone. In build- 
ing this kind of wall, it is neceffary to fufpend the work a little, 
on the addition of every yard of height, that it may not warp from 
the perpendicular. With this precaution, it is frequently raifed to 
the height of two ftories, bears a flated roof, and is neatly finiflied 
Within. If fufficiently covered on the top, it is. found as durable, 



and more impervious to wind and damp, and appears as handfome, 
when daubed over on tbe outfide with lime mortar, as walls of 
ft one in the common fafhion. 

The parifli is occupied in farms rather of fmall extent, A few 
rife to near 80 acres, fome about 50, feveral about 30, and nearly 
the half of tbe whole number may be let from L.4 to of 
yearly rent. 10s. may be ftated as the mean rent of the acre, va- 
rying from about 5s. to 15s. Part of the lands which arc let about 
Garraach bring from 20s. to 30s. the acre, and a fmall proportion 
rifes to about L.2. jos. the. acre, making the average there about 

The valued rent of the land of the parilh is L.277 1 17 J Scots* 
To which is v added, the valued rent of the 
fifhecy p * » . 1- * 2541 17 8 

Total L.5313 14 9 Scots, 

- State EccieJiaflicaL'] — In the year 1731 the pariflies of Dipplc 
and Eflil, and, the village of Garmach, originally appertaining to 
the parifli of Urquhart, were, by the decreet of the Court of 
Teinds, erefted into one parilh, then "named Speymouth. The 
glebes of the pariflies of Dipple and Eflil were exchanged with the 
family of Fife for the prefent glebe, which being then partly un-* 
cultivated moor, about 25 acres were found the equivalent. The - 
church and manfe were built in a centrical fituation; but the bu- . 
rying grounds of the original pariflies were continued : and their 
patrons, the Earl of Moray, and the proprietor of Gordonftown, 
ufe the right of patronage alternately. The ftipend, including the 
allowance for the communion, is L.53. 6s. 8d. fterling; 77 bolls, 
1 firl^t, 2 pecks, barley, and 32 bolls, \\ peck, oat- meal— at 8«J. 
(tone per boll of meal. The parochial fchool was lately eftabliftied 
at Garmach, though at one of the extremities, the moft populous 
quarter of the parifli : the falary is 8| bolls meal, and 2 \ bolls 
of bear : and as by aft of Parliament 1696, the falaries of fchools 
" are declared to be by and attour the cafualities, which formerly 
" belonged to the readers, and clerks of the kirk feflipn," the fchool- 
mafter is by this ftatute entitled to L.2. fterl, as feflion clerk, paid 
from the parifli funds under the management of the feflion. He 
is by the fame ftatute likewife entitled to is. for the proclamation 
pi the purpofe of each marriage, and for every baptifm entered on 


Chap. Ill/) PARISH dF SPEYMOUTfL §f 

the record ; and for every extra& of fuch entry, and foT every cer- 
tificate granted by the feflion, 4d. He has moreover L.5. 1 is. ' ifd. 
the intereft of an endowment by Mr. Pat. Gordon, watchmaker in 
Edinburgh, for the behoof of the fchoolmafter of his native place; 
The fees for teaching in parifli fchools are generally the fame over 
the province } namely, for each fcholar taught to read Englifh, 43. 
in the year; when writing is conjoined, 5s. 4d. yearly, for arith- 
metic, 6s. 8d.; 8s. for Latin; and for a courfe of book-keeping, 
hdf-a-guinea. 1 

The Society for propagating Chriftian Knowledge have lately 
cftabliihed a fchool, towards the other extremity of the parifli, with 
an appointment of L. to yearly, to which the landlord adds a houfe, 
fmall garden, and L.2 yearly; befides which, he has L.i. 75. 9fd. 
the half of an endowment by the family of Fife, in a former gene- 
ration, for the fchools of the original pariihes : a fuperannuated 
teacher at prefent has the other liajf. At this fchool, about 30 
Scholars generally attend ; and about as many, the yeunger fervants 
in the neighbourhood, attend the fame mafter, for fome hours dur- 
ing the evenings of the winter feafon. There are, befides, two or 
three poor Women, who, in different parts of the parifli, teach 
children to read : the pooreft of the people have all their children . 
taught to read, and moft of the bays are taught alfo arithmetic, 
and to write. 

Poor's rates are not known in this country; yet, with fuch la- 
bour as themferves are able for, all are by voluntary charity pro- 
vided with the necefTaries of life : very little is fuffered by want, 
there is no abufe, and little temptation to idlenefs. The pYovifion 
. for the poor arifes from donations, made by the people who attend 
the public worfhip of the parifli church, collefted immediately on 
its conclufion. Thefe amount to about L.20 fterling in the year, 
to which the hire of the pall at funerals is added, and L.4. 3s. 4d. 
bequeathed by the fame anceftor of the family of Fife who made 
the endowment for the fchool, which are paid by his Lordfliip. 
•this fund, after difcharging the fee of the feflion/ clerk, and L.i as 
the wages of the feflion officer, is divided half-yearly, generally 
among 40'perfons, on the parifli roll, in proportion to their ref- 
pe£live neceffities, befides occafional fupplies in urgent cafes. The 
number of the Eftabliihed Church is 1302 : there are 40 of tjie 
Church of Rorne; and 5 of the Eptfcopalian profeffion. 

9$ ' Resent sf Aft. of fpE province* [£&j$. tffc 

Mifcellaneous Information^ — The people in general are honeft, 
peaceable, and induftrious, charitable alfo* and in cafes of diftrefs 
much difpofed to a£b of humanity. They are hardy and a£Hve r 
and rather above the jpiiddle fize. few go into the army » the 
greater part apply to hufbandry, to the falmon fifhing, and the 
young men about the^town of darmach arc difpofed to a feafaring 
life, and become expeft failors. About 12 of the natives are at 
prefent the mafters. of veffels. The more wealthy wear Englife 
cloth, in which almoft all are dreffed on holidays. Moft of, the 
fmallef tenants keep as many fheep as fupply clothing for their 
families, and almoft all raife flax, which they alfo manufa&ure 
into linen. Several families make a little both of woollen and li* 
lien cloth for fale. Moor turf is the fuel through the greater part 
of the parifh. Sunderland coal, delivered from the {hip at ,2s. for 
a barrel of 13 ftone, is moft ly ufpd about Garmach, The ftone 
principally ufed is quarried from the rock that forms the bank of 
the river for a mile where the poll road jpaffes j it is limeftone of 
a *red colour ; toward the top it is a ftone marl, which, with in- 
tervening layers of clay, is ufed in the vicinity with great advan- 
tage as a manure. The ftone becomes harder in proportion to th$ 
depth at wnich it is quarried. 

The river Spey derives its rempteft fource from the mountain 
of Coryarioch, at the diftance of almoft ioq miles from its influx 
into the German Ocean. It is the moft rapid river in Scotland j 
its fall for the laft 3 miles of its courfe is 60 feet. It does not 
appear fo large as the more gently rolling Tay $ yet it is fuppofed 
to difcharge an equal quantity of water, in the year. In the mid- 
dle and higher parts bf its courfe, its branches ftretch out to 1 5 
miLes on either fide, and the extent of country which it drains is 
equal to 1,600 fquare miles. Although its courfe is now dire£Uy 
into the fca, yet it is certain, that in ancient times, bending al- 
moft into a right angle when juft upon the (bore, it flowed weft- 
ward nearly 3 miles j moftly parallel with the Firth, in a hollow 
marfhy traft, called the Leen, now partly reduced into a ftate of 
imperfect cultivation. The tide flows up the river alrnpft to Gar- 
mach, an *d ; at neap tides, the depth of water is 9 feet on the bar* 
The entrance into the harbour is fometimes fhjifted a little, by tke 
gravel waited down by the ftream ; but there being always fkilful 
pilots, no detriment enfues. The expence of building a pier is 


Ckap. ttt/f PARISH OF &EYMOUT&' §$> 

ftippofed to exceed the Value of the trade; but the ftfore oil either 
fide for 5 or 6 miles along the bay of Spey being fmooth gravel, or 
foft fand (one little rock, the bear's head, half way between Gar- 
mach arid Loffiemouth excepted), fever al veiTels have in heceffity 
been run afhore, with little damage. 

At the harbour* there is a wood trade, the riioft confiderable, it 
is fuppofed, for home timber in Scotland. It is moftly fir, with- 
Tome birch and oak. There are feven perfons engaged in tmV 
trade ^ but for fome years the greater part has been carried on' by* 
an Englifli company, who, about the year 1784, contracted with 
the Dulce of Gordon, for all the marketable timber' of the foreft 
of Glenmore, in the diftrift of Strathfpey, to be felled within the 
fpace of 26 years, at the fum of L»io,ooo fterling. When the- 
timber oT this, and of the other forefts in Strathfpey and Bade- 
naugh, arrives at Garmach, after fupplying a great extent of coun-* 
try, from Aberdeen to the ifle of Sky, it is carried 1 in confidei'able" 
quantities to Hull, and to the King's yards at Deptford and Wool- 
wich. CThis- company have alf® formed a dock-yard, and fince the' 
year 1786, befides a number of boats, they have built 24 veffels' 
frpm 25 to 500 tons burthen, the greater number about 2oo tons* 
amounting in all to more than 400© tons, all of the fir wood o£ 
Glenmore, both the plank and timbers. The greater part of this, 
wood being of the beft quality, thefa veflels are deemed equal to 
thofe of New England oak. The largeft mafts are 60 feet in: 
length. Before the Commiflioners of the Navy purchafed any of , 
this timber, they afcertained, by feveral experiments, that it is 
equal in quality to any imported from the Baltic. Several of thefe 
veffels h?ve been purchafed for the Baltic trade, one for the trade: 
of the Bay of Campeachy, and feveral are employed in the trade 
of the company. Befides the veffels which they have built, feveral 
floops have been alfo built at Speymouth by others, in the fame 
time, and feveral have been repaired* The plank, deals* and 
mafts, are floated from their native forefts down the Spey in rafts, 
navigatechby 2 men, at the rate of L.i. 10s. the raft. The logs 
and fpars belonging to the Englifli company are at times floated 
dbwn in (ingle pieces, to the number perhaps of 20,000 at a time* 
conduced by 50 or 80 men going along the fides of the river, to 
pufh them off by poles, as they ftick upon the banks,, hired at i-s» 
fed* by the day, and a competent allowance of fpirituous liquor. 

O ThQ 



The medium price of logs, from 10 to 20 feet long, and from 12 
>Xo 18 inches diameter, is is. the folid foot; fpar-weod of the fame 
length, about 7 inches diameter, is fold, at 7d. the folid foot; 
plank, 3 inches thick, and 10 in breadth, about 12 feet in length, 
are 38. the piece — 2 inches thick, 2s.; and deals, i| inch thick, 8 
inches in breadth, and |2 feet long, is. the piece* 

The exports from Spey confift chiefly of wood and falnfon, and 
4 or 5 cargoes of grain, or meal, of 400 or 500 bolls *each in a 

From Oft. I, 1791, to Oft. 1, 1792, veflels failed from 
Spey with timber for different places, from 350 to 20 
tons burden, average 50 tons - - - - 82 

Touched at Spey, and took in falmon for London, hav- 
ing taken in part of the Tame cargo at other ports - 24 
With oats and meal - - - - - - 2 

With yarn - -.- - - - - - 1 

Number of veflels which failed with cargoes - - 109 

* Veflels arrived in Spey with coal - -. *' - n 
With empty kits, ftaves, and hoops ~ ' "- , - - 5 
With iron and goods - - - - - 6 - 
With fait . ' - - - - - - - j 

p The falmon filhery, yielding a revenue ofL.1800 "fterling yearly, 
begins on the 30th of November, and ends the 26th of Auguft. 
It is feldom regular until the end bf January. During the fpring 
inonths, the greater part of the fifti is fent frefh in ice to London — 
a late difcovery, which adds greatly to the value of the fifhery, as 
the higheft price is in this way obtained. 4jd. the lb. is" the com- 
mon price at the river-fide. After the beginning of May, the 
greater part of the falmon is boiled, and fent to the London mar- 
ket. The fifhery is carried on by nets and fmall boats, each navi- 
gated by '8 men, and an oyerfeer, called the Kenner, from the 

* Gaelic word for the head. The crew is changed every 12 hours: 
each man has L.i. 15s. of ftated wages for the feafon, and 6i. eacn 

v befides, when 6 fifh are caught in the 12 hours, and 3d. only when 
they catch but 4. They have ftill a^ farther allowance when they 

• catch 

I Chnp. in.] parish or spEYMotrrn. toi 

catch above a Certain greater number, and may gain from L. 4 to 

L.6 in the feafon. They have alfo as much bread and beer as ne- 

• ceffary while at work, and a bottle of fpirits to the crew for the 

" 12 hours they are employed. The y are accounted fcilful in the 

bufinefs ; and though wading in the water higher than the knee, 

r and remaining the whole 12 hours in wet clothes, fuch is the 

pow6r of habit, they- feel no inconvenience from the cold even o£ . 

the winter night. About 130 men may be the number generally 


This parifli has a connection Ayith the diftinguiflied family of 
Chatham. Jane, fpoufe to Governor Pitt, the -great grandmother 
of the prefent Chancellor of the Exchequer, was daughter to James 
Inites Efq. of Redhall, on the bank of the Spey direftly oppo- 
fite tp Gordon Caftle. The family of Redhall, represented now 
by Innes of Blackhills, are a branch of the family of Innes, Baro- 
nets of Coxtown. This circumftancc has been always recognized 
in the country, and is ascertained by Edmondfon's Peerage, " Fa- 
mily of Chatham." 

The parifli has been, the fcene of fome aftions in the hiftory of 
the kingdom. Near the mouth of the river, the rebels of Moray,' 
Rofs, and Caithnefs, in the year 1078, made a ftand, tooppofethe 
paflage of Malcolm III. ; but, on feeing the refolution of the royal 
army in fording the river, their fubmiffion was offered, and re^v 
ceived, at the interceffion of the priefts- 

In the year 11 10 an army of rebels haked at the mouth of the 
Spey, to difpute the paflage with Alexander I. purfuing them. 
The King, forcing the paflage, fo terrified the rebels, that they 
were eafily defeated by a detachment of the army, under the con* 
tlu£l of Alexander Scrimger. 

In fhc year 1 160 a rebellion, (till more formidable, was quelled 
by Malcolm IV. in a battle that muft have happened on the moors 
pf this parifli, wherein the Moray people were fo completely rout- 
ed, that the* chief families of this turbulent province were* re- 
moved to different parts of the kingdom, and others tranfplanted 
in their room. 

In the year 1550 King Charles II. landed at Speymouth front 
Holland. A man of the name of Milne ^carried his Majefty on 
ihorc, and his defcendants are yet diftinguiflied from others of the 
(aoie rwme in Garmach, by the appellation of King Milnes* His 

■ O3 N Majefty 



Majefty was received by the Khjght. of Innes* and. other gentle- 
inen, and dined with the fteward of Lord DumfermKng, .at that 
time the proprietor, of the lordfh.ip of Urquhart, in a. houfe of 
Garm.ach, built, as has been defcribed., of mortar, and of late 
«only taken down ; and in this houfe it was, that his Majefty (uh- 
Scribed , the Splemn League and Covenant. 

*<& *iC* *0» vtf^ *«>> V^» H^» «<fc 


*>JXt$ff OF QRQVHARr. 

.. Situation, Soil, and Climate].— Tjus parifli of Urquhrart tnaf 
>be underftood to extend acrofs the low lands of Moray, from: the 
iea upon the N. to the mountain on the S. about o miles, though 
in this fpace one farm of the pariih of Spey mouth intervenes ; and 
(o little of the cultivated ground lies on the fouthem fide of the 
poft-road, that it may be cpnfidered in a general view as forming 
its boundary, as k pafles from Elgin at the W. to the river Spey 
?at the E. for the length of 4 miles, parallel almoft to the firth, 
at the'diftance of 3 miles on the N. The fea^coaft, which is 
about 6 miles in extent, is low and fandy ; and as no brook or ri» 
-vulet falls in between Spey and the water of Lofly, there is no 
.creek or landing place of any kind. Grain, which is the only ar- 
ticle of exportation, is (hipped in the harbours of Speymouth or 
Loffymouths and coal, the great article of importation, mud be 
.carried ov^r-land from the fame harbours, the former at the dis- 
tance .of 4, and the other pf 6 miles. In addition to what has 
been already faid of the climate, it is only to be obfefved, that its 
fuperiority over that of the high country is mod remarkable in 
the fpring months. While all the operatipns of hufbandry are go- 
ing forward in the low parts of Moray, they meet with a total in- 
terruption in the high country, diftant only a few miles, by the 
intenfenefe of the froft, or the depth of the fnow. The winters 
likewife in -general are* fo temperate, that feveral plants, commonly 
ranked in the hot-houfe divifion, ftand throughout that feafon, in 
the gardens of Innes-FJoufe, lofing little of their verdure. It may 
likewife be obferved, as, another evidence of the excellence of this 
^climate, that in the famine which prevailed Over Scotlaud for 7 


fkflp- HI. 3 PARISH OF XJRfttJHARf, IOJ 

^years in the end ojf the laft century, owing to the cold and wet 
feafons* the land in Moray was all that time fo produ&ive, as to 
f|pare con0derable quantities of grain ; and it is well ascertained* 
that in thofe years of dearth, people came from the county of An^ 
gus to buy oat~meal at the rate of L.i. ios. the boll, to be carried 
acrofs the Grampian mountains, at the diftance of about 160 miles-. 
Towards the N. Wv. part of the parifh, the land is low. and flat, 
and a few feet only above the level of the fea, of which at a re* 
mote period it-has been the bottom, as there are evident marts of 
the fea having receded from the coaft. The foil here may be ac- 
counted loam. In the other Quarters of the parifh, the ground if 
greatly more elevated, and of an unequal waving furface 5 and the 
foil, though in general fano*y and light,, is of a kindly and fertile 
nature, well adapted for turnip, potatoe, barley, and all kinds of 
artificial grafies, and a confiderable part would be extremely fit 
for wheat, could manure in fufficient quantities be produced. 

State of Property.'] — Four-fifths of this parifh are the property 
of the Earl of Fife. About 26 years ago, his LordlTjip, bqing pro- . 
prietor of confiderable eftates in the adjacent parifnes, purchafed 
the eftate of Innesj and he lately acquired the lordfhip of Urqu- 
Jiart, partly by an excambion with the family of Gordon, and 
partly by the purchafe of feveral fmall feus, which had originally 
thereto appertained, and thus became pofieffed of fo large a track 
of contiguous property, comprehending a great variety of ground, 
that he became enabled to complete plantations "of very large ex* 
.tent, which add much to the ornament and convenience of the 
country. Some moors and hills of great extent are planted, and 
ja number of little rifing grounds are covered with Angular good 
tafte, making their appearance with relation to each other ex- 
tremely beautiful. In all thefe plantations, the Scots fir at pre- 
sent predominates; but rnany of thefo are yearly cut down, and^ 
the voids filled up with deciduous trees. Previous to the year 
J 779* when about one half of thefe plantations were formed, 3000 
Scots firs were planted on each acre ; but fince that that time, 
: 1 too only. Lord Fife has alfo enclofed many fields by hedges and 
hedge-rows, which are carried in part along the highways, afford- 
ing confiderable warrrith and utility.. In a valley bending north 
and fouth, ftands his feat of Innes-Houfe, in & park of confiderable 
^extent, diverfified by groves of full-grown lofty trees, young fhoot- 



jTig plantations, verdant fields; and a.fmall winding riyer, expanded 
in fome places into a lengthened lake, and at others* contradSed 
into a neat cafcade, decorated by a waving gravel path, and feveral 
Ckinefc bridges. The approach to the houfe bends in a winding 
courfe through the grove, and terminates in an open lawn, having 
•a very extenfive, but irregularly-foTmed garden on one fide, in 
which are long reaches of fruit-wall, covered with the richeft va- 
riety of fruitage, pears^ cherries, plums, ne&arines, and peaches. 
There are alfo many lofty foreft trees, among which numbers of 
common fruit trees, luxuriantly mingle. In the houfe aTe con- 
joined the magnificence of the Gothic caftle to the elegance of the 
modern, feat. It rifes to the height of four, (lories. It makes two 
fides of a fquare, but of unequal length, having a fquare tower in 
the angle, which is occupied by the ftair-cafe within :'it rifes higher 
than the building, and is completed by a fmall round turret, open- 
ing into its level roof, which is furrounded by a fecure ftone bal- 
luftrade; and inftead of the dend-warl heavy mafonry, of which 
the chimney-ftacks of modern buildings are compofed, each vent 
fprings lightly from the blue roof, in its own feparate airy # co- 
lumn. The ground floor is occupied by the neceflary houfehold 
accommodations. The firft floor contains a fuitc of three magni- 
ficently fuperb rooms, in which are a number of portrait pi&ure* 
cf Kings of England, Princes, and Queens, and of other perfon- 
agJs of diftinguifhed memory, many of them large as the life, and 
in the various drefles of their refpe&ive generations. There arc 
alfo a few hiftorical and other paintings, and feveral ancient hif- 
tcvic prints of the largeft fize, in very coftly frames, with plates 
of the moil tranfparent mirror g'afs. The ftories above are occu- 
pied by the bed-chambers : among them is one fplendid dreffing 
room, finimed with paper richly painted in the Chinqfe manner, 
on which a variety of trce£ of exotic growth {hoot from the floor - 
to the cieling, their branches animated by numbers of tropical 
birds, in various attitude, fize, and form, each however of th^ 
moil delicate plumage, and of the moft vivid colours. 

The only other heritor is John Innes of Leuchars, who has 
nbout one-fifth of the real rent of the parifh, which he acquired 
abo^t the year 178 1 from another gentleman of the fame name, 
who had built a handfome houfe, and given fome attention to the 
draining of the laud. Since the prefent gentleman became the 



proprietor, he has been attentive to raife hedges and ftripes of 
plantation about the fields round his houfe, of, the beft kinda of 
deciduous trees, fuch as oak, afh, witch elm, and a great propor- 
tion of larix, befides feveral clumps * of Scots fir, fimilar to thofe 
executed by Lord Fife. The farms are in general rather fmall fcr 
encouraging fubftantial improvements in agriculture : there are a 
few that may contain from 60 to 100 acres ; but the common run 
is from 20 to 30. The rent of the land .varies according to the 
nature of the foil : there are fome fields let for 20s. the acre, while 
others me below 10s. ; the average may be from 10s. to 15s. 

The valued rent is L.5567. 15s. 3d/ Scots, of which appertains 
to the eftate of Leuchars, L.437.'»3s. 3d. 

Ecclefeaflical State. ~] — The Earl of. Fife acquired the patronage 
from the family of Gordon, in the excambion that has been already 
mentioned. The ftipend,by decreet Feb. 1793, is 8 chalders vic- 
tual, L.40 fterling, including L.5 for communion elements, and a 
glebe cbnfifling of 5 Scots acres. The fchoolmafter's falary is 12 
bolls of oatmeal, and 6 bolls of barley : the other emoluments are 
fimilar to thofe of Spey mouth already mentioned. The funds for- 
the fupport of the p6or are fome bequeathments, yielding L.2. 1 is, 
4d. fterling of yearly intereft, and the donations collected from 
the congregation of the parifh church, amounting to yearly, 
"which are divided among the poor enrolled in the parifh lift, being 
20 in number at an average. The members of the Eftablifhed 
Church are 1030:. the Diffenters are 20, confifting chiefly of Anti- 
burgher Seceders. 

Miscellaneous Information*^ — The people are in general very 
fober and induftrious in their feveral occupations, which are as 
well directed as their fituation and circumftances will permit. 
Within thefe 20 years, a great change to the -better may be re- 
marked in their clothing, their cleanlinefs, and every ether cir- 
cumftance that tends to make life more agreeable. There is one 
lake in the parifh, the loch of Cottes. Pike is the only fifli^ it 
contains: in winter it is frequented hy a confiderable number of 
fwans ; in the^fpring and autumn, by flocks of wild geefe, ducks, 
and other water-fowls. In the upper part of the parifh, the lake 
of Lochnabqe borders upqn its limits at the weft : the extenfive 
plantations already mentioned are carried round its banks,, and 
with the water, which is uncommonly limpid, form* a mod de- 


Kghtfbl fcene. . Thefe improvements have however been attended 
with one difadvantage. In fome fevere winters, feveral years agoy 
a few flags and hinds from the forefts of Glenfiddich and Glen- 
avon, took up their refidence in the plantations round LochnaboeV. 
an4 never returned to their native forefts, but increafe in numbers 
every year, by breeding and by frefh emigrants. They make a 
fine appearance, and afford much amufement to the fportfman^ 
tut they are hurtful both to the plantations and agriculture. 
Throughout the fummer, in the night, they pafture on the corns * T 
in the winter, on the turnip ; and as the crops of wheat and rye 
advance in the fpring, they are particularly deftru&ive to thefe \, 
but the ftem of the potatoe feems to be their' favourite food, as 
they pats through fields of corn to browfe upon them. Where the 
corn fields lie fo near to their haunts on every hand, it will proba- 
bly in a (hort time be found neceffary to drive them back to their 
original habitation, or, after the example of the Earl of Moray in 
the weft, to keep hounds for the purpofe of their utter extirpation. 
Although thefe plantations have attracted the deer, they have not 
been favourable to the increafe of patridges and hares, owing to 
the protection which they afford to beads and birds of ptey. Were 
' fmall premiums to be provided for the deftru&ion offuch vermin* 
it would prove more effectual for encreafing the quantity of game, 
than all the reftriclive laws that evdr were, or ever will be enadfced- 
The hiftory of the priory of Urquhart has been already given. 
.The "fife of it has been lately converted into arable field 5 and the 
name of the Abbey Well, which is ftill given to the fountain that 
fupplied the monks with water, is the only memorial of it that 
now remains, 

90* K^» L0* t^> L0* 4^1 «^> <^» 

NUMBER ill. 

Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — When popery was the eftabliflieJ 
religion in the province of Moray, it was an article of faith, that 
the fpirits of departed faints, though refiderit in heaven, beheld the 
tranfa&ions upon earthy continued to be concerned in mortal af- 
fairs, and had intereft with the Almighty to obtain fpecial favours 


III.) tfAfttfitf-Of Sf; ANDREWS LftAffDBflYD* I6f 

for their friends beldWi Much prayer was therefore made to dead 
faints, andfmany honours were bellowed, in Order to Win the r&- 
gard of fuch arriong them as were believed t6 have moft credit iri 
heaven, or were by accidental circumftances more affectionately at- 
tached to any particular diftritt of this lovfcr wotld. On this ac- 
count, churched, chapels, an'd altap, were erected in honour o£ 
particulaf individual faints, even before the divifion of the king*' 
dom into parilhes took place. Thje apoftle Andrew, it was be* 
Heved, had appeared in a vifion, promifing to -King Hungus -the; 
vi&ory over the enerhy -,'and his reiicks had x been alfo mifacuionfly 
employed in converting the nation to the faith of the gofpd: being 
therefore in thofe ages a peculiar favourite, the church, which gave 
his name to the parilh, was ere&ed to the honour pi his memory* 

A Welch lafs alfo, of the name of Bridget, had acquired tfuch 
ttiftinguMhed reputation as a faint, that Drr Macpherfon of State, 
DiiT. 15* (hews caufe to believe, that the whole of the Weftem 
Ifles of Scbtland were put under her particular pro{e&ion, and fo 
much appropriated to her, that Hebrides Or Ey-Brides\ being li- 
terally tranflated, mean the IJlands of Bridget ; and her Gaelic 
name qf Bride is ftiH reeognized in the denomination of no fewer 
than 6 of the parifties of the church of Scotland, there being 4 
Killbryds, Panbryd, and Lhanbryd, all fignifying Bridget's Church. 
For kiltie being originally the Erfe word fotjervanti came to "de- 
note the church where the fervant of the Divinity officiated j and 
its fignification was by degrees extended to imply alfo the burying 
place, which, on account of the confecrated ground, became infe- 
parably connefted with the church* 

In the i>ther denomination, the word pan is a corruption of thet 
Latin fanum, or pkanum, a temple, derived from a Greek wdrd 
fignifying light, becaufe oracular illumination r was there vouch-* 
fafed. Thus the lands, which werebeftowed upon the canons of* 
the Elgin cathedral, are (till named the Pans ; and- the adjoining 
gate, which led through the college to the cathedral^ (till bears the 
appellation of the Pans Port. > 

The laft denomination lhan t in the original Britiih or Welch 
language, is a grove, and from the facred places of the Druids, it 
has been in that tongue appropriated alfo 'for church. 

This parifh mcafures about 3 miles from E.«to W. along the high 
iray from Bpey to Elgin. Its territory extends from the fca to the 

P mountain, 

loS k *ft&BOT> STATE ©*• THE WWWNOS. {Ckap. Ilfc 

rjiotintain; although the inhabited ground from N. to S. rneafuret 
Only about 4 miles, exdufive of an improvement, one mile diftant 
On the fo.uth, disjoined by an intervening flrirt of the pariili of El- 
gin, to which it pertains. It was originally the moor where tha 
cattle were cplle&ed, for drawing part of the tythes of both pa* 
riflies, before they were converted into money, from which it re^ 
tains the name Teind4and $ and' on account of its from 
Elgin, the inhabitants have in general ranked themfelves in this 
parifli. The general appearance of the country is a plain, inter-* 
rupted however by feveral of thofe low intervening ridges, by 
turhich, as has been faid, this country is diverfified, all of then* be- 
ing covered with cojrn, or grafs, or plantations of wood. The 
air is healthful and dryi and the foil in general fa^idy, yet fertile 
inhere it is low and damp. 

Stete of Property. ~\ — The parifh at prefent is fliared among S pro* 
prietors. The Earl of Fife has the whole of what had been the pa- 
xifh of Lhanbryd, and the, ancient barony of Kilnalemnoc in St. An- 
drews, valued together* in the cefs books of the county at L.1629. 
I as. 8d. Scot9. The Hon. George Duff has Barmuckity, in the mid* 
die of the parifli, of L.462. 53. Scots of valued rent. The Earl of 
Findlater holds Linkwood and Linksfield in the weft, with part of 
the tends of Newmill, amounting to the valuation of h*6j^* as. 3d. 
Scots, William King of Newmill Efq. has the lands in the vici- 
nity of Elgin, amounting to L.203 Scots of valuation. Although 
there are feveral handfeme houfes in the parifh, particularly at Link- * 
■wood,. yet Pitgaveny, the property of JohnBrander Efq. is the only 
family feat. It is a fuperb modern houfe,' an oblong fquare of 4 
ftofies, having a doiiWe-ridged roof, rifing fo fat within a battle- 
ment, as to form apleafant walk around. The front door is in the 
weftern fide^bfttween two lofty Doric columns, rifing from the 
landing place of a fpaeious flight of fteps, and fupporting a maf- 
five pediment above: it opens into the principal iloor^ which, be- 
fides- the hall and ftairs* contains an ample parlour, breakfafting 
room, library, and bed-chamber 5 the great drawing room, and ftate 
bed-chambers, are in the .third ftory. The ftone of the walk is fu- 
periorin whitenefs-and durability to the Portland ftone, and more 
cafily formed. ' The building Hands on a gentle eminence, com- 
manding Innes-houfe rifing through its groves, and the windings 
ef the. river Lofty, on: the eaft-, on ;he weft, a ftretch of the lake of 



Spynie, bending Hke a great river between its green banks, which 
rife to fuch a height as to conceal its termination at either end. 
On the neareft, ftand the ruins of the Bifliop's palace : anobje& 
perhaps more defirable in its prefent defolation, than when occu- 
pied by its lordly owners; who, if they -attained that rank by their 
own merits became in general craftily rapacious; or, if raifed to it 
by mere intereft, turned out to be abfurdly arrogant. A wide ex- 
tent of the richeft corn-field lies* every-where around, enlivened 
with neat farm-fteads, herds, and plantations : the tleighbouring , 
city of Elgin fmokes behind an intervening green hill : at a dit 
tance, the blue mountains of Sutherland fkirt the northern horizon* 
and the Moray Firth rolls its azure waves along their dufky bot- 
toms. The domains of this houfe extend over large portions of 
the parifhes of Drainy and of DufFus, on the other fide of the fake. 
The valuation here is L.341. 2s. 8d. Scots. The lands of Dunkinty 
and St. Andrews, feparated by the river LofTy, appertain to John 
Inttes Efq. of Leuchars, and are valued at Li8o2. tfd. Scots ; and 
there i3 the fmall eftate of Scotftownhill, about 50 acres, valued 
at L.88.14S: 6d. Scots, accounted -a 40 fliilling tend of old extent* 
and the freehold of a branch of the family of Altyr : there is be- 
C3es, a fmall property in the Barflat hills, a valuation of L.24. 5s. 
id. Scots, which in the laft generation was bellowed by Gordon 
of Cairnfield, for the fupportof the Epifcopalian chapdl In Elgin; 
making the valued rent of the whole parifli, L.4222. is. 8d. Scot3i 
The farms in the parifli amount to the number of 80 ; many of 
them containing from 100 to 200 acres; about 18 of them arc 
occupied, by people in the charafter of gentlemen, and about 12* 
being in the improvement of the Tiendland, ought rather to be ac- 
counted as belonging to the parifli of Elgin. * 
4 Therent by the acre, on moflf of them, is varied every year 6y 
the variation of the price of grain, in which a portion of the rent ; 
is ftili generally paid. The mean rent may be ftated at 17s. the 
acre, though a great proportion of moft farms can be only valued 
at 5s. thd acre, while fome part of almoft each, if feparately let, 
-would exceed a guinea by the acre of yearly rent. 

EccUfiaftical State.']— It has not been with precifion afcertaine3, 
at what time the divifion of the kingdom into pariflies took place. 
It is prefumed this could not be carried at once into complete ef- 
fe£fc ; alterations in the extent of pariflies have from time to time 

. P % been 


been made, as the intereft. or convenience of parties^ concerned in 
the varying circumrotation of human affairs might fuggeft ; and 
convenience in this refpeft, in many cafe?, is itill far from being 
yet attained- 

In this pariih, the chapel of Kilnalcmnock was probably an 
apartment confecrated. within the caftle at Forrefter-feat, and upon 
its demolition would naturally fall into St. Andrews: and the 
chapel of Inchbroom muft have been difpofed of in the fame man* 
ner, upon the fuppreflion of the priory of Urquhart, upon which 
it is fuppofed to have depended* Jt dpes not appear that there ever 
was a burial place but at the laft of thefe chapels. 

In 1642 the parifli of Ogueftown, at prefent a part of the pariih 
of Drainy, was united to St. Andrews. The bifhop drew the 
great tithes of both ; leaving, with the whole paftoral duties, the 
fmall tithes only to the vicar, which, valued at L,6. us. i^d. are 
continued a part of the-ftipend of St. Andrews. 

In 1780 the pariih was formed into its prefent ihape, by the an-* 
nexation of St. Andrews to Lhanbryd. The ftipend is ten chal- 
ders, 4 bolls, and L.26. 13s. od. including the allowance for com- 

- rnunion elements. The former burying grounds are continued ; 
but the parochial church is ere&ed in a fituation more commodi- 
ous for the people in general, than the old churches were for their 
refpe&ive congregations, The right of patronage is now Qiared 
between the Crown and the Earl of Moray. The members of the 
Eftabliihed Church are about 700; and the DifTenters, being Epis- 
copalians, Seceders, and Methodifts, are about 40. 

In 1^94 the fchools, which were at St. Andrew^ and: Lhanbryd 
were, by the proprietors of the pariih and the prefbytery, con- 

- joined into one parochial fchool, and the building ere&ed conti- 
guous to the church. The falary is 14 bolls of bear, and L.4. 3s. 
sterling* the reft of the emoluments being fimilar to the ether 
parochial fchools in the country. The fund for the poor arifes 
yartly from four fmall bequeathments made in other times, and 
from the halfpence given by the people who attend the parifli 
church, amounting, in whole to about £.16 fterling in the year; 
which, after the legal dedu&ion to the feflion clerk, and a fmall 
fee to the church officer, is, without cxpence to the heritors, di- 
vided half-yearly among a roll of about 30 people, in proportion to 
the urgency of their refpe&ive needf, 


. Mifcellancous Information. 7 ] — There is a mineral fpring in the' 
Tiendland, of aftrong chalybeate kind. It has nof yet acquired 
much celebrity, though it has given relief to all who have made 
proper trial'of its.ejfe&s. The river Loffie, entering the parifli to- 
wards the N. W. corner, divides* it there from the town of Elgin, 
and continuing its courfe eafterly through the parifli for nearly 
two miles, turns sound towards the north, until it reaches the feat 
at the village and harbour of Loffiemquth, having a corner of the 
parifii of Urquhart eroding its channel, interjected between the 
eftate of Pitgaveriy and the Earl of Fife's property of InchJ)rporn.. « 

There are three lakes on. the confines of the parifli. That of 
Spynie is the .largeft, which though equally, rather more exten- 
lively connected with the parities of Dradny a'pd Duffus on it* 
northern fide, and that of Spynie itfelf lying along the greater part 
of its foutKern bank, yet the coftiy drain, fo advantageoufly made 
by Pitgaveny, naturally leads to its confideration herej and to 
xrcfke an entire connected account of it at once, may avoid repeti- 
tion, and be more diftin£t, than to narrate the detached circum- 
fiances as they would occur in thefe parches' -apart. . : 
.- In the account of the parifli of Urquhart, it was obferved, that 
there are evident marks of the fea having receded from the coaft ; 
and there are pretty fatisfa&ory indications in the appearance of 
the ground, and particularly by the beds of oyfter fhells, which, 
though not now found on the coaft, are frequently difcovered on 
the banks of the lake, feveral feet below the furface of the earth, 
fcb#t. at fome other period, this lake mod have been an arm or 
ftrait of the ocean, open in breadth at the eaft, nearly from the 
hill of Garmach to the head-land behind Loffyrnouth^ ?nd itretch* 
jng, weft ward over the plain, till it again joined the. Frith at the 
.village of Burghhead. The general elevation of this tracT: does 
jutf yet exceed 4 feet above the level of the fea, fave in one nar- 
j-qw fpace, acrofs from the corner of the hill of Rofeifle, where the 
.teddy wind accumulating the drifting fand, it has been raifed tq 
*he height of 13 feet. 

TJie irruption of the Goodwin Sands happened in the tenth cen- 
£ary, in the reign of Malcolm III. and from Buchanan's hiftory it 
might be inferred, that its effefts were not limited to that quar- 
ter alone, but muflt.have extended over all the eaftern coaft of 


tli fRfcSEMT STATE OF THfi PROVINCE.' [Ghnfi. Ilk 

Britain. u Among the prodigies of that period)" fays he, "may 
" be reckoned an inundation of the German ocean, fo extraordi- 
" nary, as not only to have overfpread and overwhelmed the 
" country- with fand, but to have overturned alfo villages, town*, 

Another r ftorm, extremely violent alfo, happened in the t$th 
century, upon the eaftern coaft of Scotland. <c In the year 1266 
u a great wind arofe from the north, on the eve of the feaft of the 
ic iiood virgins, and the fea broke in, and many houfes and vil- 
" lages were overwhelmed. There never was fuch a deluge/* 
faysPordurij lib. x. c. 22,"" ; fince the times of Noah, as appears 
4( from its traces nt this day" (Jicut adkuc vejligiamanifeftant}. 

To one or both of thefe irruptions, may be afcribed, with fpnte 
degree of probability, . the fepararion of the 'lake of - Spynie from 
the fea, which is occdGoned'&y a beach of pebbles, gravel, and fand, 
extending- fouthward from Loflymouth, for about 3 miles along 
the fhore. In fome places it Is more than a mflein breadth, and 
covers an extent of about 560 acres: its general height is about 
,20 feet f above the high water mark ; but it is cut out almoft to tftfc 
level of the fea in many channels, from 50 to roo yards wid6, 
waving parallel to the fhore. Towards its fouthern end, it has 
acquired a thin furface of foil, producing dwarfifli heath and ju- 
niper, and has been lately planted* with Scots firs 5 but, in many 
places of great extent, it has yet acquired no fward, and the peb- 
bles, gravel, and fand, are ftiH as bare as when juft left by the fea. 
It evidently appears to have been fuperinduced by the extreme 
violence of fome dire commotion, which at once railing this im- 
rrienfe mafs of rounded ftone and Tandy gravel from the bottom of 
the ocean, poured it with an overflowing rapidity' in the opening 
of the bay, penetrated farther upon either fide, where "the (hallow 
water could give leaft refiftance ; but where its depth towards the 
middle muft have given the greateft bppofition, "its progrefs feem* 
to have been firft cheeked, and a femi-cireular rnound of the larger 
pebbles has been raifed, with a ftriking regularity, upon a bottom 
of fea- fand, now clothed with grafs. The connexion with the 
ocean being hereby cut off, the mechanicalviblence of the ad- 
vancing furge, and the fubfiicring agitation of the retreating waves, 
would naturally form the alternate channel* and ridges, which 
"'.■'.' have 

Ckap. HI.] FAftgSH OF ST. ANDREWS UfANBUY** 113 

have been defciibed, upon this new foore, not then jo cohefive as 
it is now, when consolidated by the long-continued influence of 
the power of gravity, hardly at the £rft exerted on the gravel, 
•Imoft floating on the ftill intermingled water. The bottom of the 
hke, if at that time io deep as the fea, mud have been gradually 
fince then filled up, both by the winds and the waters fweeping 
down the fand and the mud, chiefly from the weft, where, the 
bottom of the lake has of courfe been firft converted into dry pro- 
ductive land. , 

The y communication with the fea at the weft appears to have 
been, gradually cut off. Until this completely. effectuated, 
it ia evident that a paffage would be again opened at the eaft, upon 
thcrfubfiding of the fborm; Thi3 appears to have been effected in 
the conrfe of the prefent canal* and of the river LoiTy, which at 
that time entered the lake upon the eaft fide of the caftle of Spynie. 
Thefe circumftances are afcertained by the chartulary^ of Moray, 
fol. 93. in a proteft taken in the year. .1383 by the Lord Bifhop 
Alexander Bar,' againft the noble Lord John Dunbar, Earl of Mo- 
ray, and the burgefles of Elgin, refpe&ing the right of the fifhing 
and of the harbour. 

" Item" fays his Lordfhip, in the fecond article of this proteft, 
u Becaufe' the port of Lojfy, otkerzvife of Spynie, and the' fifhing 
" grounds in difpute, are within the marches and limits, and with- 
€( in the extent of the faid lands of Spynie and Kinnedar, .and the 
f< ifland [probably Inchbropm], the extent; of which along the ' 
u banks is diftin&ly and univerfally known. \ 

" Item, — Becaufe the Bifhops of Moray, dur predeceflbrs, with 
u the knowledge and fufferance of the Earls, and of the burgefles 
Cf of Elgin, had, and were in. the ufe of having, the inhabitants of 
u the village of Spynie, in the name and right of the Bifhops of 
. u Moray, fifhers of fea fifh, failing with their wives and families 
u from Spynie to th$ fea, and returning in their boats with the 
u fifties to the faid: harbour. 

4( Item, — Becaufe bur immediate predectffor, John Pilmore, of 
4< Worthy memory, intending to- improve, and deepen the courfe of 
u the faid harbour* laboured therein, neither by force, nor fecretly, 
" nor dependency, but in his own right, -as mailer of the- faid har- 
. fc boray and turned the courfe of, the water out of its ancient 
" channel, by fmt&g'littte boats t^ej. the Earlof Moray and' the 

*• burgefles 

ti4 t " /WfcSttiT StfAft'Otf THfe PfeOVlNCE. [Ckap+itti 

*< burgeffes of Elgin, who were at that tinic, knowing and pet- 
t " mitting it. 

" Item?— Becaufe we aver, and undertake to prove, that the? 
€t faid Bifhops of Moray, each in his own time, had and were in the: 
\ s ufe of having, and we in our time have had, atid now at prefentf 
(i have fifliers, with cobles and boats, for catching falrrton, grilles* 
4€ and finnacs, and other kinds of fifh, with nets and hooks, fingly 
u and united, in the grounds in difpute, in name and right of the 
" Table Epifcopal of the Bifhops of Moray, without impediment 
".or oppofition, the prefent difpuce excepted, from the Earl of 
** Moray, or frdm the burgeffes of Elgin. 

" Itcm> — Becaufe bur predeceffors and ourfelves, and others in 
c< their name and in ours, have exercifed, and do at prefent exer* 
" cife, thofe acts of navigation, in conducting boats to the fea* 
* l and bringing them Hack, in throwing nets and hooks, and catch* 
" ing fifli alone and in companies." 

It is not known whether Lofly was turned, clear of the laker* 
into its prefent courfe, by accident or defign ; but it is certain, 
that fome time pofterior to the age of Bifliop Bar, the lake had 
been reduced to a lefs extent than its prefent bedj for when the 
ancient drain was improved intp the prefent canal, the courfe of 
ridges wholly divefted of fward, the formation of artificial roads', 
inclqfures, and every token of ancient and unknown cultivation*, 
moft evidently and unexpectedly appeared. Among thefe, ih a 
fmall ifland towards the weftern end of the lake, a quantity of 
peat-afhes were found, upon breaking up the ground, buried. 
under the turf wall of a cottage, that had been inhabited ; and 
among the afhes were found' a fmall number of coins, a little treaj- 
fure that had been concealed ^under the hearth, upon fome alarm 
of danger. A caufewayalfo at that time emerged, formed of free- 
ftone from the quarry, quite acrofs the lake, with openings for the 
paflage of the water, each about 3 feet wide, covered with broad 
flag ftone. This revived the recollection of a circumftance then 
almoft forgotten, that this caufeway was called the Bijhop's Sttps y 
and had been formed by his. order, to allow his vicar to get from St. 
Andrews, after the fervice of the forenoon, to officiate at Oguef- * 
-town in the evening of each Sunday. Near, to the caftle alfo, 
where the water was deepeft, an artificial ifland was discovered, of 
*n oval form, about 60 by 16 paces,, appearing to be compofed of 


Chap, ni.] parish 6f st. Andrews lha^bryd. ii$ 

ftone from the quarry, bound together by crooked branches of oak* 
and as if the earth with which it was completed had been waflied 
away during its fubmerfion. 

The limits of the lake however, at this period of ancient culti- 
vation, canriot now be accurately ascertained. Negleftedmoft pro- 
bably during the difaftrous ftruggle between Epifcopacy and Pref- 
bytery, it had fpread out fo as to extend to the length of 4 miles* 
and in no part of lefs breadth than one, covering the fpace of 2000 
acres. Of thefe, Pitgaveny, by taking off 3 feet 4 inches of the 
depth of the lake, has, at his own expence, recovered 1162; o£ 
which there appertains to his ,ow t n eftate in the three parifhes that 
have been already mentioned, — - — 8co acres; 

To the eftate of Gordonftown, in the parifh of Drainy, 104 
To the eftate of DufFus,' in the parifh of DufTus, 132 

To the eftate of the Earl of Fife, in the parifh of Spynie, 
. including the Bifhop's Precinft, belonging to the 

Crown, — ' ; — — = • 72 

To the eftate of Findroffie, in the parifh of Spynie, 5 1 

And to the eftate of WeftSeld in the fame parifh, 3 


Bat the whole of this extent has not been fo completely drained 
as to admit of proper cultivation. Various fpeculations, concern- 
ing this obje& have been fuggefted ; but as the level every way 
has been accurately afcertained, the moft proper courfe for the 
drain may be readily and certainly determined. 

The decpeft part of the lake to the eaftward of the caftle, pro- 
bably where the harbour had been deepened by Bifhop Pilmore, 
being ten feet, is found to be one lower than the channel of the 
river at low water In the harbour of LorTymouth ; but an imme- 
diate communication with the low water-mark of the fea, upon 
the weft of the Goulard hill, would at fpring tides give a fall of 
nearly 15 feet, and at ordinary tides of nearly 10, which would 
be fufficient to drain the lake : but as by much the greater part o£ 
its bottom is now only from 4 to 5 feet deep, every advantageous 
purpofe of improvement would be obtained, by bringing the pre- 
sent canal down within the harbour. But as the river LofTy, op- 
pofite to the bridge on the canal, in the road from Elgin to Lofly- 
mouthj is 5 inches higher than the canal, when both are in their 

Q^ ^ ordinary 

ti6 'present state of the province. \Ckap. llli 

ordinary ftate, and is often raifed by floods to the height of 7 or t 
feet aboye the furface of the lake, and being diftant from the canal 
only from 7 to 130 yards, it will be rcquifite in this courfe, to 
raife a fufficient embankment along that fide of the canal. This 
might be frugally accomplifhed, by difpofing the earth that mull 
be yet thrown out in completing the formation of the canal, in the, 
form of a mound, as the banks are not yet flielving enough fo : 
Hand in the grayelly foil through which its courfe is conducted. 
Were this effe&uated, 6 or 700 acres of moTe land would b& 
gained, and the whole laid more perfe£Hy dry. The intereft of 
the refpe&ive landlords in this acquisition may be readily inferred 
from what they have already obtained. It would be alfo practi- 
cable to have carriage by water, not only (as in the time of the 
Bifhops) up to the caftle of Spynie, but more than half a mile 
nearer to Elgin, along the courfe of the Sey Burn. 

The lake of Cottes is on the other fidS of Lofly, but in the neigh* 
bourhood and on the fame level with that of Spynie, but confider- 
ably nearer to the fea ; and, being quite unconnected with the 
river, might be drained at an expence proportionally inconfider- 
ablc ; and befide* its own extent, which is about 120 acres, a great 
part of the adjoining fwampy plain would be thereby greatly im- 
proved, and the country about Innes and Leuchars rendered more 
healthful. This lake is fupported by two brooks, each of fuch 
confideration as to work the machinery of a corn mill. This 
quantity of water united would be fufficient to keep the canal 
from filling up, and might probably create, at the out-fall, a fal- 
rnon-fifhery of fome confideration. 

' The third lake to be mentioned is Lochnaboe, in the fouth-eaft 
corner of the parifh, defcribed in the account of Urquhart. It is 
aboui 3 miles in circumference,, containing a fmall ifland, prettily 
wooded. It is alfo f unrounded by the for eft which the deer now 
inhabit, and through which a read has been lately formed, offer- 
ing an enchanting ride around the fhaxled margin of the placid 
lake. It might be drained at a fmall expence ; but appearing to 
have been a mofs, long fince entirely dug up, the naked gravel of 
its bottom would hardly admit of cultivation* 


•GSajfc. xiii} parish o* drainy, * ' ^17 



Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — The pariihes which have been def- 
cribed may, in a general view, be confidered as extending from 
the fea to the mountain ; but here the country opens to the wide- 
nefs of to or 12 miles, and aright line palling oyer the plain, by 
• the church of Drainy, would meafure the breadth of this parife* 
and that of Spynie and Elgin together. The coaft from Spey- 
mouth to LofTy mouth, moftly in the parifli of Urquhart, lies in 
the dire&ion from fouth-eaft to north^weft, and hrts been deferr- 
ed a low flat fandy fliore. A rocky head-land, called Coulard, fig- 
ttifyingin the Gaelic, Back-height, is here projefted into the fea, 
round which the coaft turning, trends more direftly weft to the 
head of the "Frith at Beaulie. This head-land may be regarded as 
the termination of a ridge raifed along the coaft for the whole 
length of the parifli, and continued far into Duffiis, there being 
only one breach on the weftern end of the Coutard, through which 
the level land ftretches to the fea. Between this ridge and the 
lake of Spynie, lies the parifli of Drainy, a Gaelic word, import- 
ing) the thorny Jield, probably the natural prod uft ion of the hind 
about the church before it was cultivated. The parifli is 2 miles 
in breadth, and 4 in length, with very little inequality of furface"; 
yet fearcely one half of this plain is reduced to a ftate of cultiva- 
tion, the greateft part confiftihg of barren moor, producing only 
fhort heath, or coarfe benty grafs. The land under cultivation is 
very fertile, partly a rich loam or clay, and partly a light, black j or 
•fandy foil. The climate is wholefome and mild. In the marfhy 
parts both of this and the parifli of Duffus, agues were common 
about 30 years ago, but have for'fome time paft been totally 

State of Property."] Mr. Brander of Pitgaveny is the proprietor 
of the eaftern quarter of the parifli, the lands of Kinedur (in Gaelic, 
Cean-na-Dur, the head in the water), the valued rent of which is 
L.83 1 . 1 2s. 8d. Scots, and not quite L.500 fterling of real rent. The 
reft of the parifli, except the village of LofTymouth, is the property cf 
Alexr. Penrofe Cuming Gordon of Ahyr, Efq. the valued rent of 
Whichi8L.22i3.4s. 8d. Scots: being a. great part oftfo: eftate of Gor- 
\ Qji donftownj 


(tJonftown ; the family feat being near the weftern end of the parifh, a 
great heavy fquare building, faid to be in the Dutch ftyle. A confix 
derable part of the infide has never been finifhed. The approach is a 
ftraight road between fquare enclofures and plantations, with an ar- 
tificial pond upon one fide, about 300, yards in length, and 20 in 
breadth, with a little ft agnant water fpread over its miry bottom. The 
offices are built round a court perfeftly circular, occupying one acre 
of ground, and the pavement of the court regularly concave. Some 
parts of this building are two ftories high, which is fuppofed to 
be the caufc, that iri windy weather there is no fhelter within the 
court. This form of building offices appears to be commodious, but 
has not been imitated. The real rent of the eftate in this parifh 
is about L. 800 fterling. The farms in general are fmall, there 
being only 3 that milch exceed the extent of 100 acres : their num> 
ber in whole is 68. The land, rent, when paid in grain, is from 
■a boll to a boll and an half of bear or oats, the Scots aire ; but it 
is the pra&ice to give 5 firlots of pats for the boll, nearly/ equal 
to the Englifh quarter ; when let for money, the acre gives from 
15 s. to 21 s. Over a great part of the eftate of Gordonftown, the 
tithes, of corn were drawn in kind, the tenth ftieaf being taken off 
the field by the proprietor. This was accounteq 1 equal to the third 
part of the rent, but it has of late been given up. 

State EccUJiafiicaL'] — The pariflies of Kineadur and Ogueftown 
were annexed in the year 1666, about which time the church was. 
t>uilt, not in ^hemoft centrical fituatipn of the prefent parifh. The 
patronage is a pertinent of the eftate of Gordonftown. The, fti- 
pend, including the allowance for the communion,- is 72 bolls bar- 
ley and oats, and L.52. 10s. fterling. The manfe, and glebe which 
is about 5, acres, are at Kineadur, a mile eaftward from the church. 
. At this place alfo, is the burying ground of the old parifh, where 
the veftiges of the caftle, where the Bifhop refided before that of 
Spynie was built, ftiil remain. The burying ground is alfo continued 
in the parifh of Ogueftown, where a magnificent tomb in the Gothic 
ftyle is raifed over the vault of the family' of Gordonftown. At 
the parochial fchool, there are about 60 fcholars inftrufted in writ- 
ing, arithmetic, reading Englifh and Latin. The fchool falary is 12 
bolls of barley, and L.3 fterling from the office of feffion-clerk, 
frefides the other perquifites and fees of parochial fchools. The 
fund for the provifion of the poor does not exceed L. 20 fterling 

yearly ; 


<Ckap. III.] PARISH O* DRAIN?. 1*$ 

yearly -, from which the falary of the clerk and beadle being deduc- 
ed, the balance contributes to the fupport of about 50 poor. Tne 
whole inhabitants are members of the Eftablifhed Church, amount- 
ing to about 1040. 

Mifccllantous Iriformation.'}r~The village of Loflymouth is the 
harbour of the town of Elgin. A procefs carried on by Bifhop 
Bar, refpefiing the right cf this port, was, incidentally mentioned 
in the foregoing Number. It appears to have been begun by his . 
Lordfhip's arreftihg a fhip, the property of two of the Burgeffes. 
The narrative, in the gid. fol. of the Chart. Mor. fets forth, u That 
€i > on Sunday the 7th of June, while the Lord Biihop was paffing 
" from his x caftle of Kineadur towards the church of Urquhart, 
" through his water of Loffy, at the ford called Krannokiffi, he 
u found a certain bark, namely Farcojij lying in his faid water, near 
4t the fea ; to which coming, he afked at the only perfon who was 
u found on board, what the fiiip was called, to whom it apper- 
f< tained, and by whofe permiffion it had entered that water, who 
" replied, The bark- Farcoji was John de Lany's, and had enter- 
" ed there by the burgeffes of Elgin ; to whom the Bifnop faid, 
u that neither the burgeffes, nor any other, could grant fuch au- 
u thority or permiffion, for that water and the whole channel was 
u the property of the church of Moray, and appertained to him, 
4i and to- no other perfon, and on that account deCred that a pledge 
" might be given him in name of arrefting the faid bark. That a 
u little ax was handed to the Lord Biihop, which, as only a pledge, 
u the feaman requefted, in name of his maftey, might be returned, 
Si which the Biihop granted on the condition of its being reftored 
" upon demand. 

" Likewife on the fame day, in the year 1383, in the month 
" above-mentioned, the fame Bifnop, returning by the fame road, 
u found at the faid bark certain burgeffes of Elgin, namely Philip 
**' Byfet, and Henry Porter, taking out of the fhip fome barrels of 
u ale, and fome facks of tallow, and fome of meal of wheat, toge- 
€t ther with horfes and fledges flanding upon his ground of Kinea- 
" dur, which, together with the fhip, he by his own proper autho~ 
11 rity arretted, as unwarrantably encroaching upon his church- 
'f lands, and gave up the fame in pledge, at the inftance of the 
" fard Philip requefting it, in the name of the community of his 
" burgh, to be remitted to die faid Biihop at his cathedral, upon 


<*S0 Present stats <m :The province. \Chap. ttu 

"eight days requisition, thereto receive the iflue and termination 
ct which the laws have been in ufe to grant." 

It muft be prrefumed, that the Biftiop prevailed in eftabliftung 
his claim, which accordingly became a pertinent of the eftate rf 
Kineadur, and Was only pur-chafed by the maglftracy of Elgin in 
the year 1698..' In the conveyance, it is defcribed as a piece of 
wafte barren uixmanured ground, and was nearly 80 acres of naked 
gravel and fand, with an allowance on the quarries of the Cqu» 
lard, for the reftricted purpofe of building and upholding the pier, 
and for the accommodations ^oreqttifite for the town of Loffie* 
mouth 5 for which the community became bound to pay yearly 
L.2. xs. yd. fubjefting the inhabitants of Loffiemouth to be poinded 
for any arrears that maybe incurred j and. to the. courts of the 
fuperior, which he may hold either in the town or at the Burn of 
Kineadur, for any riot happening either among themfelves <ff 
with the fuperior's tenants of the barony •, and to fend a burgefs 
x>f Elgin yearly* to the head court, upon the firft Thurfday,aft<ar 
Michaeimafs, toanfwer in their name $ and to allow the accomm<*» 
dation of the harbour. to all (hips and fiftiing boats appertaining to 
the fuperiar* or freighted by .any merchant upon his account, Or 
.-employed by him for exportation or importation, without payment 
of any dues to the community. Befides irregular ftreets fronting 
towards the fea, the town,i$Jaid out into four principal ftreets, ft 
.right angles to the fhore, each 42 feet wide, and commodious laneS 
cutting acrofs.the ftreets, equal to half their breadth* with a hand- 
fome fquare and crofs in the midft. There are 175 feus marked 
off on the plan* each 1 20 by 1 80 feet, granted fdr the duty of 
5s. each; but many remain to be taken, and many that have been 
granted are not yet built : but a mimber alfo of handfome houfes 
of two arid three ftories, containing more than 200 inhabitants, 
have been ere&ed. . The harbour is fufficiently commodious for 
veflels about 80 tons burden. The community fay, that, prior to 
the year 1780, L. 1200 fterling .had been expended in the forma- 
tion of the quay ; fince that time,' a p^r oppofite on the other fide 
the river, for clearing out the farid off the bar, has been erecied at 
the expence of L. 2000 fterling, from the funds of the town, aided 
by private fubfeription, and a donation of L. 200 fterling from the 
Convention of Boroughs. The land end of this new pier was 
left unfiniflied, and unable to withftand the violence pf winter 

, ftormsj 

M&p.lilJ] PARISH OF DRAINY. . : i*. 121 

. ftormi. So much unheeded ruination has befallen it, that L.200 
fterling at prefent would be infufficient to * prevents its acce-? " 
lerating fubverfion. There is only one floop and two fifhing 
boats belonging to Loffiemouth : but during one year 49 veflels 
from 55 to 60 tons arrived, of which loaded with Engiiih coals 
were, — . , — — — 20 

Scots coals, — — — 6 

London goods, — . ■ . -r- -— — 1.0 

Lehh goods, " — v — — — 4 

•Tanner's bark, — — - — . ■ -~ 3 

Native fait, — — . • — - — > 2 

Bottles, flates, iron, lime — each r, — — 4 

Total, 49 

The exports were 20 cargoes barley and oats, each at an average 
about 400 bolls, and an inconfiderable quantity*of peltry. There 
are two other creeks in the parifli, Stotfield and Covefca, which 
admit boats. On the eftate of Kineadur are 3 fifhing boats, each 
yielding a yearly rent of L.5 fterling 5 but every feventh year the 
landlord is obliged to furnifli a new boat, which, rigged complete, 
cofts about L.2o fterling. -The fifh commonly caught are cod, 
fcate, hollibut, haddocks, whitings, faiths, and crabs, but none in 
greater quantity than ferves the conftimption of the country. Of 
late, however, a lobfter fiftiery has been undertaken in the bay of 
Stotfield, by an Englifh company, for the London market, to which. 
they are tranfported alive, in wells formed in the bottom of the 
ihips,- which communicate direftly with the fea Water: 60,000 
tvere in this manner conveyed the firft fummer, without any other 
precaution, except tying their claws to their fides : they are caught 
by bait in fmall iron traps, though a Gmple invention, yet never 
iafed before on this coaft. In the Coulard hill there are appear- 
ances of lead : many detached maffes of ore are to be feen in the 
northern fide of the hill, where the rock is limeuone: fome ad- 
venturers however, from England, feveral years ago, after expend* 
hig about L.500, could difcover no vein worth working. But the 
greater part of the Coulard, with almoft the whole of the ridge 
fclong the Covefea fliore, confifts of one uninterrupted mafs of free* 
ftone, lying in horizontal ftrata, differing in thicknefs and in 
bardneis ; one kind being white, of a fmooth, compact, and firm 
* - fuhftance, 

12* fr!tmhT STATS OF THE PROVINCE; [Chdpi lltl 

fubftance, yet readily yielding to the hammer or the ehifel ; thtf 
other kind- more brown or yellow, fofter, and more friable. There 
are dbout 20 mafons and nearly 40 labourers conftantly employed 
in quarrying and cutting ftone to fupply the demand from this and 
the neighbouring countries. The weftern part of this ridge, upon 
the Covefea coaft, forms a very bold fliore. The penetrating 
power of the.furge in winter ftorms, with the reiterated play of 
the ocean, and the various whirl of the rebounding wave upon 
the proje£Ung cliffs of the freeftone rock, has formed Several de-* 
tached pyramids, towers, and arches, of various height and form, 
an fome places refemhling the broken {hapelefs windows in a Gothic 
ruin, having the fea boiling around their bafes at each flow of the 
tide. Under this hill alfo, there is a number of caverns, of whofe 
formation it is difficult toconje&ure the origin, without fuppofing 
the fea at Tome period to have been fo much higher on the coaft as 
to have in fecret wrought out the fofter materials, which might- 
have originally filled thofe (hapelefs vacuities. They all open- 
directly to the fea •, and it is likely that fome of them may extend 
back to the land fide of the hill, as their dark receffes have never 
bean explored. Some of them are lofty even from the entrance, 
s and their bounds every-where readily determinable ; others, with 
a low entrance^ become gloomily lofty, and uncomfortably damp 
within *, others are low, difmal, dark, and damp, throughout all 
their windings. Neither the floor or roof of any are on the fame 
level : fome of the lighted are ufpd as a (helter by the ftone cutters* 
both from the heat and rain, and are in part filled by the chips 
and fragments. One of them was occupied as a ftable to conceal 
the horfes of the family of Gordonftown from the rebels, in the 
year 1745, and has the entrance built up into a neat door: another 
behind the village of Loffiemouth had, in ancient times, beeri 
formed into a fmall hermitage, not exceeding iz feet fquare : it 
was completed by a handfome Gothic door and window, and com- 
manded a long but a folitary view along the eaftern fliore. Thefc 
artificial decorations were torn down about 30 years ago, by a rude 
fhipmafter ; and in the courfe of working t;lie quarries, the whole 
cave has been deftroyed. There was a fountain in the rock abore 
the hermitage, called 5*. Gcrardints Well: but neither this, nor 
any other fpring in the parifli, has acquired fame for medjch&i 
virtue. * 



Gbtf. xii,] parish or x>vfvv$< .129 

The inhabitants, like/all others employed in hufbandrjr,are for- 
bad and healthy. They are in general a fober, honeft, peaceable 
people, regular in tr/eir attendance on the ordinances of religion, 
rather grave than lively, feldom indulgingtljemfelYesifi any relaxa- 
tion or diverfion. Crimes of enormity are unknown among them : 
but this regularity of conduit mull be in part afcribed to the po- 
verty and depreflion of the people ; for the fituation of the fmaller 
tenants in general is hot comfortable. Few of them have any capi- 
tal to fet them out into the* worjd, and fewer have the inclination, 
or the means, pf adopting the modern improvements of hufbandry* 
while the rents and the wages of fervants have of late been consi- 
derably advanced.- Th£. women fpin linen yarn* by which, with : 
the greateft application, they can only earn 3d. by the days 
even this y,a?n, what is neceflary for home confumption excepted* 
is exported unwrought xo Edinburgh, Glafgow, or the north of 
England. v 



Situation* Soil, Climate.'] — In every region of the earth where 
the clime and foil do not fpontaneoufly afford the fubfiftence of 
man, it appears, by the earlieft-notices of hiftory, that fociety were 
at firfl fupported chiefly by the means of hunting •, that from the 
hunter ftate,* they made in general a fudden advance to that of the* 
paftoral, indifpenfable to the more perfeft ftate of agriculture. 

In a country fo narrow as this, it may be presumed, that its dif- 
ferent quarters, even in the hunter ftate, would be diftinguifhed by 
names, which, though not appropriate now, have 1>een without 
change preferved. The name of Duffus, (ignifyiqg in the Gaelic 
black water j carries back the imagination to that early ftate of fo- 
ciety, when this flat country was an uncultivated foreft, almoft 
every where deformed by gloomy black pools of ftagnate water. 
The plain between the lake of Spynie and the fea, continued for 
about five miles weftward from Drainy, forms the whole extent 
of the parifh of Duffus. Since^taking off the water from the lake,' 

R it 


it is extended about 3 miles in breadth: but tbe lake is not conti- 
nued now, far upon the fouth fide, and the ridge along the coaft 
is ftretched only about one-third of the length, weft ward of which 
the fliore is fandy and flat, raifed only a few feet above the level of 
the fea. Towards the midft both of the plain and parifh, at * littlt 
diftance from the coaft, the green arable hill of Rofetfle embellifhes 
tbe landfcape. It is not doubled but the fea once communicated 
with the lake, along the weft and fouth fides of this eminence, 
which then formed the termination of the ifle, extended eafiward 
to the head-land of the Goulard at Lofliemouth. Along the coaft, 
tbe whole length of the pafifli, for the breadth of half a mile, may 
be confidered as downs, the foil fandy, mixed with ftone, in fome 
places rifing in green ridges, compofed of lime-ftone rock. To- 
wards the middle-bf this poor benty pafturage, between the hill of 
Rofeifle and the fea» fome detached fields are cultivated, and One 
farm, of confiderable extent, offers a folitary but commodious .and 
pleafing refidence. The reft of the parifh is an unbroken arable 
field, for the greater part a deep rich clay, of the fame kind with 
the carfe foil of Gowrie or Falkirk, producing weighty crops of 
wheat, peafe, and beans. Towards its weftern end, the foil is black . 
earth, very fertile, yielding crops of barley not to be furpafied in 
carlinefs; quality, or increafe, in any part of Scotland. In fome 
places of this quarter, the foil is fo mixed with -fand as to be de- 
prived of much of its fertility, and a great proportion of it hath 
been deeply covered by dry fand, drifted ahnoft ten miles from 
Coulbin, and its cultivation by man for feveral generations fuf- 
pended, except a few fmall patches, which have of late been re- 
covered by bringing the foil above the fand by the fpade. 

State of Property,] — The valued rent of the parifli, amounting 
to L.3120. 6s. id. Scots, is fliared among 5 proprietors, of whom 
Sir Archibald Dunbar only is refident, in a handfoxne modern feat, 
placed in a fmalFpark, fhekered on the north by the church and 
the village of Duffus, and on the other three fides bounded by fields* 
and ftripes of plantation. It commands an extenfive landfcape, 
embellifhed by every rural decoration. His property in this pa- 
rifli is valued at L.1800 Scots. A confiderable part of the eftate of 
Gordonltown, lately augmented by, the purchafc of the lands of 
Rofeifle, with which a part of it lay blended, lies alfo in this pa-- 
rifli, amounting now to the valuation of L.1019 Scots. Mr. Bran- 


. Ck*p* HI- J *A*USH OF BUFFUS* % 2$ 

ier of Pitgaveny, as was ohferved, holds a confiderable part of the 
extent of this parifli, but yet fo incompletely drained, as not to ad- 
mit of perfeft cultivation : it is valued at L. 244. 18s. lid. Scots. 
The other two properties are incpnfiderable : the one' belonging to 
Mr. Baron Gordon of Clunie is valued at L.36; 7s. ad. Scots, and 
the other appertaining to Mr. Lewis Kay only at L.20. The farms 
are but of fmall extent: two only exceed 100 acres. A great pro- 
portion of the parilh is rented at L.i fterling the acre, and the ave- 
rage equals three -fourths of that rate. 

State Ecc{cfiaJlicaL~\ — The church is inconrmodioufly fituated in 
the eaft end of a parifli of fuen length. , The burying place is at 
fmall fquare inclofure around the church, having a pretty broad 
road on each of its fides, rather roughly caufeyed, but the work- 
manfbip of a party of foldiers who were ftatiohed here by Crom- 
well. The ftipend, by decreet 1793, 1S & chalders of bear, and 
JL38. 6s. 8d. fterling, including the allowance for the communion* 
The patronage has been in the poffeflion of Sir Archibald Dunbar 
and his authors, fince the year 1^87. With the fees for teaching * 
already ftated, and the ftatutory falary as feflion clerk, the fchool* 
mafter has an eftabiifhment of 7 bolls and nearly 3 firlots of bear ; 
the number of fcholars amounting to about £0. The only provi- 
fion for the poor arifes from the halfpence contributed by the te* 
nants and their families who attend the parochial church, amount- 
ing to about L.14 fterling in the year, which, without expence to 
the heritors, contributes to the fubfiftence of about 66 indigent 
perfons, the number enrolled in the lifts of the feflion. The mem- 
bers of the Eftabliihed Church amount to 1760: there are 30 Epif- 
cbpalians, who, with a few neighbours from the pariflies of Spynie 
and Alves,T*ave maintained a fmall meeting ever fince it was. the 
national religion: and there are are 4 Seceders, of the Antiburger 
feft. There is a fmall burying ground at Burgh-head, for the ac- 
commodation of that village : there was a chapel alfo there, where 
public worfliip' was long ago performed by the minifter of the pa* 
rifti. Two hamlets bear the name, of College, namely Rofeifle and 
LJnthank. At the laft of thefe, the foundations of the chapel were 
lately taken up to repair the mill. 

Mifccllancous, Information^^-The people, although poor and 
depreffed, are not querulous: they are peaceable and well -difpofed; 
and the diflike of each other, on the account of diverfity of religU 

R a * ous 

*2<j| PRESENT STATE 6* THE PffoVlKCE. \Ch<tp\ III* 

ous opinions and modes of worfhip, has greatly fubfided among 
them. They are fober, and but little addifted to the intemperate 
ufe of fpirituoufc liquors. The village of Burgh-head on the coaft, 
the property of Sir Archibald Dunbar, contains about 400 fouls. 
A fmall number of the men are quarriers and flone-cutters ; but 
the greater number follow a fea-faring life: 7 large boats, Vith 6 
people on board, are hired for the Wefterri FiQiery ; 5 of the fame 
kind are employed in freighting commodities along the coaft ; 2 
{loops*, befides, are employed in tranfporting grain to the fouth of 
Scotland, and in bringing back coals; and there are a few fmall 
boats employed in fifhing. At this village, nature has pointed out a 
ftation for a deep, capacious, and fafe harbour. It could be formed 
at a moderate expence, the ftone juft waiting to be cut from the 
adjoining rock; and, with little precaution, fuccefs would be cer- 
tain. Along the whole fouthern coaft of the Moray Frith, from 
Buchan-nefs, upwards of 100 miles, to Inverness, there is no good 
or fafe harbour. The advantage, therefore, of this* undertaking ap- 
pears in the ftrongeft light, there being water of any neceffary 
depth, on a fine bottom of blue clay, mofs, or fand, and fhelter from 
every dangerous wind. It is nearly at equal diftance from Elgin 
and Forres, and, with a good harbour, it would foon become the 
port of both towns. Commerce and manufacture would of confe- 
quence fettle in this part of the country; and, with an increafing 
rife in the value of the neighbouring farms, all the various advan- 
tages arifing from 'them would quickly follow. Here at prefent 
there is only a fiihery, and but of fmall consideration^ Cod* flcate, 
ling, are fold at *4» and lid* the lb. There are alfo hollibut, 
mackarel, faith, and whiting. Turbot are on the coaft ; but the 
people are not inftru&ed in the art of fifhing for them. Haddocks 
have' been for years in fewer numbers, and farther from the land, in 
deeper water than formerly. They fell at id. each, 6 times dearer 
, than before. • The ancient fortifications of Old Duffus and Burgh- 
head Have been already defcribed. Near the weftern end of the 
ridge along the fhore, where* the rocks rife to a great height, the 
foundation of a cattle called Inverugie remains. It was occafional- 
ly the refidence of the family of Marifchal, "who once held the third 
part of the property of the parifti, and was named after their chief 
feat in Buchah. It appears that in this parifti many battles had in 
lornrer times been fought: burying ground is to be found about 


Ckap. III.] PARISH OF DUF*US. 127 

ftlmoft every hamlet ; and in many of them lk$1etons of human bo- 
dies have been accidentally dug up, and this has given rife to many 
Fairy hillocks and grounds where witches met together. Near the 
weftern end of the parifh, there had been a place of worfhip at a 
farm called Kirkhill, where the remains of the crofs and fonte of 
- the buildings are ftill viable. 

In feveral places are indications of iron ore and coal: all the 
water feems furcharged with iron, and* fn one field, near Duffus 
houfe, there is a ftrong chalybeate fpring; near to which appears a 
black hard earth, mixed with ftone refembling the refufe of a forge. 
Although now there is no natural wood in the parifh, yet from 
old tradition, and from rotten logs of wood found in, the corn-fields 
and paftures, throughout the whole lower grounds, and even in the 
ftiffeft clay foil, this part of the country mull have once been an 
entire forefl, of different kinds of timber, oak, allefr, birch, hazel, 
and fir : and it is reported, that the opprefied inhabitants were com- 
pelled by the Danes to carry oak from the valley near Rofeiile 
to build their ihips at Burgh-head, 



Soil, Situation, Climate.'] — Although the lake of Spynie has re* 
tired a confiderable fpace from the weft end of the parifh, and al- 
though the river Loflie does not cover the whole of "its fouthern 
fide, yet the parifh may be in general confidered as lying between 
the river and the lake. From near the precinft of the caftle of Spy- 
nie at the eaft, a ridge of moor ftretches the whole length, about 4 
'miles, rifing gradually towards the weft into a pretty high hill. Upon 
each fide of this hill lies the whole of the cultivated land, extending 
the general breadth of the parifh, nearly equal to its length, and in- 
cluding almoft every variety of foil, from the heavieft clay to the 
lighted fand. On the fouthern fide of the hill, along the banks of 
the Loffie, the air is peculiarly mild and warm, during a great pro- 
portion of the year. On the northern fide the climate is not fa 
pleafant: the foil is wet and cold: the lake and the adjoining low- 
ground, imperfefily drained, often emit a difagrceabie fog, ye* 



without any, bad eflecl on the health of the inhabitants, there being 
no difeafe more prevalent here than in any other part of the coun- 
try. It has been already obferved, that the pariffies of Drainy and 
of Duffus lie upon the north fide, and between Spynie and the fea j 
the parifli of Elgin lies along the whole length of its fouthern con- 
lines ; and a fine field, a plain of 40 acres; reaches clofe up to the 
'north fide pf the town; the river having once run up hard by, as 
appears by title deeds of the adjoining tenements, whiqh ftill bound 
them by the river, although this broad plain, the property of the 
Earl of FindUter, has been from time immemorial interjeSed. The 
reverfe of this has happened a little lower down, in a fmall feini- 
circular field called the Dean's Crook, which has been cut off from 
the cathedral lands of Elgin, by the, river occupying the diameter 
inftead of the periphery, which till of late remained a reedy pond. 

State of Property. ,]— -The valued rent* of the parifh, amounting 
to L.3055. 13s. 8d. Scots, is divided among four proprietors, of 
whom the Earl of Fife, holding the lands of Spynie, Morriftown, 
Sheriffmiil, Aultdroughty, Leigate, Rofehaugh, Quarry wood, and 
Kintrae, has the valuation of L.1691. 3s. 8d. The Earl of Find- 
later, holding BifliopmiU, Myrefide, and Burrowhriggs, has L-547. 
8s. 8d. Francis Ruffel of Blackhall Efq. advocate, has Weftfield, 
being valued at L.488. 16s. fid. ; and John Leflie Efq. writer to the 
fignet, has Findroflie, . valued at L.327. 5s. 2d. The public bur- 
dens of the parifh are fupported by thefe proprietors; but, befides 
them, the precin&s of the caftle of Spynie, being 10 acres, ?nd 
yielding a revenue of L.12 fterling, is the property of the Crown. 
James Milne Efq. has the Mills of BifliopmiU, and a fmall conti- 
guous property, which, with another fmall feu, £he property of 
John Ritchie Efq. merchant in Elgin, is included in the valuation 
appertaining to the Earl of Findlater. Thefe mills, on the river 
Loflie, comprehend machinery for making all the varieties of pot 
barley, and for grinding wheat and other grain, of the moft im- 
proved and ne weft conftruftion ; and a little farther "down the river,. 
on Mr. Ritchie's feu* there is a field and the raoft complete ma- 
chinery, whereby the bleaching of linen and of thread is carried on 
to a great extent, in the rooft advantageous manner. 

The lands, for the moil part, are occupied in fmall farms, there 
being only three that equal or exceed 100. acres. The clay foil 
produces mpre weighty crops than the fandy, and affords about a 

- fifth 

Ckap. III. 1 PARMH Of SPYNIE. i2$ 

ifth patt mere rent, although, on account of the additional expence 
which attends its management, it is reckoned by many not the moft . 
profitable, the labour being often fufpended by the wet during a 
|reat part of the winter and the beginning of fpring, while all the 
neceflary operations of hufbandry are profecuted on the drier lands. 
Confequently a greater proportion of fervants and cattle is re* 
tyiired, and the crop,. being in general more late, is expofed to 
greater damage in harveft. A confiderable proportion, however, of 
Ms kind of foil is rented at a guinea the acre, while the fandyVfoil 
only brings from tos. to 17s. The eftate of Weftfield was lately 
modelled into allotments from 20 to 40 acres, and let at the rate of 
searly L.2. the acre; yet the mean rent over the wholj panfh can* 
not be eflimated higher than L.i. 3s. the acre. 

It will not be deemed improper to take 'notice of the cultivation 
of the farm of Sheriffmill, rented by James Walker, Efq. M. D. 
This gentleman in the early part of his life entered with all the ar- 
'dor of enthufiafm into the horfe-hoeing hufbandry, in which he has 
lever ^fince perfevered whh unfailing fleadinefs, raifing crops of 
wheat, barley, and beans, in drills, without a particle of dung, al- 
ways fallowing the intervals, about 3 feet, for each fucceeding 
crop ; hereby completely demonftrating the effecY of cultivation 
without the ufe of manure. Although every operation has been 
[performed with the riiceft accuracy, and in its proper feafon, and 
[though the light fandy foil of Sheriffmill feems well adapted for 
this kind of hufbandry, yet the refult has not been fnch as to en- 
courage imitation. The quality of the wheat, though raifed fuc* 
ceffively on the fame field for the fpace of almoft 20 years, with- 
ont dung, has not been impaired ; but the quantity by the acre is 
lefs in a very great degree than is-raife'd in the broadcaft way -in 
the fame kind of foil, well plowed and manured. 

State Ecclefiaftical.'] — The manfe and church were pleafantly 
£tuated at the eaftern extremity of the parifh, in the vicinity of the 
iCaftle, until the year 1736, when they were removed to Quarrv- 
Wood— a centrical, but a bleak fituation, nearly under the higheft 
part of the north fide of the hill. The glebe and garden, confifting 
[of about 6 acres, are enclofed with ftone walls. The burying 
[ground has been continued in the original fituation, in the eaft end 
at the parifh.-. The ftipend, and allowance for the -expence of the 



communion* are 4 chalders of barley, and 1 chalder of meal, mi 
L.46. 6s. 8d. flerling. 

The right .of patronage at prefent is perhaps not fully ascertained. 
A brief detail /of (the drcurtiftances which are publicly known re- 
lating to it, is all that can be here ftated. Before the abolition of 
JEpifcopacy, in the year 1640,. the patronage appears by the eccle- 
£aftical records to have been undifputed in the family of Innes; 
and they exercifed it undifturbedunto the prefent times, fave for 
the fiiort interval of its general abolition, during which they pre- 
ferved their pofleffion by the difpofal of the vacant ftipends, and 
by preventing the benefice being impaired, by objecting to the an- 
nexation of the land of Burrowbriggs to the pariih of Elgin. At 
the Settlement, however, of the laft incumbent, the Duke of Gor- 
don claimed tjie patronage, and conjoined in the presentation with 
Sir James Innes, who before the late fettlement had difpofed of 
his rights to the Earl of Fife, on .which occafion the patronage was 
alfo claimed by Col. Fullarton of Boifack, as the heir oi Alexander 
Lindfay, Lord Spynie, in whofe behalf the church-lands of the 
bifhoprick w^ich remained at the Reformation, with the feu-duties 
and patronages, were by James VI. erefted into a temporal lord- 
fliip. The Colonel conjoined with the Earl in the presentation ; 
but their prefentee beiqg in the mean time elfe where appointed, 
the Peers made an agreement for that vice, in which the Colonel 
did not farther interfere ;. but fince the fettlement, the, right of pa- 
tronage has been decided by the Court of Seffion in his favour. 
During the courfe of the litigation, however, the Duke recovered 
an ancient and more fpecjal evidences of the validity of his claim, 
on which he has brought it again under the review of the Court. 

The fchool is a meari cottage, and the accommodation for the 
mafter miferably wretched. It was built aJ)out half a mile north- 
ward from the church, on a fterile moor, a corner of which, during 
the hours of vacation, had been, by the induftry of fucceffive maf- 
ters, cultivated, exciting them to a degree of exercife advantageous 
to their health, while it improved their (lender fubfiftence by its 
produce of. potatoes and other vegetables. As by thefe means fo 
much has been added to the revenue and territory, of the landlord, 
who has fome time adequate rent, and as there is a 
confiderable extent of adjoining rocky moor, yielding no pafturage 


of any value, and only, ifnproveable by the manual labour tif th& 
fpadci it would perhaps be but equity to the fchoolmaftery to allo- 
cate an acre ifc any convenient corner* wnich he might in the meanr 
time improve, and to which the fchool might be removed, when it 
needs to be rebuilt* His prefent appointment is L.4 fieri ing, paid* 
by the landlords, and 8 bollsof meal, collected from the tenants, in 
proportion to their refpe&ive rents, with the ufual fees of teaching, 
and the pittance annexed to the office of feflion clerk- 

Befides the halfpence contributed by the people in the churchy 
the provifion for the poor arifes from the intereft of a donation by 
Mary JBannerman, a widow lady of the family of Findroflie, in the 
year 1707, accumulated at prefent to L.111. 2s. 6d. fterlirig, dou-* 
ble the original endowment. It is placed with the Magiftracy of 
Elgin, and under the cafe of the proprietors of Biftopmill, Weft- 
field, and Findroflie. The Rev. William Dpugal, minifter of the 
parilh, left a fimilar endowment, almoft L.17 of principal, half of 
its intereft to be applied in buying bibles for poor children ; and 
his maiden daughter, Katharine, by her will in the year 1793, be- 
queaths L. 20 fterling, for the education of two girls fucceflively, 
for two years in reading, writing, and arithmetic, when 6 or 7 year* 
old, and for the next two yearsan knitting hofe, and fewing linens* 1 
This endowment is in the patronage of the feffion, but limited tt> 
the legitimate children of Prefbyterians. The members of the 
Eftablifhed Church amount to 779: there are 20 of the Episcopa- 
lian profeflion, and 1 Seceder. 

Mifcellaneous lnformation.'\—T\ie- people are induftrious and 
frugal, maintaining alfo other virtues, not fo much the neceflary 
confequence of their fituation, being in general honeft, benevolent, 
and friendly, entertaining alfo a high refpeft for the ^ordinances of- 
religion. The names of many of the places are of the Gaelic lan- 
guage: Kintrea, the head of the tide, when the lake was an arm of* 
the fea; Infhagarty, the Priefis ijland; Leigate, the original lag-> 
NA-fhad, the long hollow. On the >fouth fide of the hill, towards 
its weftern end, there is a large extent of natural oak wood, the 
property of the Earl of Fife. It is well preferved, properly thin- 4 
ned, and, when full-grown, will be again of great value. Under a- 
thin ftratum. of moorifh foil, the greater part of the hill is a mafst 
of hard excellent free-ftone, of which a quarry near the fu-nKmit is 
wrought to a confidcrable extent, fupplying all the country with-' 

S milju 


mill-ftones, and Elgin and its neighbourhood with ftone for build* 
ing. On this hill, the traces of the Danish carap that has. been 
mentioned are ftill conspicuous, but rouft in a*ihort time be effaced, 
by having been, indifcriminately with the circumjacent moor, plant-* 
ed over with Scots fir. Were the noble owner apprized of this, he 
might perhaps, from his diftinguifhed tafte, be induced to givedn-* 
firuftions for the prefervation of fuch a monument of ancient na«* 
tional hiftory, ftill attefting the truth of venerable records, that ou* 
anceftors were for more than a year fubje&ed to the moft cruel and 
oppreffive fervitude, being without diftin&ion of rank or fex com* 
pelled to undergo the moft intolerable labour, to every fpecies o£ 
the moft grievous exaftion, and to the moft wanton murder, by-anr 
^tocampmenfr of hoftile barbarians in the heart of the country. . By 
fuch a monument, : the paffing generation may be infpired with, 
thankfulnefs to a good Providence, and alfo taught the value o£ 
the prefent government, whofe energy prevents the moft tranfient 
apprehenfions of fuch infultmg cruelties from their enemies, equal- 
ly rapacious and more bbod-thirfty than the northern favages of 
the eleventh century. 

In preceding times alfo r the accommodations of civil life, and 
the ftate of the ufeful arts, were, vaftly inferior to thefe of modern' 
times. The erefling the machinery of a corn-mill' could not then 
be undertaken by any perfpn in a rank inferior to a Baron, a Bifli- 
op, or an hereditary Sheriff. The particular year 1237, in which 
the mill of Sheriffmill was built, is fpecially afcertained by the re-i 
markable circmnftance of the ground for its fituation being the 
firft. dilapidation of the revenues of the bifliop rick, in the 7th in- 
cumbency, by that refpeftable Bifliop who laid the foundation o£ 
the great cathedral, Andrew de Moravia, of the family of Duf£us„ 
in favour of his brother. The conveyance is to this effeft — » 
4i Know all, that we, by the confent and free-will of our chapter, 
•''have given and granted, and by this our charter have confirmed, 
"to Walter de Moravia, and his heirs, one ftation.for a mill oa 
* Loffie, in our land of Auchter Spynie, on thf eaftern part ©£ . 
** Roger in the fame land, to grind their corn and that ©f their 
'** people, as freely, quietly, and fully, as any Baron in Moray* 
•* upon delivering to us and our fucceflbrs, as an acknowledgments 
** each^year at the feaft of Whitfunday, one pound weight of pep- 
** per, and smother of cumin.'— Chart. v/Mor* fel.^*— -And this 

' Will, 

{} PARISH or SPYM1E. $33 

»ill, though at the diftance of 6 miles, has ever fincc continued j 

to be the mill of the barony, at prefent the property of Sir Archd. ' 

Dunbar of DiifFus. In thofe times, however, it appears, that even un- 
cultivated ground was of the fame importance as at prefent. About . 
ten years before this dilapidation, a formal contract had been rati- 
fied between the fame brothers, in a ftile fimilar, but more brief,' 
fhan the deeds of the prefent day. The narrative reprefents— ~ 
*? Whereas there is a difpute between Andrew, bifhop of Moray, 
*' on the one part, and Walter de Moravia, fo*n of the late Hugh 
41 de Moravia, refpecling a fervitude on the moors and woods of 
-*" Spynie and Finroffie, which the faid Walter alleges was of old 
*' obtained by his predeceflbrs, and afferts to have been granted and 
*' confirmed to his father, by a charter from Bricius, of worthy 
*' memory, late Lord Bifhop of Moray, upoh delivering each year, 
%4 as an acknowledgment, an half ftone of wax, it is thus amicably 
«' fettled between them, the chapter, of the cajthedral of Moray 
4 * willing and confenting :. namely, that the faid Walter and his 
*' heirs {hall have in perpetuity to themfelves and their families, a ' 
* • fervitude upon the faid woods and moors on the weft fide of the , 
*' "highway which comes from the caftle of Duffus to Levenford 
* % in this manner, that the moor may be ufed by digging ; but ort 
*\ the eaft fide of the faid road they make it common, the faid Wal- 
*' ter and his heirs paying yearly at Whitfunday to the Bilhops o£ 
*' Moray, one merk fterling of lawful money, for all fervice and 
** exaftion pertaining to the faid Bifllops. ,, — And in 1248, twenty- 
two years after the date of this contraft, another agreement is 
anade between their fucceflbrs, Simon the Bifhop, and Frefkyn, 
the fon of Walter. To, the preceding concefiion the Bifhop adds 
the land of Logynhavedall, and inftead of the mefk obtains again 
the poffeffion, in common, of the pafturage and woods as far as 
Salt cot, which is between Finroffie and Kintray. It is alfo in- 
ilru&ed by the Chart, that the lands of Quarrywood, not then un- 
-der cultivation, made part of the pafturage at that time of fuch im- 
portance; for it appears by a reclaiming petition, direfied by Dr. 
.Alexander Bar, Bi (hop in 1369, to the, honourable and potent lord 
.Archibald Douglas, knight, that they were then but recently culti- 
vated. This Bifhop, who, as has been fhown, pofleffed in fomc 
degree the fpirit of litigation, thus addreffes him : — V Honourable 
*** and nobk Sir, you and John de Kay, fheriff of Invernefs, have ' 

S Z " determined 

^ 1 


" determined a certain procefs in fuch manner, as God knows to • 
*'. the grievous injury of the priory of Plufcarden, and to the great, 
'* prejudice of the jurifdiftion of the church, which we crave to 
'•'have by you recalled; for we affert and declare, that Alexander, 
f ' King of Scotland, of pious memory, gifted to the prior grid 
*' monks of Plufcarden, his mills of Elgin and Fortes, and other 

'♦' mills depending on them, and the mulftures of the lands, of thofe 
" mills, which he then received, or ought to have received, as they 

*" were for the deliverance of his foul, which raul&ures of the 
•* lands then arable, by virtue of the donation, the faid prior and 
#< monks have received, like as they yet without difpute receive: 
•* and whereas the mulftures of the lands of Quarry wood, in the 
*' flierifFdom of Elgin, at that time unimproved, but now reduced 
•* to cultivation, belongs and appertains to. the riiill of Elgin, from 
V which it is fcarcely a mile diftant, becaufe if it had been at 
*' that time cultivated, the mulflures thereof would and ought to 
.*' have received by the Royal granter." — The petition, after in- 
#ru£iing more valid rights, and undifturbed pofleffion, with the 

. knowledge and tolerance of Robert Chiiholme, knight, during the 
preceding reigns, " faither afferts and declares, that the faid Robert 
*' feized and bound a certain hufbandman of the lands of Finjroffie, 
* c to whom the Prior had by cpntrafl let the faid mulflures, and 
*• thrown him into a private prifon, by which he direflly rqcurred 
** the fentence of excommunication." — The petition proceeds to 
(hew caufe whv the aftion could not be determined by the civih 
but by the ecclefiaftical court, and concludes by threatening to ex- 
communicate the civil judges, if they attemptedany thing farther* 
by which the priory might be wronged, or the jurifdiSion pf the 
Church injured. 

The whole roll of the Bifhops pf Moray, from, the firft ere&ion 
pf the diocefe by Alexander I. about the year 1120, to the final 
abolition of prelacy in the year 1688, a fpace of 568 years, amount- 
ed to the number of 37, about 16 years to each incumbency. Al- 
though noi\e of them made any confpicuous figure as ftatefmen, 
yet both in the Roman Catholic and Proteftant churches, feveral 
appear to have, been refpe&abje, and to have poffeffed the confi- 
dence of their fefpeftive contemporaries. Several eftates are fUH 
founded according to decreets arbitral of Colin Falconer, the laft. 
JJifliop who inhabited the caftle of Spynie, and who died in 1 686. 


ffap. IIX.3 PARISH OF tLGlN. ^35 

..The whole country, of every rank* attended his funeral. He had 
two fucceffors, Alexander Rofe and William Hay; but neither of 
them had any perfonal refidence, in their official chara&er, in this 
magnificent caftle, which has been above defcribed. 


Situation, Soil, Climate.] — It is by the chartulary of Moray eiia. 
blilhed, that, prior to the year 1226, the name of the town, which 
is extended to that of the parifh,. was Helgyn, which it mod pro- 
bably obtained from one of thofe many Norwegian chiefs who 
bore the name of Helgy; and who, according to Torfaeus, con- 
quering Moray and the countries on the north, by the forces of 
Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, built this town, in its foutherji quarter, 
ilmoft 900 years ago. The particle en 9 . or an, marking the geni« 
tive cafe in the Celtic, makes Helgyn to Ggnify of Helgy: fundrjr 
etymologies however have been alfo fuggefted from the Gaelic ;> 
jthe moll fpecious among them is, el, place, and cean, the head. 

The town is placed in the north-eaft corner of the parifh, Spynic 
lying clofe upon the north, and St. Andrews Lhanbryd oji the eaft. 
The parilh is ftretched foutherly from the town, over the widefl: 
part of the plain, for 6 miles, towards the fide of/ the mountain, 
which in this quarter, by a direfi approximation to the Frith, at 
0nce reduces the champaign of Moray to half the breadth to which 
it had gradually widened from its narroweft beginning on the bank 
of jthe Spey. Through this encroachment of the mountain upon 
%he plain, a vale is opened, nearly parallel to the Frith, along 
the courfe of the LoITy; and the leffer river of Lochty, winding 
through the deep dale of Plufcarderi, extends the length of the 
parilh wefterly to the borders of RafFord, at the diftance of 10 
miles from the town. 

The foil, in general, may be defcribed as fandy, although in 
many places it is fertile loam, and in fome a rich clay. The cli- 
mate is warm, healthful, and ferene. 

§tate of Property.'}— -The country diftriS of the parifli is fliared 



among fix ^proprietors. The Eari of Fife's property is valued hV 
the cefs roll at L.£8y6. 14s. 4c!. Scots. The Earl of Moray has 
Pitnadriech, and Upper and Nether Monbean, at L..1274. 8s. 4d. 
The honourable George Duff, of the family of Fife, has Milltowif, 
Invertochty, and Bilbohall, at L. 11 89. 9s. Sir Archibald Dun- 
bar of Northfield, bart* has BlackhiJIs, on which there is a com- 
modious manfion-houfe, fpacious well-ftocked gardens, and eW- 
tenfive plantations, valued at L. 208. as. 2d- The Earl of Find- 
later has Main, at L.203. 16s. 8d. upon which are a fpacious hand- 
fome houfe and gardens, with much ornamented ground, and a 
great extent and variety of plantations. Peter Rofe Watfone of 
Cottfield has Weftertown of Plufcarden, at L.7L 3s. 6d. The 
lands holding of the community, fliared among the burgeffes, with 
a part acquired by the Earls of^Fife and Find later, are valued at 
L486. 7s. 4d. extending the valued rent of the whole pariih to 
JL.6330. is.4d. ' 

The farms are of various extent: a few about 100 acres, k 
confiderable number between 30 and 40, and fome under 20. The 
mean rent of the land in the vicinity of the town is L.a fterlinjj 
the acre, and from 15s. to 18s. in the country. 

The town is well built: the houfes, in general, are either new 
or of »late improved, according to the modern ideas of handfome 
.accommodation: it confifts of one principal ftreet/ in a winding 
•courfe, for little more than a mile, from eaft to weft, widened to fuch v 
breadth towards the middle of the town as to have the church awk- / 
wardly placed upon it, and, at a little diftance farther on, the town- 
houfe, a mean building, adjoined to a clumfy fquare tower, almoft 
without windows, which contains the hall where the courts and 
county-meetings are held, and the common goal. Behind the houfes 
whfeh front the ftreet, buildings are carried back on either fide, 
in narrow lanes, for the length of 8 or 10 dwellings, in fome cafes 
feparate properties, and containing for moft part diftincT: families. 
Many of thefe lanes terminate in the gardens, affording a more 
immediate accefs to the country than the few public avenues offer. 
The water of thepit-wells in the town is a little brackifh : a confi- 
derable quantity of this commodity muft be therefore carried from 
the river, although diflant from the town. _ 

The oldeft charter among the archives is granted by Alexander 
JI. in the year 1234, giving and confirming to his burgefles of 

Ciap/iti.J parish ofc s^gik. ~ 13/ 

Elgyn a guild of merchants, with as ample privileges as any burgh* 
in Scotland* ' • » 

? James II. by charter 1457, confirms the grants of his ,predeceP 
tors, particularly th« lands of Mofstowie, Do Walgreen, Grievefhip, 
and Strathcant. ..-._": ^ 

James VI. by charter 1620, grams the bofpital of Maifort Bi'etr # 
with the patronage and tiends thereof, Upper and Nether Mon~ 
1 beam, and Hattgh, Upper and Nether Pitnafear, Upper and Kether 
Kirkdales in Knpoando. 

„ . Charles I. by charter 1 633, confirms the lands already mentioned, 
adding Glaflgreen; Upper Barflathilis, Bogfide, with the mill land* ' 
and multures of Kirfolales, the Blackfriar Croft7 and the lands and 
gardens, belonging to the predicant brethren on the north fide of 
the burgh; and all- the ports and ftations/bays and creeks of Spey 
and Lofly, and between Spey and Findorn, where anyfhip or boat 
can be received; with power to hold the fix great fairs and the 
weekly market, and that hone elfe fliali hold lairs or markets with- 
in 4 miles of town; and to h<Md courts, appoint officers, and enjoy 
all the privileges ^and immunities appertaining to royal burghs. 
.In 164 1, by a charter ratified in parliament, March % 1645, the 
King adds the right of patronage of two minifies arid one reader* 1 
It muft however' fee prcfuttred, : that the community at no time pof- 
feffed the whole property which thefe charters Corivey ; for in 60 
years aftcir.the date of the laft,- they madfe a bargain With the pro- 
prietor of Kimiedur for the only harbour which tHey ever poffefled, 
and which might be rendered of little confequence by proper keys 
at the moc$ fecttre and commodious .ftations of Burgh^head, Cove- 
fea, and Stotneld; nor have they ever claimed any perquifite frortf 
the trade carried on ;at Spey; and a great annual fair has been al- 
• ways held at Lhanbryd, within half the diftance from the town 
'which the lateft charter allows. The lands conveyed by .thefe char- 
ters yield at prefent a revenue of nearly L.igoo, while the income 
of the community, arifingmoftly from feu -duties, market tolls, and 
a few fields about town, does not exceed. L. 200. 

Their internal government was ratified by the Convention of 
Boroughs in 1706, by which the magiftracy confifts of the Provoft," 
4 Baillies, and 12 Counfellors, annually ele&ed by themfelves, 
-with the change only of 5 s but refideriting burgfcfies- only are eli- 
gible. The Council nominate a jury of other 15, id apportion the 
» - ' taxes 

138 Present state or the province. '£C&dp\ i#J 

taxes afFe&ing the trade; but n6 private tax can be iropofed, with- 
out the confent of a majority of burgeffes affembled in the head 
court, which caa only fit upon the 2d Tuefday of September, in 
^hich the ftate of the borough, and the expenditure of the reve* 
uue, may be inveftigated ; and for the general f at is f aft ion, the 
books and accounts are ordered to be fubmitted to public infpec- 
tion, for the 20 preceding days. 

• State Ecclefiaftical.~]—~Tht parilh is accommodated with two mi- 
nifters of the Eftabliflied Church, each with an appointment of - 
L.50, and 127 bolls of barjey, including the expence of the com- 
munion, which each of them celebrates once a year. They have » 
fmall glebe in common, a part of which was fpecially defigned for 
a fituatiori for their manfes ; but the Court of Seffion- determined, 
that the proprietors of the parifb were not, as in common cafes, 
bound to build houfes for the minifters of Elgin ; and die incalcu- 
lable expence of civil juftiqe in this kingdom deters them front 
filing for redrefs. The church appears a low clumfy misfliapen 
building, a^t once deforming and incumbering the ftreet. Its length 
is 80 feet, and its breadth 60 ; but two rows of maffy cyliiidHc:co- . 
lumns divide the floor into 3 compartments* nearly from one end 
to the other;' the pulpit is placed in the middle fpace between the 
columns, and is wholly lighted by a Gothic, window in the weft 
gable: the fteeple is upon the eaft end, and, being ftill unfinifhed, 
is only a very little higher than the church, of which its bottom is 
a part, while its top accommodates the clock and two Veil-toned 
bells; the fteeple on each fide is fupported by an_aifle, which were; 
^originally tombs, though in one of them the ecclefiaffccal court* 
occafionally meet. On the eaft, the fteeple is alfo fupported by a 
ftapelefs hulk of another church, a 1 moil in ruins; now, though once 
the fubjeft of an appeal from the High Court of Jufticiary to the 
Houfe of Peers, in a profecution iax ejeQing the minifter of the 
Epifcopalian congregation. It is now a place of worfliip, in force 
jefpefts on a fimilar eftablilhmeiit to that of Lady Glenorchy's- 
chapel in Edinburgh. The congregation is compofed of people 
both of the town and country pariihes around, who elude the \aw of 
patronage, though profefling ,themf elves of the national church. 
They ordain or inftai the preacher themfelves, that i$, a few .who 
take the lead among them, without the moderation of a call, fo re- 
(juifite by Preflbyterian principles,, and without the fmalleft .con- 

Chap. m3 ¥*aia& of nam. tj^ 

gurrenceor approbation whatever of any ecckfiaftical judicature, 
of whole jurifdiftioa, or regulations at kail, he is independent; be 
poffeffes, however, ail the countenance and almoft every benefit 
arifing from the national church, unlefs it be a legal fecurity for 
the ftipend, without which however he muft make hi* doctrine pa* 
latablc, whether evangelical or net. He holds communion wjsJt 
the minifters of the town, and has the countenance alio of feverftl 
of the tipagiftrfccy and eiderfbip. His appointment is equal to L, 40 
staling yearly, arifing from the rents of . the feats, and from t«to 
endowments, each of L. 5 yearly* one bequeathed by a Dr. Gordbi r 
and the other by Mr. David Rintottl, one of the minifters of Elgin* 
Jfotwithftandtng the charter granted by King Charles, and ratified 
ax above by the parliament, the crown has always /continued to ex* 
crcife the right of patronage* 

The valley of Plufcarden is the only difirifi of the country which 
■feeing to fuflfer by the fubftkutiotr of the Reformed for the Roman 
Catholic religion, by which they enjoyed the pompous eftabliflunent 
of the priory in the tntdft of this fequeOered vale. The minds of 
the people were cheered through the day, andfoothed during even 
the ftiltnefs of the midnight hour,, by the folemn found of the con- 
secrated bells, calling the venerable inmates to their ftatutory devo- 
tions; and they had accefs to the confolationsof rt holy men, in 
«very feafon of diftrefs, with the free and eafy accommodation of 
ifae moil fplendid focial toorfhtp; they had the means alio of edu- 
cating in the moft commodious manner their little ones, in a (hart 
of the literature of the times ; and numberlefs important advantages • 
befide mutt have accrued from the wealth of this eftdHitbment, ex 1 - 
pe*dcd among them, and from the refort of ftrangers of every 
tank, upon amufement, bufinefs, or devotion, to this magnificently 
&qred and hofpitable abode. Now alt is cold and filent, forlorn 
and melancholy defolation: every thing pleafant and ufeful is va* 
jrifltad: no national eftablifhnient, not any private inftitution, for 
their afiflance in civil or religious erudition, within the dtftance 
of tea miles, JJy the royal bounty, they once indeed had a mi£ 
fionaxy ; hut Us appointment wis gradually frittered down to in 4 
Hgotftoanc*, «nd for many yean has been totally withdrawn. They 
were of late flattered with the expectation of a fehoottnailer, by the 
Society for Cbrittan Knowledge; but the proprietors withheld 
the accommodations which the regulations of the fociety require* 
tfatafs tf* (bildrei are taught to read the bible! their parents be- 

X Ueve 

l|a PRESENT STtfflrOr THE fROVINCE. r \Chap. m. 


,4icve they prove faithlefs to the vows they made when their little j 
ndnf s were baptized : and in. the prefent times, the profeffion of a ! 
taylor, or a blackfmith, require* the knowledge in fome degree of | 
.writing and accounts. The people therefore of this diftrift, cori- 
-fifling of about ioo families, fupport a fchoolmafter wholly from 
; their own funds, which doubt: become ultimately a burden 
^atlefting the land^rent. ... 

< ; They have without a murmur maintained alfo a Chapel of Eafe 
camong themfelyes, far almoft forty years. Of late. only they have 
t been, aided. by a bequeathment ofL.j yearly, by the late Dr.JrIay, • 
.one .of the minifters of the town: the Earl of Fife alfo adds a dona- 
tion of L.3. yearly* which enables the incumbent to difcharge the 
.X(gitp( ahoufe.and a or 3 acres of land, rented from his Lordfhip: 
the minifters of Elgin alfo are in the pra&ice of giving each a 
guinea in. the. year : by all which means, the whole appointment 
>extcrjds to the yearly income of L.20 fterling. Such however 
is the imprcflion of the undifcerning zeal of reformation which 
jRili remains, that although feveral vaulted apartments within the 
abbey are fo- entire as to have needed only windows and a door, 
yet the- people built a homely chapel, left they fbould be polluted 
by tjiis. fabric pfanti-chrifiian idolatry. The Eatl of Fife a (Efts 
theip-in the repair* of the chapel, and on that account, he enjoys 
the patronage of ;it. Befides thefe congregations of the Eftablifli- 
.qd Church, there* are in the town two chapels of Epifcopalians, 
.one qf Speeders* one of Methodifts, and one of the church of 
iiojne: but all thefe diffenting meetings have a confiHfcrable num- 
ber of their nfcejnbers from the adjoining parifhes : their number, in 
ihis parilh exceeds not 700,. while. the eftabliQiment reckons nearly 
-3800... • • , : ■ .■ . - • ' • .1 • , " : 

} There are two fchools, chiefly fupported by the revenues of the 
Jaws. The, grant of the property of the Roman Catholic Eftabiifh- 
jnent of Maifoa J)ieu by James VL in the yefcr 1620, is deftincd, 
after inaintaining a few po?r> for the fupport of a teacher of .•• jhu- 
*' Cc, aud^t heather liberal faiences;" for which, with the fees. from 
fchojars, and the ptrquifitej of the. office of feffion -clerk, he has 
moreover a.-falajry. of L.15 fterling yearly. The, town^ve alfo ef- 
tablifhed a matter, in a fcparate edifice,, for cl^fficuJ learn tog, with 
an appointment of,, which arifes in part from fame 'froall be- 
gueathmenu in favour of this eJtafeJifhmetH, too of which have 
lately.-- made a fmall addition to this endowment. - The jmprieton 

* of 

l&f/,IIt.] .* > RAKISH OF ELGIN* ' .: • 14a 

j^fthe l*nd bear no part of the,experice of either. o( thefe fcho.6Is, 
in which originally thefe rudiments} parts of literature were!;can* 
duded as it were in feparate monopolies ; .the one f having beirt In- 
terdicted from teaching Latin, and the other, the reading of Erig- 
lifh: but experience having fhewn, that every kind of monopoly, 
the Eaft India trade alone excepted* is- difadvantageous to fociety, 
the number of fcholars in both has for fome time -pad been regu- 
lated only by the diligence qr fuccefs of the matters^ in neither o£ 
whom at prefent is fuperiority even by this trial manifefted. 

Experience has demonftrated, that; like the grave, the poor ne- 
ver fay " it i& enough :" that, however munificent the provifibn 
inade for them may be, their wants are not f up plied* their ntfmVer 
is, only enjprpafed. It is not yet ; aoo. years fince any public funds 
ve$e deftined for the poaj. ; .Before the Reformation* all pious do- 
nations were rn^de only to the Church, and «the poor were /wholly 
trifled to the care of Providesnee: but in the prefent times, per- 
yerfely faid to be fo much degenerated, the, colleSions; made in the 
church, about L.45 fteding, are, ]fy the yearly inte^eft of a fund, 
extended to L.53, under : the management of the feffiau, which, by 
bequeathroents, under the dire&ioa of the M^giftrates, are ftill fai** 
ther augmented to the fujpi of L.71, for tlje annual fupport o£ the 
poor enjifted on the parifii roll. Bolides which, Mr. Cumirie o£ 
Pitullie, once Provoft of the town, bequeathed a capital of about 
JL.336 flerling, for the maintenance of 4 difabled members of the 
Guild, • nominated alternately by his heirs and the Magiftrates, to* 
the fum of L.8 fterling yearly, with ahoufe and garden to each; 
and by. the royal endowment of Maifon Dieu, other 4 difabled 
men are provided with a boufe, garden, gqwn„ and 4 bolls« of bar-* 
ley in the year to each. Befides thefe* the Guild of Elgin have a 
growing -fund, by entries and a yearly contribution by each indU . 
yiduarof as. anaountingtto a revenue of almoft L.j8o'fterling«year^ 
ly, thpugh as yet about* L^o only is divided ajnong their widows 
and impkverifhed members. 

; After. their example, the 6 corporations, weavers, taylors, glov* 
«rs,.lhoeinaker&, fmiths, and wrights, have each their refpe&ive ca* 
pital for , widows and difabled members, arifing from entry mQney 
fcnd an aual Contributions. 

Tbsre zx$ a|fa two Friendly Societies ; the members of. each 

c<mt#ibi!fce 7<*' W^M/i . ■ . 1 "... • t < 

" . There 


There arc afi© two Mafon Lodges, the gentlemen having made a 
leceffion from the operative mafons; but k n not ascertained, 
whether charity, or the asfiifcments of Sociality, be the chief end 
ef their eftabliftmenu* 


Situation, Scily C&maA?.]— BteSH>ES the valleys which the river* 
occupy, and may be conceived to have formed; in the chain of 
mountain ftretched along the fouthern fide pf the tew hmd* of 
Moray, one valley, in which there is no taver, open* fouthward 

- from the wideft part of the plain, where the weftern fide of the pa- 
rifh of Elgin borders with the eaft of Birme, and extendsi quite 
through the mountain to the bank* of the Spcy. A fqiaare htff, 
about 6 milts along the bafe oE every fidte, i* hereby snf ulatwd on 
♦he eaft of this defile, having the plain of Rothes on the foiith^mi 
the eaft partly Rothes, and partly Speymouth, and the champaign 
ci Moray on its northern fide. The motnttatit on the weftern fife 
ef this defile extends beyond its length to either hand, from Craig 
£lacby overhanging the Spey, to the hie of Mofetowie i» the fo» 
*t(h of Alves ; as if that river, once occupying a channel along its 
bafe 6* feet higher than its prefeht bed, had then poured its whole 
Aream through this defile, and winded over the plain* in a variety 
of courles during different ages, into the fea. > - . 

The parifh of Birnie is placed in the entrance of this defile, ear- 
tended partly on the plain* and partly on the fide of the mountain, 
through which the water of Loflie, titilfag from its own valley- in 
the mountain, bends from its original direftion paralter t<* tfie 
JFrith, winds northward along the plain, doubled almoft m its 

* flream by the increafe of three brooks, die Xenocb, R&rde** and 
Rafhcrook, each tumbling from the hi)} through its own, narrow 
vale. It appears by the Chart. Mor. that the parifo has bore the 
name Brenuth fince times that were aneient mr the feegupriftgaf 
ibe 13th ceniury, a Gaelic appellation, fignifying, in kfr literal »- 

, terpretation, the north hiUJidt, The tnhivated kg** fa graerairf 

&0f.m] Mlttf •* IffttttE. *43 

* lhaHow foil, fondy, fia&ey, an£ fteep, lying on a bed of rock, or 
much-concreted gravel. The foil on feveral fields on the frank* 
trf the Loflle i§ Ntan incumbent on fand, or clay ; and over the 
-whole parifli, plots of moorifli or peat foil are found. The air, 
though healthful, w rather moift and cold in the hills, where the 
fraft is earlier and {harper, and more tain and fnow fall, than on 
the plain. 

• State of Property.']— The whole pafifli was part of the lands of 
the bifhoprick. The Regent Eari of Moray obliged Bifhop Hep- 
hum, on the pretence of entertaining hi« outlawed nephew Both- 
well, about the year f $66, to annex it, with other lands, to his pri- 
vate etUte, The hills affording game in abundance, one croft, for 
the Earl's accommodation in the hunting feafon, was affigned to 
ja>e vintner* for the yearly payment of a rofe, and another to the 
Wackfmkh, for the annual delivery of a horfe-fiioe, if required. 
This; bft has ftill remained a feparate property, and appertains to 
Thomas Stephen Efq. phyfician in Elgin, valued in the cefs book 
of the county .at L.6. 16s. &L Scots, now rented at about L.iz 
fierttng. The remainder of the partfh appertains to the Earl of 
Findiater, valued at L.727* 17s. amounting at prefent to L. 060 
sterling of yearly rent, from which the feu-duties to the Earl of 
Moray are ft bells and L*i. 4s, 2d..; and to the Crown, as fucceed- 
feg the Bifhop, L.3. 1 os. tod.. The whole arable land of the pa- 
*Hb is 8jjO acres, of which two farms only are rented above L.50 
Her ling; and the** are 40 under that extent* The uncultivated 
ground, confiiling of moor foil and peat earth, with fome interja- 
cent plots of green pafture, amounts to 5000 acres. 

State EceleJfa/Ncal.'y-tThe church was the firft cathedral in the 
tKocefe. There is no account when the prefent fabric was built : 
though fmaM, k ». wholly of free-ftone, neatly fquared and cut, 
;and is diftioguifhed by ks nave and choir. The fourth Bifhop, 
Simoon cfe Tooei, was buried in it in the year 1184. The ftipend is 
JL*4» . *6t. jd, and 38 boils 2 firlots of viftual. The glebe is near- 
ly 9 acres. The right of patronage appertains to the Earl of Mo- 
*ay. The falary of the febooi is L.j ; and as the number of fouls 
in the partft, of whoasj 2 only are Seceders, amounts to 402, the 
; emoluments af office, arifing from about 20 fcholars, muft be in- 
eoafidei'able. The provifion for the poor arifes from two feparate 
hequeathmenfej ajwuming together to L^ res.; and the double 

. ..-;.. . . of 

144 PRESENT STAT* O* THE PROVINCE, [Ckflp. til, 

of that fdnvis added by the contributions of the'peQpte who attend 
public worflrip in the parifh church, which, after the neceflary de- 
ductions to the feffion clerk and officer, affords a forry pittance tg 
1 8 perfons, enrolled on the pariih lift. 

• filjfceUaneous Information. ^] — The people* though poop, are in* 
duftrious, cheerful, and temperate : mufic is their favourite diver- 
fion ; many play on the bag-pipe, and feveral on the violin. There 
i^ a very ancient bell of copper and filver:*it is called the Co- 
ronach : its figure is not round 5 it is fquare, haying 2 fides wider 
j.han the other two ; all of them are cut into open decpratitais near 
the top. It was made at Rome, and confecrated by the Pope, 
The con fc crated font remains alfo entire, though now tumbled 
about without reverence in the church-yard. It is a free-ftonc 
veflel, the fruftum of a cone, and appears to have been divided by 
a plate pf iron, that the water for the baptifm of males might not 
be mixed with that for females. ( The church is ftill held in great 
veneration. It is believed that prayers there for the lick, for three 
following Sundays, will be heard; and people, at the diftance of. 
Co miles, have defined' thefe prayers: and it is a jocular rebuke 
among the common people, . upon undue complaint for any flight 
diftrefs or imprbper behaviour, that " fuch mud be prayed for in 
" the church of JJimie., that they may end, or mend." The cairn 
of Kilforeman, although, a pile of ftone 300 feet in, circumference 
at its bafe, hath ceafed to tell the purpofe of its own accumula- 
tion ; and the Bible* Stone, about a mile eaftjvard from, the church* 
having the. figure of a book diftin&ly engraven, no longer marks 
the property of the Rifliop : but the cave in $he«*ock of Gedlpch 
ftill records the tradition of its having been the haunt qf a band of 
armed robbers, who plundered and diftreffed the country, and re* 
minds the pafling generation of the fuperior advantages of the pre* 
fent conftitution,,by which every fpecies of ojppreffion, unautho- 
rized by law,' is.moft entirely quelled. The veftiges of an en- 
campment, protected on the weft by the brook Bardqn, and on the, 
north and eaft by a deep, defile, is ftill to be traced, 
. A ridge of rock extends from eaft to .weft through t^e .middle 
pf the parifh, and quarries of free, ftone, h (late, and lime-ftone, have 
{ately been difcovered. There are oak, birch, hazle, ? and plane- 
trees, but not in fufficient quantity for the jmplpraeriU ot huf- 
fcandry ; and large trunks of pak and fir are dug in* the tra&s o£ 


'Chap, ill.'] fARISJFI V* ALVES. T "145 

peat earth. Broom, furze, juniper, floes, and bramble, are in 
plenty, and the water-lilly in the Gedloch is peculiar to the pa- 
rifli. It is embellifhed alf6 in forne degree by two water-falls, 
the Lin of Shoggle, and the Efs of Glenlaterach, each about 20 
feet in height. .< 


Situation* Soil; Climate.'] — : The parifh of Alves, ftirting along 
the weftern fides of Duffus and Spynie, comprehends the whole 
breadth of the champaign of Moray, from the Frith to the bottom 
of the mountain, which in this quarter, ranging along the north 
fide of the vale of PLufcarden, divides it from that limb of the pa- 
rifli of Elgin. .. ,/<_.. 

It is one peculiarity .of this parifh, that, although it has no ftreara 
naturally fufficient to turn a common CQrn-mill, yet the trafts of 
a great river remaia manjieftly evident, almoft over all its length. 
It may be deemed, perhaps, a bafelefs Speculation to'prefume, that 
the vallies whic& the. rivers , now excupy were not miraculoufly 
formed at the xreation, for the. reception of their waters, but have 
been gradually holloaed, out by the natural a£Hon of their ref- 
peflive ftreams. It requires an exertion. of the imagination to con- 
ceive the whole coantry without valleys, uniformly elevated to -the 
level of the Jower hills,- and, inftead of the great rivers, .number- 
lef& fmall ftreams only, meeting into one almoft by accidental con- 
gress, in the tracilefs» wafte of imcqnfolidated, bare, oozy, mud # 
when .God faid at the haft," Let the waters under the heaven be 
ds gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear." 

Although, this -might be in general, prefumed to have been .the. 
cafe, its application in aoy one particular inflance may ftill be dif- 
ficult. It re^uirqs, no common- exertion. of the mind, even in idea, 
(£> reprefent, this country before ;the excavation of the Moray Frith, 
when ,tbe higheft lauds, of Birnie werecontinuoufly conjoined with 
the Sutherland, halls, and no fca intervened between Duncan's 
hay and Peterhead;, but that, the -river Varrar, receiying the water* 


f 46 PRESENT «TA« Of TM PROVINCE. £C4ftf. Jjfc. 

whkh now coofiitute the Ncfe, Nairn, and Findorn, in itrcouriV 
jeeeting with the Spey alfo from the fouth, and the Conan front 
the north* boiling in rapid eddies, arotfnd the Knock of Alvesl rolled 
an one vaft volume along the fide of the hiU* of Enzic and Culka^ 
and difcharged an immenfe catarafl; of extremely turbid water far 
eaftward in the German ocean. But having conceived this idea, 
it will not be difficult to fappofe, that the river of Fiudborn, at a 
period much lefs remote, might, have winded among the dales of 
Alyes, through the lake of Spynie into the fea. Befides the evi- 
dent veftiges of its trad which remain, i$a memory is ftill dif- 
tinftly preferved in the name of the old caftle of Erne-fide, which 
in thofe days decorated its banks ; it being well known, that the 
Erne is the proper appellation of the river; while the farm upon 
the lake of Inchfiellie preferves alfo, by hs name, the memory of „ 
its once peninfular fituation: and k could never* have been em- 
bofomed by any other river. The partfh is nearly a fquare of £ 
miles, preferring a fcrrface confideraWy diversified by floping, and 
by level plains and gently. fwelling eminences; It is far from be^ 
ing fo uniformly plain as that of Drainy o A r Ikiffus, although a 
great proportion of its furface is accounted level tend. The foil 
is drftinguiflicd for its fertility, being a deep fat loam incumbent 
on clay, in a very few places only of a lighter quality ; it produces 
xirops of oats, valued in particular for their (low and late ripen- 
ing, being found, upon the warmer fandy foils of the neighbour- 
ing patifhes, to increafe the luxuriance of the ftem and the weight 
of the grain. ' - 

State of Property.'] — George Forteath Efq. has feuilt a fpaciout 
and fpiendid houfe upon his property of Newtown, where be has 
alfo formed an elegant garden, and made a cortfideraWe extent of 
plantation. The valued rent around this family feat extends td 
L465. 1 os. Scots. Peter Rofe Wat fone of Weftertown Efq. pre- 
fers the warm caftled accommodations of his ancetot& at Cokfiel<£ 
to the airy painted halls of modern fafaion. The valued rent of 
his domains in this parifh extend to L768. 17s* ad. Scots; WiU J 
liam Brodie of Milltown Efq* has his family feat under the north 
fide of a gceen ferrated mount; its exterior appearance, though 
not modern, indicating neat internal accommodation. His valued' 
ient of Hempriggs and Windyhitts amounts to L.818. igs. 4*!. 
• The lands of Ardgay , Monaughty, and Afleefk, appertaining^ *b 


Clip* ui-j parish or kvm. * ♦ i±f 

the Earl of Fife, are valued at L.1575. 15s. fid. Alves and Inch- 
ftdlie, the property of the Earl of Moray, are valued at L.1336. 2s* 
tod. Kirktqwn Alves, and Erne- fide, the property of Spence 
Monro Efq. are valued. at L.426. $s.>8d.. The land of Kilbuy- 
ack, at L.380. j&* belongs to.Mifs Bridie of Lethin : making the 
valuation of the parifli equal to L.5462. 17s. 2d. Scots. The real 
rent of the -parifti may be eftimated about L.gooofterling. The 
fijrms in general a$$ of refpe&able extent, there being few under 
30, and feveral above 100 acres. The mean rent of the land is 
about L*t. 5s. the acre* 

State EccUfiaftical.'] — The ftipend is L.46- 13s. 4d. fterling, 96 
bolls of bear, and 16 of meal ; the allowance for the communion 
being included. The right of patronage appertains to the Earl of 
Moray* The fchool. falary is 10 bolls of bear, and L.2. 15s. 6d. 
fterling; and by the aft of Parliament which confers the emolu- 
ments of the office of feflion- clerk upon the parochial fchoolmaf- 
ter, he has. the fee of L.i. 12s. and the cuftornary perquifites, with 
the ufual fees for,teachiag* 

In the year 1715 George Duncan Efq. merchant in Invernefs, 
bequeathed L, 166. 12s. 6d. fterling, for the education of 6 boys, 
from the fixth to the tenth, year of their age, who are to be pre* 
feated by the fef&on* The Poor, who are not numerous, are com- 
fortably fupported by the charity of the congregation, in the con* 
clufion of their public worfhip, the dues for the ufe of the palf, 
id fome charitable donations, among which- is the fum of L.39 
erling, bequeathed by Mr. Watt, who had transferred his miniftra- 
ions from this parifli to Forres. The members of the national 
urch are 1030, about 50 Seceders, and 30 Epif copal ians. 
Mifullanecus Information.'] — The people are induftrious, fober f 
regular in their attendance on the public indentions of reli- 
ion, and more than equal to their neighbour's in knowledge and 
formation. The conical hUl«i the Knock terminates a low ridgfe 
the foutbern quarter of tM parilh. It is feparated from the ridge 
at ranges through the partfh of Spynie only by a narrow gap. In 
>th are inexbauftible quarries of free-ftone, equally fit, for mill- 
*ne.s and for building. . In the yte&ern end of the parifh, there is 
arge circular, pile of ftone: it has never been examined : no name 
circumftance concerning it .is known. Some Danilh axes of 
icoramon form have been found in a traft of peat-morafs in the 
unity of Ernefide. 

U JfUMv 



Situation, Soil, Glimate.~\ — The parifh of Kinlofs lies- on the 
wcftern fide of Alves, and may be regarded as occupying the wbole 
breadth of the champaign, although a corner of Alvcs is protruded 
for a little way along the bottom of the mountain, and in this quar- 
ter the mountain fide itfelf, almofl; wholly cultivated, appertains to 
the parifh of Rafford. Being only formed into a feparate parifh in 
the year 1657, the name of the abbey, fituated at the head of the bay 
of Findern, became readily that of the parifh. It is a flat country, 
almofl a fquare of 4 miles.. r In fome places the foil is light fand; 
in others, rich deep clay and fertile loam ; an incoherent .peat earth 
is the furface foil of many hollow lying fields : but the whole, when 
properly cultivated, produces luxuriant crops of every kind of 
grain. Moft of the fprings have fome mineral talle, and the water 
is in general bad. The air is fharp and dry: fuppofed to generate 
rheumatifm and cutaneous diftempers among the people, who are 
obliged to fupport its nioft unfavourable influences. 

State of Property. ~\ — The parifh appertains to 4 proprietors. 
General Sir Heftor Munro of Novar has the barony of Muirtown, 
valued in the county cefs book at L.1859. 1 4 s * 8d. Scots. Mifi 
Brodie of Lcthin has Kinlofs and Eaft Grange, at L.1091. is. 4d. 
General James Grant of Balnadalloch has Struthers, Newtown, 
and Winderlaw, it L.475. 5s • 4d. : and the remainder of the parifh 
is the property of Lewis Dunbar Efq. of Grange, at L.297. 17s. 71k 
making the whole valued rent equal to L.3723. 18s. xid. Scots. 
The greater farms vary from about 100 to 130 acres, while fome 
the leaft are only from 5 to 6. The average rent by the acre 
from 18s. to L.i. 4s. though there are fome which let at L,.i. s 
and a fmall part has rifen to the rate even of L.3 the acre. T 
whole number of the farms amount to 40. 

The village of Findhorn, on the eflate of Muirtown, at the infl 

of the river Findern, properly the Erne, into the Frith, may I 

. confidered as the port of the town of Forres, and partly of Elg 


four veffels, from 90 to 130 tons barihen, are employed in 


-Chap.'m.] '* parish of kwloss. .S49 

London trade to this port, and to thofe of Cromarty and Invernefs 
conjoined, one aft A: another generally arriving between every third 
and fifth week, and completing 5 or 6 voyages in the year. An 
inconfiderable quantity of dyed threads, manufa&ured in the vil- 
Jage; a proportion of the grain of the country ; and the falmon of 
the rivers of Nairn and Findern, with a fmall quantity from the 
upper fifheries of the Spey, comprife the goods fent to London. 
The. falmon is fent in veffels appropriated for that article, put on 
boar J in the offing, and reach market commonly between the 5th 
and 9m day., From 2500 to 4000 kits k bringing from 16s. to L.i. 
1 os. the kit in London, comprehend the yearly quantity. 

The articles brought back from London are fugar, tea, hops, 
porter, and cheefe— filfc, .woollen, and cotton, cloths — hats, rib- 
bons, and buttons, hardware, houfehold furniture, tanned leather, 
and grab feeds. 

Three veffels, from 70 to 90 tons burthen, are employed in the 
trade from Leith, and the other ports in the Frith of Forth, to the 
.fame places, completing, their voyages nearly in the fame times. 
The only article, carried out is grain, generally about 3000 bolls in 
the year, in cargoes of 300 or 40b bolls : in fome years, 7000 or 
8000 have been Clipped : but the failure of the crop 1781, from an 
cxceffive drought, and a fhake by a ftorm of wind, required an im- 
portation of 2000 bolls ; while the crop of X782 required a fupply 
of no lefs than 8000 bolls from foreign ports, . 

The goods brought from Leith yearly confift of a confiderable 
quantity of tanned leather, foap, tallow, and grafs feeds, foreign 
bar iron, and manufactured iron from Carron, farm u tenuis and 
furniturp, bottles, window and cryftal glafs, JEnglilh and Scots 
iioneware, Englilh hardware, and the manufactures of the looms 
of England, Glafgow, and Paifley. Wines, imported by the mer- 
chants of Forres and Invernefs from the places of their growth to 
Leith, make a part of the freights of thefe veffels, there being now 
feldom any .wine imported . direftly here. Small quantities of 
fpruce or black beer made at Dantzick.are alfo forwarded from 
Leith. The (hips employed in freighting the corn bring in yearly 
about 100 tons of Scots coal, and about 6 times as much from 
Sunderland, avoiding Newcaftie on account of the duty paid to 
-the Duke of Richmond, on coals jhipped. there. With the coal, 
there is occasionally a {mall quantity of lime brought for nunure, 

U2 and 


find about 130 tons of fait from the different fahwoAs of the 
Frith. Many paffengers fail in thefe veffels both to and front 
Jjondon and Leith, >..'■., 

Two veffels are generally employed in bringing ftax, tow, foreign 
bar iron, hard and foft foap, ropes and dreffed hemp fronai Aber* 
deen, The flax is dreffed, and only fent flown by the raanufafhm 
ers of that city to be fpun, about Elgin, Forres, and Nairn, which 
it is' fuppofed will amount to *nor€ than L.2©oa fterling yearly, for 
fpinning the yarn returned from this port. Thefe veffels gene*, 
rally complete their voyage in the courfe of every fix weeks, and 
occafionally carry back fmatt quantities of flour and a few other 

Small quantities of yarn, manufactured from home-growji flax, 
are fent alfo by Leith for tlie Glafgow looms ; and fmall quantities 
of butter by private orders for particular families. The pier is 
commodious, but rather too limited : yet the harbour is capacious 
and fafe ; ther£ was always fufficient depth of water on the bar, and 
Jcarcely any veffet wa$ ever damaged in getting over it. Of late, 
the channel has been altered even for the better, and veffels of al- 
moft 300 tons can eafily get to the pier at dream tides. The aft 
of Parliament for building it was obtained by Sir Hefior Munro id 
3778* The duties of anchorage which it allows are, for every vet 
fel under 6 tons, 3d.— -between 6 and 15 tons, 6d.— from 15 to 30 
tons, is.— from 30 to 50 tons, 2s.-— from 50 to 75 tons, 3*.r-*ffroni 
75 to 100 tons, 4s, — from 100 to *<j© tons, 5s. — from 150 to 200 
tons, 6s.- — from soo to 300, 7S,-r-and for 30a tons, and all above 
that, 8s, The duties on goods ftipped and landed vary with the 
different commodities : For the boll of grain, fait, barrel of Englifli 
coal, 100 whole-barref, or 150 half-barrel hoops, £d.— 4or each bat? 
rel of goods imported in barrels, for each grofs of quart bottles, and 
For each parcel, id. — for the 100 bolfe of lime, is. 6d.— for the 
1000 flates or tiles, 6d. — for each 40 feet of timber in logs, $&nr 
and for all coarfe goods not particularly rated, in the proportion of 
L.2 for each L.100 of their value. 

The fdes exacted bjf the cuftom-houfe are equal to three times 
thefe in the port oL Leith on foreign cargoes. On goods carried 
coaft-ways, 2s. is demanded from every merchant for. the value of 
from L.20 to L.50 fterling — is. 6d. to the comptroller and collec- 
tor, and 6d. to the port officer-r-deemed fo exorbitant, that the pay- 

Chap. III.] f ARUM Q* KIN LOS*. f^l 

mem has of late been refuted, and, by fteady unanimity among the 
merchants, redrefs will no doubt be obtained* 

About 30 years ago, there were 7 or 8 fifhing boats belonging t» 
Jindhorn, conftantly employed- There are at prefcnt but 4: a 
fifth is pccafionally rigged out in winter. There are fame fine 
beds of mufcles in this harbour : too boats, from 3 to 7 tons, have 
boen in'fome years freighted for bait to the filh-towns fouthwarA 
on the Frith, as far as Fmferburgh, befides the home confumpt, botk 
for the fibers and jhe market.. Oyfters alfo, about ao years ago, 
were planted by Sir HeEior Monro; but the fcalp having never 
beeij dragged, their fate is wholly unknown. 

Of late fome cargoes of fir timber and deals have been ftipped 

for the eaftern quarter of the Frith; arid as the plantations in the 

country advance, this branch of traffick will probably be enlarged. 

St&te Eccfc/ia/ticaL^-~While the abbey of Kinlofs fubfifted, this 

parifli appertained to that of Alves and Rafford. In the year 165s 

William Campbell, minifter of Alves, comrniffioner from the pref- 

bytery of Elgin to the brethren of Forres, reprefented, that " the 

** chapteivhoufe of the abbey of Kinlofs hath been, fince the Reforu 

%t jnation, a place for preaching the word, celebrating the faera* 

M ments and marriage ; and "by a condefcendehce between Alexan- 

•' der Brodie of Lethin, and the Englifh garrifon at Invernefs, the 

" fabric Of the abbey is taken down for building their citadel, fave 

" the place of worfliip ; and thofe who have the charge for to tranf- 

" port the done, have it in command to take that alfo down: there.- 

** fore the brethren at Elgin earnefily defire, that the prefbytery lay 

*' to heart what the fequel will be, feeing, by the unanimous eon- 

# * lent of the whole heritors of the adjacent lands, and of all the mem* 

** bers of the prefbyteries of Elgin and Forres, it is agreed, that 

•' there flball be a church and particular parifli ere&ed for Kinlofs, 

** and the people thereabout, who are now almoft without the means 

*+ of the gofpel." 

• On the confequent application of the preftytery, Mr., Brodie 
declared, " it was againft his will that thefe .ftones were taken 
•* away." An agreement was however made, that Sir John Mac- 
kenzie of Tarbet, the proprietor of Muirtown, fhould give up his 
cliim on George's Yard, a part of the precinft of the abbey ; and 
that the prefbytery, who claimed the whole precinft, fhould re- 
nounce all pretence to any part thereof, as lawfully .redeemed by 



jLettiin, who, having acquired the abbey lands from Lord Kinlofs, 
engaged on his part to give a i ufficiejit glebe, and ftation for a manfe, 
ofif his lands c>f Kinlofs, and alfo to build the manfe and church 
by the money he had received for the ftone of the abbey. At a 
fubfequent meeting'of the p'refbytery, the whole proprietors agreed 
•on their particular proportions of a ftipend of L. 2 2. 5s. and 3 chal- 
ders of bear, and the expence of the communion, from the tithes 
of their refpecuve lands within the new parifli. The proprietors 
a!fo of the lands remaining in the parifli of Alves, agreed to make 
,iip the proportion of L.5 fterling, and 10 bolls, formerly paid to the 
minifter of Alvcs, from the lartds taken off that parifh ; of which Sir 
Robert Innes, younger of Innes, who in the interval had acquired 
the barony of Muirtown, " out of his free donation and gift, en- 
.'* dows L.2. 10s. by the year, for the payment whereof he doth 
" oblige -himfelt and his heirs, to employ L.41. 13s. 4d. in the 
♦*' hands of refponfal debtors, by the advice of the prefbytery of 
•' Elgin, and the minifter of Alves; and to pay L. 2. 10s. yearly, 
** fo lpngas it remains in his own or forefaid's hands." The other 
Xe. ios. and the 10 bolls, were apportioned on the lands within 
the parifh of Alves. The minifter of Rafford was compenfated 
by the annexation of the parifli of Altyr, which had been in* 
commodioufly united to Dollas, the* ftipend of which was fupplied, 
by conjoining the lands of Killefs, from the .parifli of Elgin. 

It was" not however till the year 1659, that the fettlemerit of 
James Urquhart, the firft minifter of Kinlofs, took place, who in a 
few months thereafter attended a meeting of the Scots parliament 
at Edinburgh, with Sir Robert Innes, and Mr. Fullerton, the mi- 
nifter of Rafford, and obtained the national ratification of this 
whole procedure by the aft March 20, 1661, " which ratifies and 
," confirms the aft and ordinance of the prefbyteries of Elgin and 
** Forres, with confent of all concerned, of date the 6th of Majr 
fi 1657 ;" but appointing the ftipend of Kinlofs to be L.20 fterling, 
and 4 chalders of bear, including the expence of the communion* 
. Upon the death of the Ufurper in the fucceeding year, and the re- 
iloration of Charles II. the Prelbyterian Church of Scotland was 
completely overturned arid abrogated, and the Prelatic conftitutioa 
arbitrarily and violently re-impofed. But that tjjere hath been aa 
ecclefiaftical eftablifhment in every civilized ftate, Gentile, Jew, 
or Chriftian, the hiftorical records of all ages fliow ; and it may be 


&ap. itr.3 * parish or kihuk?.' j53 

from the fcriptures inferred, that this is by the Deity required of 
all who have been favoured by the light of revelation. Although 
it may not be obvious, that the Prefbyterian eftablifhment is parti- 
cularly by the fcriptures enjoined, yet the experience of more than 
100 years hath fully concurred to (hew, that it is by much the belt 
for a people who in general are far from opulent. Inftrudion ia 
the duties of morality and religion is not loll amidft the pomp and 
fplendor of external, worfhip : and while the clergy are not raifed 
above the requifite, intercourfe with the loweft of the people by- 
power and dignity, and temporal wealth, their learning, manners, 
and rank in fociety aflbciating them with the fuperior orders of the 
ftate, forms the link by which the higheft are connected with the 
loweft, affording thereby the mutual communication of thofe ad- 
vantages for which each of thofe clafles is dependent on the other* 
Accordingly there is no ftate where the common people are o£ 
more decent manners, better informed, or more attentive to the du- 
ties of morality, and the .ordinances of religion. 

Thefe advantages, "however, are the purchafe of much of the 
blood, and of almoft the whole of the treafure, of our anceftors, and 
were only fecured by many hard contentions with moft crafty 
and defperate efforts of unconditional power, continued by the 
moft unrelenting perfecution of every rank, and of every fex for 
almoft half a century. At the concluGon of fuch a diftrefsful fea- 
Ion, the ftate ecclcfiaftical could not at once affume that comely or- 
der to which it has now attained; and for the firft 12 years of the 
prefent Prefbyterian eftablifhment, the number was fo few of faith-» 
ful minifters, that, except parochial feflions, the. Pre/by tery of Mo-\ 
ray was the only ecclefiaftical jurifdi&ion in the province; in a 
meeting of which at Forres in June 1702, they* were then firft able 
to make up 3 Prefbyteries, one comprehending thofe of Invernefs, 
Nairn, and Forres, another Elgin, Aberlaur, and Abernethie, and 
that of Strathboggie nearly as it has fince remained, and in confe- 
quence of this the Synod for the firft time met in the month of 
O&ober thereafter. 

In 1708 the Pre/by tery of Forres* which is now to be confidcr- 
ed, was firft eftablifhed, which until the year 1773 comprehended 
alfo the parifhes of Auldern, Nairn, and Ardclach. 

The ftipend of Kinlofs, by decreet 1789, is L.46. 8s. 3d.— 56 
bolls of bear, and 40 bolls of oatmeal. The right of patronage is 


»j4 fRESENT STATE OF THE MftOVINQE. [Chap, lit* t 

fcared between the Earl of Moray and Mffs Brodie of Lethin, 
The falary of the fchool is L.a. 16s. 4<i. and 7 bolls and 3 peck* 
«f bear, and L.e as the fee of the feflion-clerk, with the cuftomi 
ary dues of from 40 to 60 fcholars. The number of poor on th£ 
the pafifb roll in the year 1776 was 34.; the fttpply raifed for theif 
provifion was L.6. lis. 6d, In the year 1786 they had increafed 
to 57, and the fund has alfo rifen to L.iy. 10s. fid/ In 1796 the 
iurober had fallen down nearly to the firft flateinent, being only 
36, and the fund only decreafed to L.ia. 9$/ It is wholly formed 
by the contributions of the people at their meetings for forial wor- 
{hip in the ohurch, the hire they pay for the pall, and fuch fin eg a* 
the feflion can exaft for immoralities. The members of the natio- 
nal Cturch .amount to 1023; there are about 9 Seceders of the 
Antiburgher fe&, and 2 of the Nonjuror Epifcopalian profeffiod. 

Mifcellaneous Information^ — A flip, #r ridge of ground along 
the fhore on the weftern fide of the river Erne, appertain* to thi* 
parifh and to the eftate of Muirtown. About too years ago, the 
river, fimilar to wbat has been mentioned of the ancient termina- 
tion of the Spey, and of the prefent influx of the Loffy, flowed, 
weft ward nearly 6 miles, converging with the fhore. When the 
river gained its prefent di reft ^courfe, this ground by the water 
ftagnate in its former bed became an ifland, for many years afford- 
ing fecure pafturage for flieep and cattle ; but by the drifting of Ch£ 
fand, this ancient channel is now filled up, fo as to be an ifland 
only during high water, divefted of much of its accommodation, 
and the pafturage greatly injured by the overfpreading fand. 

Prior to the year 1701, the town of Findhorn, regularly built, 
ftood upon a pleafant plain, a mile north- weft from its prefent fittu 
?tion, and now thf bottom of the fea. The irruption, thougbt 
completed in one night, and by one Hide, had long been appTe^ 
headed, and the inhabitants had gradually withdrawn. It is pro* 
bable, that the drifting fend accumulated by the united power of 
wind and tide, dammed back the river, forcing open its prefent 
courfe, and overwhelming the village. At that time a pretty le- 
vel* moor ftretched in a right line along the fhore from Findborn to 
Burgh-head, for the diftance only of 5 miles. The encroachment 
of the fea in a femi-circular bay has made the diftance now by land 
a little more than 10. The inhabitants of Findhorn were in a great 
meafure fuppfied with fuel from lius moor, theAcutting up- of which 


JChap. HI.] PARISH OF KINtOSS* •< **£$ 

might have been the caufe of the encroachment. On this moot, 
near the fliore, flood a conical mount, evidently artificial, about 
40 fathoms high : it was called the Douff hillock, and afforded a 
view of the Frith and the whole country around. An old man, 
fliil alive, has gathered berries among the heath around its bafe. 
.Many roots and trunks of oak and fir trees were then found in 
the moor, and a few are ftill dug in the mofs of Hatton, confirm- 
ing the truth of the traditipn, that a foreft once occupied what is 
now the bottom of the fea, and the downs between Findhora and 
J)uffus. The fand- banks oppofe a feeble barrier to the power of 
every ftorm from the north, by which they are themfelves forced 
farther on the fliore, and banks of peat earth are thereby difcovered 
6 or 8 feet below the fand. Withra the flood-mark of the bay of 
Fihdhorn , where the eftate of Muirtown borders with Weft Grange, 
in the year 1787, pretty extenfive beds of peat earth were dif- 
covered, deemed fuch a treafure at the firft as to excite a law fuit, 
as on the records of the Sheriff court, between the landlord and 
his tenants, even for the duration of the current leafes; but after 
the commencement of the litigation, it was found this fuel had 
4adh an offenfive fmell, and -corrofive power on kitchen utenfik 
of copper and iron, as to be abfolutely improper for any doraeftic 
purpofe. This peat was found at 2 or 3 feet under the fand, not 
in a continuous bed, but in" detached banks, as if covered by fand 
when formerly ufed, in a period beyond the remembrance of the 
pafling generation. 

Within the bay, near the courfe of the river, is the yaar, pro- 
iiably the yard fiihery, principally of falinon. It is an enclofure, 
formed of ftakes wauled with twigs or brufli-wood. At higlvwa- 
ter/ the fifh fwim over the fence ; but, heedle/s of the gradual re- 
Bux of the tide, their retreat cut off, they are left gafping on the 
fand. This fifhery is fuppofed to have been the device of the 
brethren of the abbey. On its diflplution, the yaar was acquired 
by the community of Forres, and was then placed a mile nearer to 
the town, and ftill pays 4s. 4d. of the ftipend of that parifli. The 
reftiges of 3 different yaafs may be ftill traced on the fands. From 
J to 12 barrel of falmon ufed formerly to be the produce; and it 
vas let at the rent of L.6 in the year; but the proprietor's eftate 
(fforded wood for its repair, of which at prefent no veftige remains. 
The yaar therefore is not kept in very good repair, and it is fup- 

X P ofe<i 

'» jjf miStm SXAtl Of THJE MOVINCI. {Chap. iv& 

pofed to be injudicioufly placed. It has accordingly failed much 
in i$$ returns, whic^i probably will not be recovered, till the rifing 
plantations afford materials at hand for its neceffities. On fomc 
occafions, herrings, but rarely, have been found inclofed. 

How far the induftry and device of roan, in conjun&ion with 
the ravage of the fifli upon each other, and oh their refpe&ive roes, 
jnay tend to diminifli their numbers bo the whole, feems as yet to be 
more apprehended than afcertained. A fmall premium for the de- 
firuSion of the more voracious kinds upon the coafts of Britain 
might be perhaps not improperly conjoined with the prohibitory 
ftatutes refpeftiag black fiih. 


Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — The parifli of Forres, fouthward o€ 
Kinlofs, ftretches acrofs the plain, rather from the bay of Finderir 
than from the {ea, till it meet the parifli of Rafford on the fouth, 
both occupying the breadth of the low land from that bay to the 
bottom of the mountain. The parifli is nearly in the form of a tri- 
angle : its length from eafi; to weft about 3 miles, and its breadth 
from north to fouth nearly 6. The. royal burgh giving its name 
to the parifli is placed on a rifing ground, nearly in its mid- 
dle. The name denoting upon or near to water, and the appear- 
ance of the ground, give reafon to fuppofe, that the river Fin- 
dern might have originally held its couxfe nearer to the town, 
and a confiderable ftream from the fouthern mountain runs clofe 
by the houfes on its northern fide, 'the fouth and fouth-eafi parts 
of the parifh are hilly, covered with fliprt heath and furze; but by 
much the greater part is one continued rich well cultivated field* 
The climate is inferior to no part of Scotland : the air is ferene, 
healthful, and dry. The town commands an extenfive profpe& of 
a fertile country, embelliihed by the feats of many neighbouring 
proprietors. t • 

State of Property .] — The parifli is fliared among nine proprietors, 
befides the lands belonging to the town, .and fame firaaller proprie- 

Ghup. III.} *A*J$a Ot F0URE3. %sf 

tors holding of the burgh. The Earl oJF Moray has Knockow-> 
ney, Flewis, and Belnaferry, amounting m the cefs book to L.290, ' 
1 8s. lod. The eftate of Sanchar and Burdfyards, appertaining to 
George Grant Efq. amounts to L.1030. 7s. 2d. The lands of 
Griefhop, belonging to John Gordon of Edintore Efq. are L.43&. 
15s. 4d. The eftate of Belnageith, belonging to Alexander Leflie 
Efq. is L.225. 3s. 4d. Alexander Penrofe Cuming of Altyr and 
Gordonftown has Mundole andCotehall, L.126. 9s. 6d. Alexan- 
der Urquhart Efq. has Tannachy, L.261. 12s. 9d. Jofeph Dun- 
bar of Grange Efq. has a valuation of L.213. 8s. 8d. — and John 
Brander of Pitgaveny Efq. has Waterford, valued at L.117. 13s. 
£d. in which, however, the valuation alfo of Cotehall feems to be 
included. The whole valued rent of the parifh amounts to L.2954, 
6s. 6d. Scots* 

The farms are not of very great extent, few or none exceeding 
60 or 80 acres. In the neighbourhood of the town, lands let from. 
L.2. 10s. to L^fterling the acre. Thefe are priricipally farmed by 
horfe-hirers, and are chiefly in grafs ; arid by the high wages they 
get for the hire of rheir horfes, are enabled to pay this enormous 
price for land. In the country part of the parifh, the average rent 
Krill not exceed L.i. 10s. the acre. 

Forres is a handfome well built town: the high ftreet from 
e^ft to weft about one mile in length: near the middle is the town- 
houfe and jail, a pretty high fquare tower, and a kind of timber 
ipire. It is not known when it was erefted into a royal burgh; 
the charter granted by James IV. dated June 23, 1496, narrates^ 
M that the ancient charters have been deftroyed in the time of war, 
** or by the violence of fire, and grants of new in free burgage 
** with the lands formerly belonging to the community, particular- 
** ly -the lands called^Grivelhip, Baillie-lands, . Meikle Bog, with 
«* the King's Meadow, Lobranftown, with Crealties and Ramflav 
•* and common pafturage in the foreft of Drumondfide and Tnl- 
•* loch ; with power annually to eleft a Provoft, Baillies, and other 
* magiftrates and officers neceffary, and to conftitute the Provoft 
; and Baillies Sheriffs within the burgh and its liberties, and dif- 
charge the Sheriff of the (hire of Elgin and Forres, to exercife 
j his office within the faid burgh or its liberties; with power to 
Jiave a crofs, a weekly market, aqd an annual fair to continue for 


j" 8 days, with all and fundry othex privileges and ifttfuuitfitft of a 
* % free burgh,* &c." ' - 

The number of the Cpi*oci} k 17, Provoft, Ba*lli<*s, Dean <tf 
Guild, and Treafurer, included. The old Council chuferf the netf, 
jand the new Council cftufes the Magiftrates* and puts them off, or 
jcontinues them, as they fee eaufe. The hurgeffes, inhabitants, or 
proprietors in the country, may be chofen into the Council] timely 
notice being given by the dfum' and ojhfcr ctiftoxflary advertife- 
ments> The revenue is pearly Laoo fterlitig a( year; andf with the 
towns of Nairn, .Invernefs, and Fortrofe in the co»my of Rofs, 
has a reprefentative in the Houfe of Cojnraons* : 

State EcclefiaftieaL'] — The yearly value of the living i» 98 bolls 
of bear^ 20 of meal, and JL.40. i6s< 8d. ftdrling, irith a glebe of 4 
acres, and a manfe and offices in town. The Earl of Moray is' 
patron* The burying ground is on the. north fide of th« ftreet, 
near the weft end, "where the church alfo (lands; a heavy building* 
without aftqeple: it was built in 1775, and is 72 by $6 feet with- 
in' walls, and may contain i860 people. The members of the 
eltablifhed church are about 2987, from which there is only to be 
dedu&ed a few Seceders, who arenotincreafing. 

The provifion for the poor arifes chiefly from thd charity of thofe 
w.ho attend the church. Mr, Aleotahder Watt, the laffc mmifter, 
left a donation to the poor of about L.aoofterling. Tire whole, 
with the fum of L.i^, being the intereft of money left under the 
direction of the town council, and divided among the poor within 
the town, amounts to about L.55 fterling ayeari and is distributed 
among 125 perfons, many of whom are heads of families. 
< There is a grammar fchool in the toWfc/ where Latm, Greek, 
Trench, and the various branches of the mathematics, are at prefent 
taught with great foccefsi' and a young ger^Teman may have board 
iand education for L.2d a year,. To this the fchool for reading Engf 
- lift, writing, and arithmetic, has been of late conjoined, under the 
care of the fame mafter, aflifted by an ufher. The conjoined fadaiy 
is equal to L.&5 flerling yearly, and the fees of generally more 
than ico fcholars, befides thofe girls who attend at a ftated fe- 
parate hour in the day, - 

. There is likewife a boarding fchool for young laches, wheTe the 
various branches of needle work, raufic, and other parts of female 


Qtap. III.J * >AmS& 6f FORRISF. . tg$ 

<sHt*caiio% are tough*. The miftrefs has a falary fr6ni thtf town of 

L*i6 a year; and a* /oiwig lady may have every requifite accom* 

raodatioa for L,*$*F. Mufic.itf taught far 2 guineas- a year,* 

gum- flowers for. 4 guineas, tambour for h.t y and plain work for' 

fas. Particular attention is. paid to Che morals, and to imprefs tht* 

minds of the young people of both fexes» with proper fen^iments ©£ 

honour, and difctefcion-: and from the abilities of the prefent teacherv 

and the attention paid by the Magiftrates; and the healthy fituatiott 

of the town, there,is Btert any-where, perhaps, a more eligible place. 

far the education of youth, Befides thefe eftabliflied fchooJa^ 

there are private teachers! both for girls. and buys*, to whom fome 

ftaaH donations are alio made by the M a g^ rates f°* t ^ ie ' r endoi** : 

ragfeifcernt : in one/ the piano forte/ and Tome of the Other branches 1 

of female aceomplifhment, axe tattght for half the dues of the public 

^ftahlifliment. . 

ivMifcdlmcous Information.^ — There are in Forres 60 merchants* 

and fhop- keepers. The only mantrfaftures carried cm are for the. 

fappiy of the town and its vicinity, except the fpinning of linen- 

yaf n, which hasianao- years back brought a confideraHe fupply of 

money into the country. The merchants are in the ufe of buying the 

yarn, and fending it to Grlafgow, <vhcre th£re is a ready fale, unlefs 

the market be over-ftocked with Irifh yarn, which only on account 

of its cheapnefs is at certain times preferred. But fince' the year 

1784, this trade has b^en gradually declining, owing to the increafe 

of the number of machines for fpinning cotton; and many of thofe 

iedtnctly employed in fpinning yarn for fate, now fpih Dutch flax 

for the.rmmafafiuring companies of Aberdeen and Invernefs. In 

the Jtear 1784,. one merchant fent 23,290 fpindles to: Glafgow, 

coiIfc£ted in Forres and in its vicinity; the other dealers in this., 

article fent about 47,000, which* at the rate of 2s. for fpinning, pro* 

ditced L.7020; fteriing. - . 

. The river Findern and the r brook at Forres are theonly ftreams 
ib the parifli. The Mi found in the river and bay of Findern 
sire falmon, trout, eels, and flounders; haddocks are got in, the 
Frith, and fold in the town and dountry around. The quantity of 
falmon exported from Forres, upon the average of the ten years 
frorn 1773 to 1783, was 300 barrek yearly, befides the home con~ 
fumpt, not very confiderable: it is fold at <fd. the-lb. 
. The river Fiflttem w navigable far boats no farther, than the tid^. 
v - flows. 


flows. Thd diftance from the town to the harbour does not exceetj 
3 miles, and the tide flows more than half that diftance, and the 
low ground at the bottom of the eminence on which the town: 
ftands does not exceed the level of half tide by 14 feet, and that 
depth of canal would carry veflbls to the town, and the canal wouUt 
f>e kept clear by the brook; there is hardly any- place, therefore, 
vhere there is more encouragement to make a canal, did the com* 
merce of the town require it. The flux of the tide covers a trian- 
gular piece of ground, the bay of Findern, wholly dry at low water, 
except the channel of the river, and a little fpace at the inlet; it 
contains about one thoufand acres of a fliff clay, foil, diftinguifhed 
by the epithet of carfe ground, a part however being a fine compaft 
fend, with light particles of earth depofited by the floods. All this 
might, at an expence inconfiderable compared with its value, be 
eafily recovered from the fea ; a bar of fand ftretching acrofs the 
mouth of the river would prevent the violence of any furge upon 
the embankment which would be required. There-is one qutarry of 
limeftone upon Mr. Cuming's eftate ; but being mixed with other 
putters, it has never bcen.ufed in any confiscable quantities,, . 

*^» <*&\ *&% *&% *&> *&> v^» io> 


Situation, Soil, Climate."] — The body of this parifli lies fouth* 
ward of Forres, in an extenfion of the plain into the mountain, 
along the weftern end of the hill which feparates the vale of Pluf. 
carden from the dales of Alves, to which upon the northern fide 
of this hill a wing of this parifli is ftrecched* From the extremity 
of this wing at the eaft to the border of Edinkillie at the weft, the 
parifli rneafures 8 miles ; but its mean length in this dire&ion, equal 
to its mean breadth, may be eftimated only at the half of that ex- 
tent. The namedn Gaelic may be rath-ard, fignifying the hovel 
of the height, oxjhealing, as it is denominated in the Highlands of 
Scotland, a forry temporary turf cabin, for the accommodation of 
mountain pafturage, having at the firft probably occupied the Cbu 
$ion of the old tower of Blervie. 

The face of th? country is much diverfified : a confiderable reach 

' of 

■Chap, 111*3 PARISH 01 RAFFOKD. %6t 

of the bottom of the valley lies fo level, as eafily to fend a part of 
the water of a fmall lake fouthward towards Dollas, where it joins 
the Lochty, turning eaftward through Plufcarden, and northward 
by the church to Forres and the bay of Findern. A confiderable 
part of the arable field lies joti the plains at the bottom, and a great 
part on the Hoping fides of the hills. In fome places, the foil is 
a deep fertile clay; in others, a light burning fand: a black (hallow 
foil, incumbent on rock, occupies fome part ; and a bed of moor- 
* iOi foil, in many places fo thin as fcarcely to cover the flat Doping 
rock, appears in other parts ; and a great proportion confifts of a 
rough brown gravel, on 2) bottom of fmall pebble, fo firmly ce- 
mented byibrne mineral, probably iron ore, as to be impenetrable 
by the utmoft power of the plough. The air is rather dry than 
nioift, and rather healthful than otherwife. 
. State of Property."] — Tliere are three family feats in the parifii. 
Burgie Caftle, the property of Lewis Dunbar Efq. of Grange, has 
been above defcribed. His valued rent in this parilh amounts to 
L.877. 13s. 8d. Scots. The Hon. Major Lewis DufFof Blervie, quit- 
ting the ancient caftled refidenee of the Diinbars on the fummit of 
the hill, has built a handforne modern feat, fnugly flickered near its 
urefiern bottom, embelliflied with plantations, gardens, and orna- 
mented grounds: the valued rent amounts to L.5 17. 17s. 4d. Scots* 
Altyr, the family feat of Colonel Alexander Penrofe Cuming |&or* 
flon, is a plain old building, with neat modern wings. Widely- 
extended plantations, a fpacious garden, and a long reach of fruit 
-w^all, exhibit at this place utility in alliance with embelli(hment : 
the valued rent is L.676. 13s. Scots. While thefe gentlemen thus 
contribute to the improvement of the country at their own refi- 
dences, the Earl of Moray has done more than co-operated with 
them, in the. fuperior neatnefs of the dwellings of his tenants of 
Clunie and Tarras, and in the improved appearance of their fields. 
His Lordfliip's valued rent of thefe lands amounts to L.541. 14s, 
jod. — extending the valuation of the parifh to L.2613. 18s. iod* 
Scots : the prefent real rent is eftimated at L.1800 fterling. There 
are feveral of the farms in the low grounds pretty extenfive ; but 
they are of fmall extent in the hilly parts of the parilh. Making a 
reasonable allowance for the value of the improved inclofitres in 
the occupation of the proprietors, the mean rent is equal to L.i. 
Gs. fterliag the acre* 


j6* /ME6EW SfcAW OJ THE XIOVXNCE. iCfa^r life I 

£tate &cdeft$jti<aL^rAto. popift arid prelatic .times, Raffbrd wa* 
ihe feat of the fub-chanter of the diocefe. Of the ftate of the pa*. 
?ifli of Altyr before the Reformation, there is nothing certainly 
known: it never had a paftor for itfelf, under any of the proteftant 
idifpeBfations. Tbotfgha part of the parifla of Dollas, it had an if** 
dependent parochial jurifdi&ion, the feparate celebration . of thfc 
facraments A and public worfliip every third Sunday. In a paro* 
<chial vifitatibn of the clergy during the fervor of the Covenant, 
^every thing was found well ordered, fave that;the facrament had 
not been celebrated for the {pace of 3 years, which Mr. Strachan 
the minifter excufed, by the ignorance r of the people, on account 
of the diftance of his refidence, but promifed to do all he could to 
prepare the© for it. Altyr is within two miles of Rafford, an£ 
nearly 14 from Dollas, a defert mountain, often rmpaflable, inter* 
yening for half that diftance ; yet the annexation was obftinately 
<*>ppofed by its proprietor, and its accosnplifhmem required the ut- 
moft exertion pf the clergy, great as their influence at that perioA 
was. The record bears, " it was for fome time deferred, becaufe 
■*• the laird could not be found at home."* When his prefence 
was at laft won, <( he alleged he* had weighty reafons againft the 
•• annexation, and craved a delay to ftate them in writing." They 
were not entered on the record : '* but after many addreffes made, 
„•• and debating with him for many days, and Lord Brodie, having 
•* reafoned with him apart, reported, that having offered allargu* 
11 ment$, .perceived he had a mind to receive no (atisfaction ; the 
" preJflby^ery laid the bufinefs to heart, and being much weighted 
44 therewith, did deJire the Laird of Altyr to tell his judgments 
*' who, with all the eiders and people, do acknowledge, with hea- 
•* vinefs of mind, that there is a neceffity of accommodation, and ' 
" wifli that a way may be found for remedy: the prefbytery being j 
" much affe&ed with the fad conditipn of Dollas and Altyr, agree 
" that Altyr flipuld be declared to be joined for accommodation j 
* 4 to Rafford* and to crave the approbation of the. fynod. And j 
"upon the 19th of Auguft 16^9, Mr. James Strachan of Dollas and 
* 4; Altyr was ordained to inornate publickly to the people of Altyr, 
#< upon the Lord's day come 8 days, that they were now disjoined 
" from Dollas, and annexed to the parifh of Rafford, arid ordained 
" to repair to the faid pariih. church in all time coming; and Mr- 
*' Fullertony minifter thereof, to take up their names, and have a 
* . ' car© 

<*'«** jof :ttaft At qf d* «eft £f &» jariflwoner* " Although this 

jttgft ^Mf £e$p agreeable to t^e people, both fro» tbejur o wn idea* 

iW^r#wg^ygio#s obljgatipp, itiwi frojsa^IwiSion of scclefiaf*. 

lM.4feQ^ * ft* tinjepf^no li^t.eftiinatio^ yet fo greptJy dul 

jie awe ,of #Wy 4k^uGn;pr^QjMJterate, ,wheo the Jives and pro* 

|>^tt^ pf 4»fJii%l»^t?M^ WW Wider the /arbitrary award x>f sack 

^pri^q\is b^rcMWJtJ proprietor, that in the parochial vifitation of 

t Jj^fttfte^eiiflg jsegr, <« .compkitit isjinade by fhe rninifter, that Altyr 

" and j&$ ,peqple totrfjy abiented jtbcnafclwes from Aafford church ; 

^ #ad *be prggtytery, i&er*u^lic#ioii ^nd.addraffesjriade to -&ltyr* 

" lo ,mo,v^J>«Q .fairly to ius duty, ordain the minifterto funurion 

''ifc&MP t<fhei9 ft« JUird of AJtyr and ^e other inhabitants of ib$ 

*%late parife there.'' tf t;ba$ jbeen already inentioned, that the au- 

ffaqr^ty of th^parlUment was in the following year contained. witk 

^^ion qf jthe church* jjy.the afit .which ratifies the erection of 

the parifh of Kiillofs* ' 

The church at prefent is a mean fabric, but in a central fituation* 
Theftipend is L.55. ua.-td. Starting, and 6 chalders of barley, the 
communion allowance included. The right of patronage apper- 
tains to Mifs Brodie of Leihki. The Salary of the fchool, exclu- 
sive of the fees of teaching, and the perquifites of the feffion clerk, 
is 16 bolls of bear. '- The poor on *he parifli roll amount to 40 : 
the tenants who attend the parochial church contribute for their 
bipport^about L.9 fterling in the year, to which- there is only to 
idd the tntqreft^of L.$o. The members of the national churcK are 
lip&j, andthe diffenters are 7 Seceders. 

Mtfctllaneous Information^ — The people; on the whole, are a 
fenfible, decent, and religious fociety. The great occupation of the 
female .part is spinning flax raifed on the farms, and manufactured 
lito.fbeecing^diaper, and Sackcloth; and many of the poorer clafs 
"ptnvtjie lint of the merchants, at tod. and is. the fpindle. This 
pves .employment to 16 or 17 looms in the parifli. Several of the 
aimers alfo work up timber, and make their tywn ploughs, carts; 
sxd Q\h&r implements. There 4s a fine quarry of ffeeftone on the 
ftate>of oBargie, to whieh the accefs is eafy, and the ftone durable 
nd not ^difficult in. working. There is alfo a flate quarry 6ri the 
Hate of'Clunie*, let out by. the tenant of that farm to quarriers, at 
te irate of gjs. 4$. the iooo untrimmed flate. The noted obelifk, 
tiled * Su en es Stone, on the eftate of Tarfis^has been already def- 

Y cribed* 

ifl| . PRISIKT STATE OF THE MOVING*. \Ckap % lit 

cribed: it cannot be doubted, that it Iras been ere&ed in memory 
offome important' event which happened before .the ' introduftioh 
of letters into Scotland; it is at once a.fpecimen of 'hieroglyphic 
writing, and a monument of the ftate of the arts* in this4tingdo'm in 
an age very remote: the fculpture, if it had remained complete, 
could not even yet be deemed inelegant ; , and it muft have required 
no ftnall degree of flcill to have quarried, tranfported, and erefted 
a column of fuch height. Two circumftances are fomewhat fur- 
prifing: that curipfity has never thought of exploring whether any 
thing lies hid about its bafe; and, that regard for fuch a Angularly 
fplendid monument has neither induced its noble owner, or the 
gentlemen of the county, to prefer ve the figures it ftill exhibits 
from thle effacing influence of the weather, by fuch a fimple expe- 
dient as a coating or two of paint; feeing the experice of a fmall 
ornamental building over it might be deemed too great a facrifice to 
an objefl in which our anceftors only were interefted. 



Situation, Soil, Climate] — A part of the parifh of Dollas, tlie 
eftate of Craigmill, lies in the fouthern end. of the valley which has ■ 
been confidered as forming the body of the parifh of Rafford. ' 
^Through this eftatethe ftream of Lqchty haftens eaftward, through 
. a narrow cut in the rocky hill, to loiter in the vale of Plufcarden. 
This cut appears as* if made merely for the paffage of the Lochty, 
where it would be eafy to turn it northward by the church of Raf- 
ford, if that was not. originally its natural cpurfe. The greater 
part of the parifli of Dollas lies on the fouth fide of the hill of Ale- ' 
lundy, which is.ftretched between, the courfes of. the Lochty and ' 
the Lolly. When the Lofly occupied' a .channel about 3 feet 
Jiigher than the bottom of its prefent bed, a.great proportion of the 
plain on the fouth fide of the hill of Melundy muft have been a 
lake ;. and except a pool, covering, only a few acres, the whole of 
this plain ftill remains a deep extenfive bed of pure peat earth: 
from this eircumfhnce its Gaelic name, dale uisk, the tvaUr valley, ' 

Cfa/kXIl.J .PARISH OF DOLLAS, ' .. i$$ 

has probably been fuggefted. Along the courfe of the Lofly, from 
Birnie, atj the eaft, to its fources in the mountain, which is inter-* 
pofed between Spey and Finders, the parifli meafures 12 miles; 
its breadth, including Craigmill, fouthward to the borders of.thej 
parifli of Knocando, is 9 miles: but its mean breadth, which ii 
pretty equally divided by the rive.r, taken from 'the fouthern fideo! 
the hill of Melundy, meafures only about 6 miles. Several brooks 
i$ifhing 4 down frpni the hills qq both Tides interfcft the parifli aewft, 
nearly at right angles to the river. 

Except .fuoh fahdy fields as. lie upon its banks, the foil may be 

accounted moorifh, and in general not very fertile; the crops for 

the.moft part^ure infuflicient for the fupport of the people and of 

, the cattle. The air is cold and-often moift, retarding the feed 

; feafon till towards the middle of April, and the harveft till near the 

end of November. ... ... 

. State of Property.'] — The barony of Dollas is a part of the eftatfc 
. of Gordonftown, and by fucceflion is become the property of Col,; 
Alexander Penrofe Cuming Gordon of Altyr. The family of Gor- 
donftown had projected a magnificent feat at Rhininver, under the? 
fouthern. fide of the hill of Melundy, in the form of a crefcent, hav- 
ing the hpufe in the diameter, and the offices in the periphery ;'• 
The offices were only completed, in which a commodious tem~- 
porary accommodation is neatly* fitted up; the. hill of Melundy 
behind, on which a femt-circular garden, anfwering to fhe form of 
the building, was intended, is planted with an extenfive foreft of' 
Scots fir; the heathy peat marfti Spreads a large dun plain before, 
having the river trailing around its farther verge. The valued reni- 
amounts to L.8j8. 15s. 6d. Scots. The real rent was confiderv 
ably increafed about 30 years ago, by the improvements in the hilly 
parts of the eftate. The landlord gave timber for the buildings, 
which were of fod; the fecond year, the firft rent was only a hen j, 
I>ut it increafed by is. for eyery fucceeding crop of the leafe, 
which terminated in the. nineteenth year, when the land was let of 
stew* at the value to which it had been then brought. • . 
, The eftate of Killefs, appertaining ta the Earl of Fife, lies alfo or* 
laoth fides the river below the barony of Dollas, and border? with: 
lii$ Lordfliip's* land of Plufcarden. There is a confidefable extent 
of' natural oak wofld on the rjorth bank of the river : it has been roa^ 
2^ged oftly s$ .copfe.wotd, and is at prefent young. The valued 
•• r • Y 3 re_n,t; 


rem of this eftate is Lv^i. in. 4*!. Scdts. A cottfideriliWttfteiSr' 
of land hai affo been recently added by IrnproVeiitente' fa'th* iwfffik 
The only other proprietor of the parifb is Robert &/aTft6f £]fefii* 
Efcf. who has the lands 6f Craigrtiill, valued' at' &.$&$* ag&- ifiafeiig 
the valued rent of the whole patf ifii ecfuat ttf k. 1 392.' £? . && Sti6M. 
•the farms are but of final* extent. The refit of th£ aVabfer grt>W* 
ftretchfcs from is, rd r^^* the acre : from the lesrft- infy/o*e<! itic^r 
to the higheft cultivated field, the nidan rertt wMWdbWt iti. thf 
acre, exclufive of the natural paftufage*. 

Staid Sccle/fkftieil.y- The patfifti w3s rfladd tfp in it* ftfefefl* form 
in the year 1857-, by tletachirig Attyr and conjoining Kfffefc K fr 
i*ot now particularly known' iff whatf rnantfer the eonfe^ttent? dila- 
Nidation of the flipend was compenfated Co the fhfrrillers dj EJgitf? 
hut it muff be frtyffi the record inferred, that tWfe ancient wbr*hie> 
were neither raifed above the vain concerns of this tfffiifit6ty life,- 
in any fu^erior meafure 16 that of thfcir mddertf ftrc^effofd, nor 
that, like to theipdrrfithre Chriftrans, they were aratt &tt$&fcA t& 
btfve their war felt/ goods in common. In: Oftofater 165^ AlenmStt 
Cuming, minifter bf Dollas, eontp tains to rite ptefoyterf; ,•• thai" 
•* notwithstanding of xh£ legal amvex&Won of Rflteft, both' as wife 
m nifice and office, Mr. James Hrirne, minHler of Elgin, had that 
" year, without warrant from bifhop 6t fynod, but ait his otytrt hand* ' 
*' interrfieddkd with and carried off a confiderabfe pw of the fti* 
•' pend»" This- complaint was referred to a meeting <rft*fe ryriod, 
in feven days after, who appointed a comririttee to feute theftuftnef*. 

A few years ago, the f church was a very airclehi fabric, thatched 
with fteath, and without windows, foi-e a <fr g riaYroW ffit* Which 
yawned to a very dtfproportioned widerifcfs within; atad the effigy 
df the patron, St: Michael, flood weatherbeafen in a niche near tte 
ttfprof the ealtern gahte without. The church arid rnarffe however 
ave at prefent commodious buildings, though both in fofrae danger 
of being fweeped away by the river. The ftipend, including the | 
allowance for the cdrnrnUnion, is L.58. 6s,'4d. fterling, Of Which* i 
about L.11. fterling has been drawn from tte Vrcaf age fiends of the 
jfarifh of^Auldern, fry an arrangement whictf f&ins to haVe Been 
continued from the eftablifhrrient of the Church df Roiiie. *th& 
glebe; like the pari{h> is divided by the Loffy : it contains afrbui J4' 
acres, and is accommodated with a little natural Wood oft thfe banks I 
of the river, affording fom& Convenience, hut riof aft Gbjfeft <rf «rjf j 

profit. ! 

jftfefif. *tte f#6dtii irf fcBobl i? only t Wc&it eflaflfHHmeitt. The* 
IMiryfet.^va^thefctfof Acfeffioh clerk crtifyfc.i. Thechitfefc 
Itei'n^ in* * *efcte# fit uarfon' is> firfffciertdy edWriotffdiis fof the dele. 
Ifratiotfef flie-fmfcfie ordfctohce* of Wligfotf. Titer patcfcfeiarf fchoof 
. HeWeV<» €*ri a*eottfc&ocfe*€? but ar firiafl jttdportiort 4 of a ftxtfa of fad* 
ftagtfc, krterfeflfcd by f& lfaanjr ftteartk, often ittfpaflalSfe iff every* 
feafoa. The Sbtfety foi< propagating Cfrriffranr Knowledge ftytfef 
therefore eftateli&ed a fc&ool, with dri apjidhitrtteilt df itf tfc£ 
year, itftke poptftous diffirift of Krlfefs; smd wliidh has hittfefto> 
fefved fhepdrpofe of to feetletfcent in at vefry fatrsfaftory ftteiftter. 
Thep6or on thepfcriffi IHt are not a ntftfleftrti* 6oity: t&ere is rtcf 
eflier fair* fdrr thefr provffion bat the charity of ihefcf dwn fieigfu' 
bbiirs, all of Whom are for from opalertt. The whdfe people* ap* 
jterram Co the national Chtfrch, amtotfntirig to the number of 888? 

ttifallafcduj IttfoftHatiori.y— In th<i cflfcreh-yatfcf, 4 neatfy cut 
ftonfe cdlumnj t £ feet high, terrtririated by a Weft ioxrxit&jlowcf -de- 
late for ks capital, ftiH reihatdfs the tnitket Crtiti; att which the ef- 
fcflte 0f bankrupt tenants are occasionally expdfed to au&ion. The 
peats for fuel are 6f an excellent quality, strict the" quantity in this 
UStoote' quartet ddefned ine^hatiftible. As the foil efoeS hot afford 
tforri faffiereflt for the fupport of the people, the deficiency, the 
t%M, and othe* ndceflaries, ate fuppfte4 by the hU ot fteep ancf 
Wakk cattle which can be fpared; and ifi a' gr£at iriealure by the* 
weekly fate of peats in the markets of fortes afld Elgin, 1 fofd from 
8d. t<> *s. «df. a fo&all cartfertt, drawn by a very tittle fean horfe. The* 
Ht&y} alfo which is produced m the parifld is fpttri in the families ot 
the tferiarits; and ftvefa! weavers are conffehtfy employed in mat- 
kig it ihtdcoarfe cloth called pldiden, which is fold from gi. to is. 
m yird. 

wt/Mfiik xtV. 


• » . 

. Situation, Smlr.Giimatt.y^Tnis pariflk extefftds wtftWttd t2 
miles ff odi the borders of Delias ttttd RafiFdrd, and as far foutherty 
from the confines of Forred. It lies £artty aloAg the tfottom, and 
Upon the fide of thq nWumain r whWh W freea defctibed as tagg- 


ing along the'champaign o£ Moray ; from which cirjcumft&nce* its 
$cots name is Rrea-Mor ay f that is, the acclivity of Moray. Its 
ancient Gaelic appellation,, AQDiNCQifciE, fignifics t\is face of the' 
wood; and. a chatter, from King. JJavid Bruce, another towards the. 
end of the ,15th century, and the great quantities of oak, fir, and* 
^ther kinds of timber, ftill dug from the tracks. of peak foil, concur 
%o fhevv\ that the wtyole face of the country was covered with wood* 
It then cpntained two royal forefis ; Drummynde, that is, the vcni- 
jpn hill^ **ow deftitute of wood, and Darnway, ftill covering almoft 
1 000 .acres. The river Findern divides the parifh for fome miles, 
and two of its mqft confiderable branches liave the whole of their' 
courfes within its extent : tjie Duvie, that is,^A* Had water ; def-. 
cending from the.hills. which border upon Crorndale,. meets a little 
below the church with. the. Durbach, difcharged from the lake of 
jLochnadorb, on the weftern boundary of the parifh. Thefe rivers 
are fuppofed by their japidifcy to purify, the air,' which is healths 
fuf, never, tainted by noxious fogs»or pernicious exhalations. The 
/oil of the lower parts. near tbe.rivers, is fandyi of a light dry qua- 
lity,, and fertile when properly managed; but a great proportion is 
jnoorifti, and extenfive moors remain to be improved. 

State of Property."] — The parifh appertains to 4 proprietors. In 
a beautiful wooded dale, on the fou them bank, of the Findern, is 
the family feat^ of Robert Cuming of Logie Efq. a large modern 
handforae houfe of 4 ftories, with an elegant pavillion roof. To 
the extenfive garden which his anceftors had formed, he has addedl 
an orchard of 4 acres, Iheltered by groves of foreft trees, and a 
winding bank, from every advcrfe blaft. A number of afli trees 
have fliot up to the. height of almoft 100 feet : but .the fruit trees 
ftand open {o.the reverberated power of the fouthern fun, and ia 
geperal the crop is plentiful. The eftate is embeHifliedby plantar 
tions and natural wood to a confiderable extent. Its valued rent 
is L.239. 15s. lod. Scots. A little higher up upon the JDuvie is 
Relucos, the feat of George Cuming Efq, writer to the fignet. The 
houfe is elegant, embelliflied by enclofures, plantations, and many 
well difpofed groves^ equal in whole to 200 acres, among which 
are intermingled more than 60*000 thriving oaks. Many enchant- 
ing walks -have been alfo" forfcied along the winding banks both of 
the Duvie and Findern, whiph unite their ftreams a little below the 
^9^fe # , The valued r^nt is L.194. 9s., 8d. 
rThere is alfe fome natural jwood, and a full 'grown plantation ot 

.*. ■* -•;-■■•;' fir 

dhap. XliJ] PARISH OF 'EMNXIElU. ' ' l C l% 

£t of confiderable extent, upon the barony of . Dunphai!, which*, i 

ftitb the lands-of P&orp; Edinkiffie, Tulliglens, and: Dallafbraugli- ! 

4y, appertain to Colonel Alexander Penrofe Ciimingdf Altyr and j 

Gordonftown, amounting to the'Valuation of L.679. 9 s * 2( * # ■ '• .' 

* The reft of the parifh is the^roperty of the Ear} of Moray. In \ 

4he higher diftrift, the lands of Brea- Moray extend from the fdurces \ 

of the Duvie to the banks of Lochnadorb, upon a part of which 
<Mr. Forbes'of Culloden holds a Fefcfey arid- has birHt a -handfome 
hunting quarters. In the lower dHWift of the parifh, where its 
boundary is formed by a brook winding Ihrbugli the gardens,' and I 

parting under the eaftlei of Darn way, the foreft extends more than. 
£ miles, moftly on the northern bank of the Findern, ^exhibiting J 

a vaft extent of oak, afh, elm, and venerable fir, blended with the ♦ 

*liftingui(hcd' form of t the weeping birth, in conrftlefs multitude, i 

and the- bole* of 'many more than '"8 feet in circumference. His { ; 

Lordihip's valued rent in ihis par Jfh : 6f L.83 1.1 3s.' 4d. makes it* j 

total valuation equal to L.ig^gsdv. Scots. The : farms are of fmalt 
extent, from L.3 to L.10, few riling' 'to the rent of L. 20. The 
arable land may be eftimatcd at the mean rent of 15s. the acre. \ 

State EcdefiqfiuaL\^T\x^ chufdnis in a central fituation p on $ 

the banks of the Duvie, which tumble*' through a deep rocky ch'an- \ 

nel under the manfe, in a fteep bank of which, inacceflible to cat- .* 

tie, a few afpin, birch, aiid geen trees*, halve eftabliflied themfelves. '> 

The ftipend,. including the allowance for the communion, is L.7# 
fterling, and 3 chalders of 'vifiual, the' one naif barley, the other 
oatmeal. The glebe, which the incumbent has tndofed, is 8 acres^ ; 

e&clufive of a fmall garden. The right of patronage appertains to . : 
the family of Moray. The falary of the parochial fchobl was dou-i / ; 
bled in the year 1796,* and now ait|6unts to the revenue of L.11I 
*ss. 2d. 8-i2ths fterling* With the fees of education, arid the emolu-I 
*»ents of the office of feflion-clerk, k- isalmdft equal to L.18 in 
the year. 

I>r. Duncan Cuming, , of the- family of Relucos*, phyfician td 
King William at ihe battle ^of the Boyrie, fettled afterwards in Dubi 
Im, made a donation: in the year 1714 to the Society for Chriftiait 
Knowledge, with a .recommendation to eftabfifh therewith 3 fchbotk • 

in the parifli of his nativity. Tiiis donation of L.sCi. 13s. yd. fterl. 
at that time of na fmalkaccount, is equal at prefent to" the main- 
tenance of t^o fcboal&c -one eftsbfifc*d at Relucos, retaining about 


39 fcboli^s,^ th* ,ptfwr& ^ fa 1 *** <° f A>W(Hv*y;#«ftiniiig aboat 
jo, .y,fcic)i jp. ajjfcuhe jpv**P ^tin^ber ,*t*ending $$ jproahial School : 
*D.d a fehppimiflxef* ,qppn jtbe .sftate of &ggie igtam* atymt a 
dozen. .Though pretty fiwin^rpus in watcg, *h$y foil gmatAy, <» 
^coufxt,rf,te«4ing,the<^4e;, ^ ,tl>e .fwi^nw «M>ntbs. Tie whole 
jimnber jybo wecc .enteral i(i jU >fhe fbhopls jp$b* £0U»fe of ,<hp 
y*?jfo cop. > , • 

The AVUnber ,pf #e ,ppqr pa #e *©Jl p $g. Tl^ptxwifion for 
.their Jnjjpojft, arifcog wholly £rpin the op^r^tions ,0/ tfce people, 
jwho tbewfelves *re far frojn opulent, e^peeds >npt JUg tolling >in 
che^ear. . Jbe.nunib^af ^he^eopJc, by an ^^t^te .^r^^rM^p. 
jn the yqtr ,1^03, *rapunt$d t e$a$ly *p *8^» *U fMWbap of;tJ>e 
;patipnal <f|ww{i. 

MtfiejtfowQMfi Jirfpr4natiM^~~ln ,$& juppsr pjKt of the iprcifc, 
the Gaplijc tlaagnay us .niuch in ufe. About fiPtyws ago,i»lfJ&e 
pu^ic v^rjhjp was perfo^ipepl ,in that ? tqngue; ap(l in.ibe^remaining 
pariihcp pf ,tbis .fur.vey , DyjRe and , Auldf rn excluded, until it reach . 
>o Knockando and Aberlppr^vippn^he l#nJb of ijhe.Spey, tj*at dia- 
led xnayi^ftiU^piuttefUbe aiptbqr tongue. The#pspp}e« .though 
poor, are in general Jhone#, ^d ^>r . frpm Jb^ckj^id in extending 
their charity, ftheir f ideas . relpsfting *<?ligip«i a«e rigidly jCalviaik 

Thean^irnitjfaru-effes^f J^pchnajfarb .and ©unphail .have Jbeoa 
^efcribed ,in,a awarding fefUqn ,af this ,un&rtakiog. Xbe Dune 
pf R^lucps ifffWfls fp haye bgen place pf defence more ^nclent 
than the<n. 4t ji^-a conical ibiJl. Round a.cqnfidorable part af.ttt 
|>afe,:the jrsfpid .ft^eaniof ©uMie ^occupies a deep /rocky channel; 
the p*her .part is ,guar4«fl >by £iUtch equally iinpaffable, having 
the fides ljnqdAy a iftrong;iaiopBrt^Qf Aofte, Jae^iing,in feme part* 
the ^ppe^rance oi". vitrific^tio*. Ihe;funirnit f , aao - feet . of perpen-. 
dicular h^jght ^tpve the T\ve&, ,b i* jkuel fpaoe^jf^phy 20 yard*. 
When the country was flirouded in wood, it muft have been con* 
pealed, pnd r fo fer inacc^flable ,*s«to havebeen eefily, defended, by 
a few: it is at jM^f^t.pccupiedeAiy^.nnrfiwy.ground. 
,. Sir Jsyqep Grant of (Q«i>t h*s ,lately ifcnraed a new road :f real 
Grantown-to $lgtn t JdTeningtthe diftanoeoonithe whole abouti> 
niiies. rln the courfe. of thi^^oad, paffiog' thorough the Southern 
fide pf the .parifii Ending ^p )Plurparden f .a circiunftancetwas <&£» 
covered, eftahlilfeiBg the &f«i&xicm-oi peat earth, .from the naturjJ 


a/, in.}! • PARity o# muz* . * - *7* 

ion of wood. In cutting through 1 a bed of this fubftance, 

at 2 feet from the fin-face, a matted foyef of the root* of fir 

5 was found to have grown upon an under bed of the fame 

of foil, which being alfo thrown up, * fecond tire of frmilar 

:s appeared, which had aifo grown apon a third bed of the fame 

ance, which derived its original from the diffblutiow of die- 

bber which grew upori the natural foil, the roots of which in & 

Hilar form remained in a firm fob of clay gravel, at the depth of 

Hrly 9 feet from the furface. ^ 



Situation, Soil, Climate.*] — The arrangement of the p^rimes ir* 
t prefbytery of Forres makes a Ibort excurfion foutWards into 
|e mountain, and returns back by the weft towards the more of the 
Jith. "The fputhern quarter of the parifli of Dyke borders on the 
JHthern limits of the parifli of Edinkielie, on the confines of the 
reft of Darnway. From this it ftretches eaftward along the river 
I Findern, and partly on the fouthern bank, t>y the fhifting of its 
airfe in former times. The old bar, at its efflux appertaining to 
t parifh of Kinlofs, has been already noticed. The Frith, how- 
pcr, may be regarded as its boundary, for the fpace of 6 miles,, 
bn thfe north, till it meets the parifli of Auldearn, from which it 
jfeparated by a brook, the Ellands Bourn, and the moors called 
k Hardmoor and Broadfhaw, which run acrofs the weftern limit 
[the county of Moray, bordering on the county of Nairn, till if* 
|lin joins the parifh of Edinkielie at the fouth. The latitude, by 
f'obfervation taken lately at the fhore, is 57* 36' 21" north, 
JThe loit of the cultivated ground is for the greater part a light 
Jtile loam, generally incumbent on land, and not very retentive 
f&oifture. In fome places, the fole is fand, concreted by* fome 
fceral fubftance, water probably furcharged by iron ore: in plow- 
J, it, is avoided, as adverfe to vegetation when mingled with the 
B. The whole fuperficies of the parifh contains 21 fquare miles, 
k half of which is a defert traft of drifting fand along the fhore. 
ic land fide of this traft is bounded by a pretty high bank, which 

Z may. 


may be traced weftward nearly to Invernefe^ as if the fea bad on^ 
flawed out to its bottom, and which ftill feems in this quarter l 
have limited the oyerfpreading of the fand. An irregular tract. 
fieri le moor fpreads along the margin .of this bank, the foil of.whi 
having been carried off in turf, the naked gravel remains, folici 
ing to be clothed by plantation, of which at prefent it exhi! 
fome hopeful fpecimens. Three, brooks unite near the churi 
forming a confiderable ft ream, which winds through the middle^ 
the country, nearly parallel to the river. The air is healthful 
dry, and the climate fo genial, that the more delicate kinds of fin 
the apricot and peach, ripen on a ^wall in the open air. 

Stttte of Property. ~\ — Darn way, the Earl of Moray's feat in tl 
quarter ot the kingdom, is an ancient and magnificent edifii 
though built in different ages, and in divers forms. The origii 
fabric at the firft confined only of one hall, 89 feet in length, ajj 
85 in breadth. Its walls rofe nearly to the height of 32 feet ;j 
range of vaults, conftrufted for cellars on its floor, has lowered j 
internal elevation to 20. Its roof of folid oak, fimilar to the Gui 
hall of London, and the parliament houfe of Edinburgh, remain i 
unceiled, difplays the ftrength of the workmanfhip of the 14th c^ 
tury; for it was built by Randolph, the Regent of Scotland in I 
minority of David. Bruce. Part of its original furniture yet ^1 
mains. Earl Randolph's chair of Hate, fimilar in workmanfhip a 
form to the coronation chair of the monarchs of Britain, 60 
-weight of oak, decorated with no very elegant carving, part of. 
coat armorial. Coeval with the chair, the table alfo, of the fa: 
kind of timber, remains. The modern fafliion of folding dq 
the leaves upon the pillars was then unknown : a.device more co 
plicated ferved the fame purpofe: from one end, a leaf may 
drawn out, equal to the length of the upper board, which is a q 
drangle, fupported. on 6 mafiive. columns. This hall was only,, 
tended for the temporary accommodation of hunting quart* 
Tradition relates, that its whole floor was deeply littered with gn 
rufhes, or grafs, at night, and the Earl with all his fuite repq 
thereon together. Numerous apartments have fince been ad( 
feveral of them fitted up and furniihed with all the elegance 
modern fafliion. The caftle rifes on a green mount in the flrirt, 
the fore (I : it commands a very extenfive and plea fa nt landfea 
and its environs/ca^cliifhed by grov«s %nd gardens, and much 


Chap. I 7 Ii.} PARISH OF DYKE. ' 173 

namented cultivation. Its name has been with fome ingenuity in- 
terpreted from the Gaelic, to be Randolph's Mount, tor- rannich: ' 
but as rannich in that language fignifie$yir», and as that herb ftili 
maintains its place in vaft quantity over all the foreft, its appella- 
tion feems rather more (imply to denote the^r« hill. , The origi- 
nal name of the diftricl alfo was Fern way; and it is alfo highly- 
probable, that the bridge of Rannich, a little farther up in the fo- 
reft, long fuppofed to bear the proud title of its ancient lord, ought 
arfo to be reduced to its more fuitable relation to the humble weed, 
overhanging the banks which it but artlefsly. conjoined. "By thfe 
cefs book' of the county, the valued rent of this domain within the 
pariih is ftated at L.913. 13s. lod. ; but of this, the fum of L.39 
js apportioned on land* in the pariih of Edinkielie. 

Northward from Darn way, is the feat of James Brodie of Brc>- 
6ie Efq. the refidence of the family for 600 years. The fabric is. 
a great building, not modern, yet difplaying all the elegant accom- 
modation of the prefent fafhion. It rifes on a green lawn in a 
pretty extenfive park : a little lake, fhaped into an artificial pond, 
Is commanded by the front; a great extent of full-grown wood, in 
all the variety of the foreft, rifes on every fide ; long ftraight ave 4 - 
toues ftretch under its (hade ; arid fquare tnclofures under the beft 
Cultivation b'afk in its (helter. The valued rent in this parifli is 
JL.,1263. 6d. Scots. 

Eaftward is the ancient barony of Grangehill, originally apper- 
taining to the priory of Plufcarden, where a detachment of their 
brotherhood refided. Its name by a late owner was changed into 
£)alvey, fignifying in the Gaelic, the Plain ofSpcy. It appertains 
lo Capt. Macleod. Its valued rent extends to L.1174. 15s. 8d. 
Korthward is the eftate of Kincorth, the property of George Grant 
fcfq. embel lifted by a modern handfome manor houfe : the valua- 
tion amounts to L.371. 10s. 6d. Binfnefs, valueckat L.195. 8s. yd. 
\i faid to have been lately acquired by Lord Kinnaird, with the 
falmon fiflieries both in the river and in the > fait water, valued at 
the yearly rent of L.500 fterling. The reft of the parifh apper- 
tains to Col. Hugh Grant. The family feat at Moy is a magnifi~ 
:ent modern ,ftrufture, embelliJhed by gardens, groves, fhrubbery, 
rnd walks ; alfo a princely fuite'of farm • offices, adorned by a fpire 
md public clock : a highly cultivated manor fprcads over the. plain 
Jong the bank of the river. The valued rent paying cefs in the 

Z 2 county 

f 7* PRESENT STATE Of THE PROVINCE. ftphop. {ft. 

xounty of Moray antounis to hAygg. 17s. ^d. Scots, extencKng&c 
•valuation of the parifh to the fum of L.5674. 6$. 6d. Scots, Buuhe 
lands of Eafter Moy, amounting to the valued rent of L.218. is». 
,6d. are under the jurifdiftion of the fterrffidom of Nairn, though 
diftant from the borders of that eounty ; but having heea iri the 
pofleflion of the anceftors of Lord Cawdor? when hereditary fljerife 
of Nairn, this portion of the domain would have occasionally fab* 
je&ed ,t # heir haughty independence to the .court of the Sheriff of Mo- 
ray, had not this accommodation' to the prejudices of the feudal 
times been devifed. Many places/ politically infulated, on the 
fame account, remain both is England and in Scotland; and the 
'inconveniences <wbich this occafions in the adminiftration of civil 
juftice in its prefent eftabliihment, have been hitherto wholly 
overlooked* - 

But this political evil becomes of no consideration, when one 
phyfical calamity in this parifh, of ghaftfy nature and enormous 
fize, is taken into contemplation— the aftonifltrng fuperinduftion d 
fand, by which the fertile and populous barony of Culbin h* 
been reduced to .ja ftate of abfblute and irremediable iterility. Il 
pays the land-tax in the county of Moray, anf wring tp its valued 
rent of L.913. 18s. $6. Scots. Though included in Col. Grant oi 
Moy's valued rant, it is the property of his .nephew, Mr. Grant d 
Redcaftle, whom it qualifies to be elefted to reprefent the count} 
in parliament. 

Thftfe aftoniflring mound* of fand, raifed along the whole coal 
of the parifh, although tio doubt produced by the fea, and prabaWf 
hy its encroachments 0*1 the ftores nearer the head of tbe-Fritfc 
have not acquired .their form under the aftion^of the water. Thej 
-jare pot compofed>of different ftrata, or beds, and they have no mti* 
ture of pebbles, fea-weed, or (hells ; bilt they are iromenfe accuaft* 
lations of pure rafted whife fand, of .the fmalleft texture, having 
their fnuation, bulk, and form, determined only by the wind. Tk* 
fmalleft particles, though the firft that are fufpcraled, are the lal 
which are depofited by the water* and thereby cxpofed to the powd 
-of the wind, while pebbles, &clk, and heavier fand. .remain upca 
the beach. 

Extraordinary commotions, from various t:aufes, have been fbme 
times excited m the German Ocean. They have been ftrongij 
felt upon the ceaft of Plolland, when they had alfo rifen high ujni 

£iaf>< in.} > f AlaaH of dyke. : tj$ 

the whole length of our eaftern fliare, from the basks of the Thames 
to the Pentland Ffkh. One ftriking example needs fee onI>r ad- 
duced: By the commotion which the Ltfboa earthefuake in 1755 
cocked, although fo far diftant on the weft and oppolite fide of the 
ifland, a flock of flieep of this parifh were drowned in their cot, 
though far beyond the jeach of any ordinary tide* 

The wide expanfe of the Moray Frith, at its termination between 
*he (bore 'of Caithriefs and the coafts of Aberdeen, opens die acceft 
4o a heavier inundation from the ocean, and the bold (hore upon 
the northern fide rolls it large upon the Moray coaft, which is un- 
commonly flat to the weft ward of Burgh-head, as the vaft fwelt 
from the ocean is impelled along the contra&tng channel of the 
(Frith: and fome dreadful commotion, both of the laffd and water, 
it muft have been, which amafled the ample ftore for fuch a ruin- 
ous accumulation. 

The time in which this dtfmal vifttation firft began has atmoft ef- 
^caped the, notice of particular record ; yet general hiftory afforcis 
jeveral intimations of ftorms and inundations, which might have 
been the remote caufe of this perpetual devaluation. 

It bas been already noticed in No. 3d, that the inundation which 
Submerged the princely fortune of Earl Goodwin, on the coaft of 
JCent, muft bave raifed a dreadful commotion in all the eftuaries 
jon the eaftern fide of the-ifiand, and fhaken the whole coaft from; 
the one end to the other. The era of this defolation coincided 
with the reign of Kufus in England, and Canmore in Scotland, to- 
wards the end of the eleventh century. &r. Trafsler's Chrono- 
logy specifies the year 1100 as the epoch of the Goodwin Sands. 
Jordan and Buchanan, it has been already fihown, mention inun- 
dations, and devaftations by fand, in ibis kingdom, alarmingly ato- 
ariftiing, about the period which Trufsler marks for this fimilar vi- 
sitation upon the Englifh more. Refpeclingthe year, Buchanan is 
not particular, but fpeaks in general of the prodigies of that agt: 
but Boetbi us particularly conjoins the inundation with the year of 
Carunoxe's death, namely 1097, within 3 years of the date which 
Trufsler has fet down.; and be exprefsly relates, tftat its ravages 
were deflation on the coaft of Moray, of which county, it is ob- 
vious, the idea* of Buchanan were extremely indiftinQfc." 

" The 4eatb of Malcolm*" fays Boethius, " happened on the 
* c ides qi O&pber, tajhe year of our redemption 4097, and in the 




*' 37th year "of his reign ;. and in the fame year Albion was terri- 
•* fied by many raoft alarming ' prodigies : many villages, caftles, 
V towns; and extenfive woods; both in England and in Scotland, 
«• were overwhelmed by an exundation of the German Ocean, by 
** the weight of -which tempeft, the lands of Godowine, near the 
" mouth of the Thames, which wehaye formerly mentioned, were 
•' overwhelmed by fand; and likewifethe land ot^ Moray in Scot- 
* 4 land was at that time defolated by the Tea, caftles fubverted from 
, ** the foundation, fome towns deftroyed, and the labours of men 
* f laid wafte, by the difcharge of fand from the fea : monffrous 
*' thunders alfo roaring, horrible and vaft!" * 

To may be added, that in the Scotichronicon, book 7th, 
chap. 50. Fordun mentions a comet, to the influence of which 
he afcribes the exceffes of thefe waters. " The order of the Trini-, 
*' ty," fays he, " was inftituted in the year 1097. In that fame 
* 4 year, the 41ft of the Emperor Henry IV. a comet appeared in 
44 the weft from the ift of OSober: the fowing of winter grain is 
•* prevented (aquarum nimia innndationej by exceffive inunda- 
te tions of water ; and a failure of the crop enfues." 

In the Advocates' Library, it is, alfo faid, the records of the 
priory of Plufcarden, called the Red Book, are ftill preferved ; in. 
which it is recorded, that the whole low country of Moray was de- 
luged by the fea in the year 1010. If there be an error by irrif- 
placing the two middle numbers, this date accurately coincides 
with the period about which Fordun, Boethius, Trufsler, and even 
Buchanan, have all fo nearly agreed. * 

It muft therefore be allowed, .that inundations of the moft def- 
tractive magnitude did happen towards the clofe of the nth* cen- 
tury. What their effeft upon the coaft of Dyke may have parti- 
cularly been, lies beyond the reach even of conjefture, farther than 
that they extended not fo far as the fand has now fpread ; for even 
in the lad century, the northern quarter of the parifli, including 
the barony of Culbin, was diftinguilhed as the granary of Moray. 
Cultivation therefore was long continued, and it is likely that when 
only a little fand had been depofited, the fertility of the ground thereby increafed. But this vaft magazine/ which, it is 
conje&ured, the waves may have produced, by wafhing off the 
cape which gave the name to Invernefs, and the promontory from 
the point of Airderficr, has been accumulated fomehow into the 
^ Maviftown 

C&ap.lU*'] . '.. PARISH Iff DX8SL . . ijy 

Maviftown hills, on .the eaftern. bdrders of .the parifh-oC Auliearn* they began to drift over; the. rieareft fieids.of Culbhu 
irithe ttaft of.tbeiouih-wefi winds ^A efren the greater part- o€ 
thefe.fingular. mounds thpmfelves haveUaig^ted irom Auldearn 
into Dyke, the heavier, fand, wheir 'n^ovtfcL by rO^ gale, fettling 
upon the Jee-rfide. ; Tb£ encroachments fcave been every y*^. « ra-i 
dually extended, the rents rjfeidin yi^aLproportionallyxedVce^ 
the ; after another, .aad^he" landlord, with all their fami- 
lies, mournfully pjcpelled, and their habitations and pofleffions co- 
teredup, { fiippofed, to the height *>f tbe trees. of tfte.gardens 
about the manor. The dcffolationinuft have been completed prion 
to. the year i6gg* a* by the narrative of t£e.A& of Parliament then* 
made to prevent. *hc~piilltng of beat, "ithe.harony.Qf^Culhin, and 
" houfeand yards jtheseof,, is -quite ruined, and ©verfpread with 
".fand." The fajim 'of Earnhili,- arPqrner of the eftate witbo&t the 
traQ;> of the fend, accommodated , for .fame time the proprietor,, 
which now alone remains, fcarcely. yielding a rent of ,L.8o, of aa 
eftate which otherwife, at this time^iwould ha v c produced mora 
thanl^iooo. ■•-'■] y • • 

Although little, farther damage in t}ii& : quarter needs be appre- 
hended, yet. the whole, body of the £and* is uniformly progreffive 
from* the wefty Being, little affe&edby the wind fnomariy^ other 
quarter. About $q, years ago, a march itone was plaoed on* one of 
the fend hills," about 40 feet in height, that, it might be the more- 
confpicuous; and it was then conje&ured, that the ftone .would 
either bury itfelf, by finking in the hiiJ, or that the rjill wbuld. rife 
ever it. The ftofte however kept. its. place: the hill, moving off, 
left it oh the plain. That the fani> is $}ierefore blown into the bay 
of Findhprn in cpnfiderable quantifcies^ admits of Da doubt, as part 
of jt by every ftrong gale is carried quite acrpfs the. \sfater; but 
whether he it borne eaftward by die tide* to. he d^pofued ;pn fome 
, oifcer (bore, or.emly waflied back again in perennial alternate fuc- 
ceflion upon its own coaft, may be perhaps in another. .century dif- 
coverfed, ,.;..... 

.. The real rent of the parifh, including that of the fiQieries,. and 
the value of the grounds .about the feats of the proprietors, aaay be 
fitted ,a< Lijooo. The 'number ofacres under cultivation amounts 
tp 2697, and tljte natural and planted wood occupies 1191,- There 
3*e feveral farms of confiderable extent, froxrxL.6Q to upwards of 
'' .. L.xo&\ 

. j&p PRESENT STAT* pF.TH* JROVINCI. {Ch?p. lift 

places botlj ip Scotland and Engjaud, *r\ tfte, contemporary reigns 
of JJerjry Jl. ape! WiHiam the .JLjawu .^PWP pf ^e.oWei^ %uck 
.at ^triviling, bore oppne fide RE yii.LAM, jhe Gaelic for Kixfg 

The people are decent, peaceful, and well afle&ed to the national 
religion and government; they are little addiflted either tp a fea r 
faring ot military ijfe:- they live poorly, thaJt they may d*efe neatly; 
but few attempt to fave money . . ■ , - 

(Jrain is. aanually difpofed of: in confiderable qjiantjtiep, oajLs 
chiefly and barley, fometjiraep wheat. .Old o*ep ar>4 &jJT c RWS W 
fold off for the Englifji grazier*. W^f^yo^ngo^e»an^§i|iIqfe.§pjsyi 
can be fent tp matkejt, they always fgty*t a gre# grips, . Th#. (pin- 
ning of flax, formerly of great co^d^dtiaip, . WSK ftiU ^#Rg «tf? 
the. parifh abcnjt L.300 year ly. The . managements $& falmon fa? 
Jt^ejep .already n,Qtjfie.4 ?n the trade of Eip^hora (>fa. ».}; a-fcUgeae,. 
rally contain 3 falmoti, about 10 lb. each. Peflfrferaitfg quaft- 
tities of cod fifli are caught by the Iwa^.of Findhqf-ri ajifl -Nairn, 
more ab.undantjy at thaf feafon which does not adc^t, of their heing 
'dried in the open air: a quantity ,\ya$ cured iq. parrels like felte4 
falmon, and tried, from thjs parifji, in the London -market; 4he fale 
was not fuch as to encourage the coptinuaflce pjj,tbe,;psade, It has, 
been fuggefted, that if they were boiled Jn vinegar*, like'. kitted fal- 
mon, they might find a brifker feiarfcfe - s a .'•-'* 

A confiderable number of feals frequent the coaftv Cfcne man 
killed 130 in a year; the oil and fkixi of "each' brought ^s. This 
^fifhery is an objefi of the greater importance, h?f#pfe tfye, feal both 
prey upon the falmon and frighten them off the, coajl. 

A market of wood has feee_a |^!y eftabliQued. Gtae.of the pro- 
prietors has difpi&fed of a plantation, to ; be felled ia, 7. year*, at the 
"jrate of L.i op yearly; and the g^gi^nd is to be again pkrued as 
foon an the whole is cleared *.r He .has a fimtlar plantation in equal 
forwardnefs, and fcveral riling, m fucceffion. The; larger a^lcrs are 
^mpiayed ia the conflruftion of boats and fmall veffcl*: birch « 
made .up into the cheapeft kinds o£ .agricultural utenGItrtheaJb, 
the: elm, beech, and plane, with aieW.oaks that ean b?fp$red, are 
lhippedoffat Frndhcam: and the fir, mannfaBured jnto deals, and 
itmber^&rtkr roofing: of houfes, begins to find its' way to the lame 
port- . ' . .* .-...--, 


1 . 

tiftp.'fiiTf • ■ fj&bi ;* 'jfotfAAftA jfifi 

PARISH O't AULDtARtf. * ; 

Situdtioti, Soil, Climate. "J- — TtfEparifh of Auldearn, on the eaf-" 
tern frontier of the county of Nairn, extends 6 miles weftwafd 
along the coaft, from the boundary of Dykt; and it is ftretched to 
tie feme extent backward from' the fliore, meeting Ardclach arid 
Calder towards flie foutfi. The vflla^ 6f Auldearn,- figmfying irs*- 
thfef Gaelic, ike dllir brovk> although riot entitled' now to that ap-r 
p^llatibri, is nkar'thje centre of the parifli': it is alfo 20 miles from 
Elgin, and at the' fame diftanee from Inverneflr. A highway be- 
tween thefe toVris paffes through it, more pteafant, in equal repair/ 
and' not longer th&nthe poffrbad, cohduSfed' through* a- defert fkirt 
on the outfide of the parifli; 

The foil in the eaflern quarter of the parifli is a ftrorig' clay of a* 
tti. colour; it produces luxuriant crops, but is of difficult cultti* 
vatioror fouthvhml* towards Ardclach, iris ar blacker mould, but ; 
not fo fertile nor early. About the village, the foil is light, and? 
tlte crops are only weighty arid' full iri rainy or moifl: fummers. 
"The northern fide of the parifli' ifc at Heavy ctild- Ibaih, difficult to 4 
raanage'iri a wet winter or fpringl £ord : Cawdor's property h'fb'~ 
much encumbered by baulks and 1 ftone, tha~t : its value mighi Be [ 
raffed riibre than one fifth by clearing properly the fields. 

The clirhate, healthful^ is generally ferene and dry, but a little 
c6lder and mbre Wet iri the higher parts of the country. 

State of ' Property. y~ -The valued rent' of the parifli ahiountS to* 
IL.7255'. 7d. Scots. Lefhiri-houfe, the family feat of Mifs Brb-* 
die, iaafiately handfonie edifltfe, pleafatitly fitiiated 1 in a* Valley,* 
and embdliflied by the rural decorations of gardens*, enclofurfes, 
walks, and a great extent 6fwodd : on either hand, among which ar 
**utnber' of ihajeftic benches forma Itrikittgappearance, by the bulky 
ilrength of the tall bole, and the lbfty canopy of'the' fpreadirrg y 
branches*. Thevaliiedrerit is I:.i 5 ibo Scots. 

In agreen J dale, northward of the 1 village, is thcJftat of the ancient" 

' ftiriJly of the Diinbark : of Bbath. It is pleafantly* fittiated ori thfe? 

bank of a winding: brodk; the gafderi; plantation, and' ornamental"* 

<jtiltivation, defcdrttethefetivirons of this handfome ftru£iure. Thfci 

A a 2 valued 


valued rent of the eftate is L.652. 15s. gel. James Brodie of Brodie 
£fq. is the proprietor of the barony of Infhoch; on which there 
is a ruined caftle, and a confiderable extent of natural birch wood 
end full-grown fir plantation. Qn. the adjoining eftate of Penick, 
originally a part of the lands of the priory of Urquhart, there is a 
commodious old houfe of three ftories, which,, though for fome 
years uninhabited, is in pretty good repair. The valued rent of 
tjiefe eftates is L.1599. 11s. Scots, The lands of BlackhiUs,. R&it- 
Ipne, Leylands, with Moynefo, Boghole, and EarlVfeat, valued at 
Xi.1483. lgs.^d. appertain to Lord Cawdor. The eftate of Knock- 
andie, valued at IU96, is the property of Mifs Ore of Nairn : and 
the reft of the parifli, Kinudie, Kinfterie, Auldearn, and Park* ap- 
pertain to Charles Gordon of Braid Efq. writer to the fignet. On 
this property, valued at L.,2322. 14s, 4c!. Scots, there is an elegant 
country feat, and more than 600 acres in wood, in groves,, ftripes, 
and extended plantations. The land is alfo greatly embellifhed and 
improved by drains, hedges, and enclofures ; the fields have been 
cleared of every incumbrance; the larger ftones burft by gunpow- 
der; and the nioft fubftanfial and perfeft cultivation every-where 

The real rent may rife, above L.jjoqo-fterling. There are a few 
f^rms rented from L.60 to L.80: but the greater number from L.ia 

-tp L.26 fterling. The mpfl fertile foils let from L.i. 5s. to L.i. 
16s. the ?icre, The fields indeed are open; but the tenants would 

, cheerfully give an adequate rife of rent, were fubftantial inclofures 
formed, About 2000 bolls of barley, and the fame quantity of oats, 
may be difpofed of yearly, The number, of horfes is 37c*. The 
black cattle are generally ftarved in the fpring, and but poorly fed 
in the funimer : their number is nearly 910. The Iheepare of the 
fmall white-faced breed, *(nd amount to about 1200. The village 
of Auldearn confifts of 41 dwellings, which contain .185 inhabi- 
tants, whereof 4 are merchants, and 3 are inn-keeper*. 

State EccleJiafticaL'} — During the Roman Catholic difpenfation, 
Auldearn was the feat of the dean of the diocefe of Moray. It 
jnay be prefumed his ofiice, firft inftituted in the year 1220 by 

. Bifhop Bruce, obliged him to refide principally, with the other 
canons, at the cathedral in Elgin; It does not appear that be had 
?ny other revenue but the tithes of Auldearn and Nairn, and the 
field at Elgincalled the Deans' .Crook, about 4 acres, now in the 


4fkap. in.] parish of AiHjp*ARfc. lfcj 

pariOi of Spynie. There is no4hing.:kQOVn.refpe£ling : tlieTuccrf- 
iipn ot the deans:, their fcaaty revenue or remote fnyation flight 
Jiave prevented any of them, though ctf.diftinguiflied abilities, from 
attaining to eminence/, it may be prefumed, that the number of in- 
cumbents, after their.. inftitution, might be equal on. the whale t(J 
that of the bifljops. " 

., In the year 16,50, abput the time when the formation of the parifh 
of Kinlofs was propofed, foine .parts of . the fkirts , of Auldearn 
. were- more commodioufly annexed to Nairn, Calder, and Ard- 

In the year 1773, the preibytery of Nairn, which, together with 
that county, is here to be confidered, was eftabliflied by the decree 
.©fthe General Aflembly, conjoining Auldearn, Nairn, ana* Ard- 
xlach, from the preibytery of Forres, tp Calder and Croy from that 
of Invernefs, and to Airderfier from the prefbytery of Chanonry, 
of the fynod of Ro£s,, upon .the other fide of- the Frith, with which 
it had been incoramodioufly claffed. 

The church, a modern building, in the village, is conjoined to . 
the .walls of a ruined fteeple • yet, like a houfe with but one chim* 
ney, ftands disfigured by the chara&eriftic of Caledonian frugality, 
the meanly looking feel fry. 

. The ftipend, including the allowance for the communion, is 
L.48. 15s. 6d. 54 bolls of meal, and 48 of bear, with 14 wedders, 
generally converted at .3s. 6d. each, being paid when only one year 
old. Eleven (hillings of the money is paid from the Deans' Crook, 
probably the original rent (10 merks Scots), which has been ever 
retained. The, right of patronage appertains to Mr. Brodie of 
Brodie. The falary of the fchool is 16 bolls in meal. and bear, and 
the cuftomary fees of about 30 fcholars, and the fee of the feflion 
clerk, about L.3, with the cuftomary perquifites. The provifion 
for the poor contributed in the ufual manner by the people amounts 
to about L.10 yearly, to which is added L.4. 16s. arifing from the 
intereft of a capital favedby the parfimony of the feflion during the 
laft incumbency, diftributed anaually among 50 perfous, or occa-* 
fionally as the neceflities of any may require. 

The members of the national Church amount to 1309, and there 
are 97 diflenters oi the Antiburger feci: of Seceders : joined by a few 
jqS their brethren in t)he neighbouring parilhes, they fupport a clergy- 

J$j| present •-'**«§" 'Of trtfc ft*3viNC$. [C6d/. iA 

rtrart of tfeif 0Wn forf : M* f afdenbe ind chapel are aft Bojrftrold, 6ti 
the troirtiers of EdinkieKtf, Whefe 6n4 of the faine fe*6l had lately 
opeafcd a fchaol at the ediaiftdft rates, as mentioned iri the n¥ft frd } 
and partly by k« rioteky, arid partly by its reihtrfe fttfation frdtn 
€hef enatfiahedrfchools, this feminary has been hitherto well attend- 
ed : But the zeal of the feceffion waxes gradually ritore cold. 
• MrfciUaoceus InfdfTfcaiion.'} — The people reffi their virtue itr the 
©bfenrance? of devotional father than in the drfcharge of rnoral du- 
ties. From* the ftrifteft a* tetf&ofr to the laft they believe thenlfelVeS 
fet free, by formal and prolongated exercifes of the firft. Many erf 
this account make ltfng pilgrimages to attend' thofe popular preach- 
ers* who inculcate chiefly the efficacy of fetth, and delight to dwell 
on the merits of the atonement; ' and although the people hi ge'ne'raf 
deem? every gr^ti^cation- of fcnfe to be furfur ire fomtt degree, yet 
petty thefts apnong theft* are not uncortnnon 1 . Flagrant irntriorali- 
ties, however, . anxf difgraceful profligacy, are carefully ef chewed; 
and they err rather through illiberal and inveterate prejudice than* 
fefcm want of principle, or through depravity <tf mind. 

It is ascertained,* that an almoft iiiexhatrffrble ftore of pure rich 4 
iftQrle is; contained in- the inofs and late of litfe; on the {frdjterty of 
Lord Cawdor. It extends ove* a fpace of 46* acres, aiidis frottf 
16 to 20 feet deep. It would not be coftly : to drain off the water: 
and Mr. Gordon of Braid' h&fr Ihown the beneficial effefts" of fithitef 
marie on* his eftfcte of Kirffterie, in* his* crops of com, turnip, antf 

It appears probable to people (killed in 1 opening coal pits, that 
this ufefwl mineral 1 riiight be found in the groundfe between ftoatti 
and the flfore. There is a quarry wrought of dark Blue* ftone v f 
"which, like -coal, flatties in the firej yet its bulk is not dintinifliecl, 
nor, on the- application of water, does it fall into a* powdef like 
kmeftene' calcined* 

Large fir tree* are dug in the trstfts of peat earth indifferent 
parts of theparifli, Sbme have been found' 60 feet in' length, and 1 
in. diameter nearly 3; they are uftd in the roofing dfhblifeS. 

Under the bank, which, it has been faid, ranges' along the coaft* 
from Oyke neatly to fiiverrtefs; there is in this parfffi a lake about 
annile in length, but lefs than the half of that in brfcadlh;* it' is Be- 
low the level of the fea, of which it* feerfts to' Have' been' ohce a 


yart; by the #}frxpg gf the fand, H i* ftil.l mere aadmore dlnjinift- 
ed bgth ifl e#en$ agd depth, thopgl* k ftilj retains more than y 
fj%jns pf w^er. ,; . ' 

Tfce tcf^jp^s of |W On*i4$, pretty iwuperous over all this quar- 
, iff of the^ country, bear evidence of its haviag bspn inhabited from 
y&Y ffwpte anjiqujty, Afl Wiifcjal green ipouiat near the church/ 
ttotfgb Ga}}eji tfee Caftljehtfl, is generally fuppofexl to have been? 
apcMf»j^iate4 far the;, court of civil jiifiice, whon^thefe. temple* of 
the, fir^i^s n^erp farfofcen^ Affd i* may be prefumed, that if juf- 
ti*£ was IH#> always obtained y^fcit inuft. have coft left when ad- 
Waiftered Qi*fr gfeei|.9¥«int, in the!open air, thaw ia :a fplendid 
feaU, ofccu&ia&ed qhairsvwnmed mhos of ilate^and fehtaftic wigs.- < 
Tjiere are ,3 atwwl.&jrs in the village, where tlflapk jcattk is al- 
ways, the .ftapfo Vh&1>n the 2* June was efiabiiflied. 011 th* 
fegiyal ;#f St. Cqlwba, and i& yet catted St; rfJoBn'a market. 

The yiUage is diftinguifhed a3 the,.field of one:of the celebmedl 
yifi^ries of-tto.Matqw .of. Moatrofe in i%5,'ibr:Clrarfes I., en- 
de^v^ri^ tP^«ftabJ,i&.pareJai:y inSoetiandi and defpq$ifitf over all 
$e .empire. r if it he* at any timerifc? the good, of a na'tbnv^oi' For thp 
happineis of a pfeopbv.tO: 'toiOTtnce &£&:!• wafi it t© op* 
fok ttbfLpra$iflaJ /QftabliftfrneAt <d &£ xfo&fitne: of paffive obedisnccj 
a,nd i»oii»f«!(tfftpf&;..yjtt tha^ge«e*aiia& invoked themfeh?ris.incak^ 
miiie* much l^«> deplorable thJtn.gny. which they feared Tram the* 
king; an4;%&fcr ajj^ they tamely yielsted;up..thofe rightsr.tq an i*p^ 
fiact afm?per,if©i\tbe defense, tff. which they bad rebelled, againftl 
and mur^rad a pefpe^lafele princcv*he reprefontative ©fa long Hn» 
ofthcSr'nalioiialteQnarchs, » .••■•..,. . V, 

Thic inhabitaijteof Moca^«i ; tbai a|;e were adrerfeirfeythtfraea-f 
fa^es of the cotprt*! :f efpe&ing bcAk- tjac- church and ftaie. Moatrofo 
therefore pbindered, . hurnedy apd deftroyed the wh^ie cou titry , in. ar 
progress from ^nvdraefs, particularly the eft at e& arid ljoafes:af £rodie 
of L»ethinr andi^rodie of Brodie, ffcunbar.of Gra,ngebill,Kinnaird o£ 
Gulbio, Burgie, DuJSu«»Garmach, Jnnes,- and Redha|iv delh^yJBjrt 
alfo* thenets andboat^ to ruin the^ftflierjr of Spey. Fafterweve** may-? 
i&t srt Elgin was thatiyea* given up, fqr the fear of this gallant plun- 
i&eex 1 aii(khe»c^fab^antial ( p«ople.<Df the towri; abandoning their 
ibufes* flfidlwithnheir families and moil valuable effects to the caftle of 
Spy nie> at that time a tenable fottrefe. In this (foliation, the forces 
>£th& p^opls^ ulider Lieutenant General Urcy, rendezvous at Inver- 


M VKEStxT'&ftfft' Of TH£ PROVINCE, [Chaff. -lit! \ 

nefs. In a cafiial fkirmiflij -as the* troops'maf'dlied onward, a young 
gentleman of the King^s ^arty,' Mr. CFordod of Rhynie, being 
wounded, retired for his recovery to the houfeof a friend at 
Struthers* near Forres, and »he was there murdered by at party of the 
people from Elgin, uader the <:ondu& qf the youhg knight of 
Innes, zealous againft prelacy, and non-refiftance, haftening to join 
the army at Invernefs. Mbntrofg followed after to Auldearn, with' 
j^oa foou and.250 h^rfe; where hewas'met by Urry and mtny 0? 
tile x:hiefe' f of the people, with an array of 3500 men and "400 horfe; 
From before fuch fuperior-poW^s; MSritrofe was kiclmed to re- 
treat : buuhat was extremely- hazardous, by the approach of Geheittt 
Baillie from -behind, with aft army ftiil betted' appointed. He Was 
therefore obliged to try theiate of aiautej-jn^hichthefi^eriofity 
ef .numbers was^ina great, degree compenfated by the advantage 
of the ground, : Montrofe concealed the- greatei* part of his forces 
behind the tillage; :at that time on the height 'covering the valley 
below; m.whith he placed a cho fen band, pr0te&ed* by an earthed 
lenee. He ; gave the commaftd of the right wing to Colonel Alex-> 
a& der MacdoaaM, placed arfo in a fituation prbtected by banks; 
dykes, b&fhes, and great Hones* There the royal ftartdard was d\U 
played, -to entice the nenemy x& ^atfe the eicettibn -of their faeft 
forces, where it miift be impotent from the fituatfcn'oltbe ground , 
eomtnandihg the Colonel tar ke&p within his ftrefogtfy notwith {land- 
ing 'any provocation which ftitef tottcmy might give* • Lord Gordoir 
ted the cajtalry^, and himfel^todk the charge of- the reft 4>f the in- 
fantry.; drawin up into the Wt.wio'g v fofjning no main army, :unfcfs 
the chofen band ftationed before the village might be fo termed. 
This die: ran. of the army ofctb^ people- attacked, bending at the, 
femeiime', as-had been forefeet^tkeir beftftrengtb- againft the right 
wing and tbe» royal ftandard,. pouring in frefli fuppliesof men, re- 
lieving the troops that Were fpent. .White this fuggfefted to Mon- 
trofe ?the idei.x)f agerierahattack, be was privately' informed thia 
the right Wing were put to 'flight: " My Lord/ v he cried aloud \t> ! 
the leader x>f the horfe, diflembling to ■aroufe the ipiritof his men r 
V Macdonald routs the enemy 00 the right : let him not carry of 
*■* the glory of the day : let:ua alfo give a general and. a .vigorous 
charge." This the cavalry! of JUrry were unable to Cuftain ; i* 
their rout they even difordered. the foot, whofe flank they left alfcl 
expo fed: for fome time, however, *bey bore againft the fhock, bill 


%ap. in.} PAitisJi or ^AiRN. ftf 

Hrere at laft alfo forced'into flights And Montrofe thereupon haf- 

fened to fupport Macdonald, who in the ardour of the ohfet had 

fiftly advanced from his ftrength* to which * however, undifmayed 

■e're-^onducJedhismeni covering their retreat himfelf, protetted 

lyan ample fliield, and defended ^by a keen fwonL Tfre horfe 

^Hrhich had encountered him, perceiving, the rom of their fellows, 

and the conquerors advancing on them felves* fled after with moil 

cowardly precipitation; but the veteran foot maintained their 

ground till alm'oft every man fell in his rank, and the viftory of 

jtfontrofe was. to his utmoft *wifh complete* with the lofs only of » 

■§o of his men. 2000 of thfc enemy were flain ; many prifoners 

were taken ; the whole baggage, much wealth and ammunition, 

arid ifrftandards, were won : but thehorfe by their inglorious flight 

were for the greater part unhurt- Montrofe returned fouthwards, 

plundering and burning tfce country as he patted ; the eftate, in par- % 

■iicularrof the family of Cawdor, and their houfes ipi the town of 

Nairn; stad^br avenging the murder of Rhynie's fan* the houfes 

of thafpartjr, in the town of Elgin,, were. alfo rifled and burned, by 

which other houfes of the town were at the fame time incidentally 


« Such'great misfortunes did our anceftors fuflfer, and fo mucn of 
their blood was flied, not from any ideas then entertained about thef 
enlargement of their civil liberties, but merely for the eftablifhment 
of the fimple form of prefbyterian worfliip, and for that arrange- 
ment which mixes the people fo equally with the clergy, in all 
that refpeflts the difcipline and government of the church* 

number xvii* 


. Situation, Soil, Climate.']— From the borders of the pafiftr ot 
Auldearn, Nairn ftretches 6 miles weftward along the Frith, and it 
extends backward into the country about 8. It is interfered ;by- 
the river which imparts its name to the parilh and to the t'6wn, de- 
noting in the Gaelic, the water of oilers; its-banks to a confiderable 
extent having beeri covered with that fpecies of wood. The 

B b ground 


ground on the north fide of the river fpreads out a level plain to 
the fliore of the Frith:, on' the other, it rifes in a gentle acclivity, 
terminating towards the fouthern corner in a eminence, 
named, from the adjoining lands, the Hill of Urchahy. In the 
environs of the town, and along the coaft, the foil is fandy ; the 
fame kind of foil is continued on the banks of the river, but greatly 
mixed with clay ; and the country on its. fouthern fide is of a rich 
and heavy mould. 

State of Property.'] — The parifli is poflefled by 5 proprietors, 
excluding the grounds appertaining to the community, and the finall 
heritages about the borough. Kildrumrny and Torrich, part of 
the ellate of Kilravock, are valued in the cefs roll of the county at 
L.^73. 5s. ud. Scots. The barony of Geddes and Allanhall are 
valued at L.412. lid. Scots. The lands of Delnies, mortagedto 
Mr. Campbel by the family of Cawdor, are valued at L.204. £S. 
3d. And Belmakcith, appertaining to Mr. J)unbar of Boath, is 
valued at L.i 29. 4s. 3d. The reft of th$ country part of ,the parilh 
appertains to Lord Cawdor, which, with the falmon fifliery, is 
valued at L.462. 5s. od. Scots: extending the whole valued rent 
of the parifh, with the valuation of the borough lands, about L.500 
Scots, to L.1980. 19s.* id. The number of farms are about 50, « 
and of inconftderable extent, generally not exceeding L.20 fterling 
of rent, there being only 2 equal to L.50 fterling. In the imme- 
diate vicinity of the town, the acre rents at L.i. 15s. fterling; far- i 
ther diftant, from 18s. to L.i. 10s.; and in the country, from 5$. 
to L.i. ' ^ 

The falmon fifliery oh the river (a branch of which is carried ; 
on likewife in the fait water, near its influx, diftinguifhed by the 
epithet ol Jlill-fijhingy from the filentmode of conduftipg it, by a 
fignal, in the fmooth water) is the joint property of Colonel Cum- 
ing Gordon of Altyr, and Mr. Davidfon of Cantray : it is feparate- 
ly occupied by their tenants, at the rent of L.36 fterling from I 
each, and is alternately carried on in the river and in the fea. Mr. : 
Brodie of Brodie has alfo a ftill-fifliery on the eaft fide of the river, 
at the rent of L.8 fterling. There are 6 boats in the town and £ 
in the country for the fea filh, in each of which 7 men are employ* 
cd. Befides the fpecies of fifh got eaftward in the Frith already 
mentioned, they generally find fome herring in every feafon, for 
which they omit however go as far- weft as the influx of the Nefs. 


'Chap.Hl^ PARISH OF NAIRK. ' ' 1 89 

Previous to the year 1782, all kinds of fifh were found in plenty juft 
©ppofite to the town : at prefent they are fometimes not to be got 
nearer than the coafts of Sutherland and Caithnefs. 

The town is pleafantly and cojnmodioufly fituated on the weft 
tank of the river* near the fliore of the Frith. The jail and town- 
i6ufe are on the middle of the ftreet; from which many narrow 
lanes extend to the river on the one fide, and to an extenfivc plain 
of fertile corn field, of more than 460 acres, on the other. The 
6 rft charter riow extant is the grant of James VI. in the year 1589, 
tearing to be the renewal of ^a /charter by Alexander I. The re- 
venue of the borough arifes from a confiderable extent of moor, 
i/st on various leafes to be improved, by which a confiderable in- 
crement will in due time be made. Some feu duties are likewife 
Serived froih the borough lands, and from the tolls of 6 ftated 
fairs' in the year, and the weekly market. The government of 
;he borough is committed to 17, the Provpft, and 3 Baillies, Dean 
>f Guild, and Treafurer, with 1 1 Counfellors. As the gentlemen 
>f the town are not numerous enough for the requifite annual chan- 
jC5i gentlemen from the country are admitted into the magiftracy: 
)ut the Baillies, Dean of Guild, and Cafhier, by a late decifion of 
he .Houfe of Peers, mud be refident in the town. The whole 
rades are formed into one incorporation. , 

• State EcclefiaflicaL~\ — The church and burying ground are on 
he fouth fide of the town, waftied by the river. The ftipend, in- 
cluding the allowance for the communi'on, is L.32 fterling, and 5 
rhalders of bear. The right of patronage appertains to Mr. Brodie 
if Brodie. The falary of the parochial fchool is 16 bolls of bear, 
nd the cuftomary perquifues of office. It has been - for many 
r ears in a very flourifiiing ftate : the number of fcholars fent from 
11 quarters of the country, and fome occafidnally from England, 
i feldom below 80, and often upwards of 100. AH the branches 
f education carried on in the academies are taught with ability and 
iccefs. There is alfo in the town a fchool for girls, where the 
uftomary branches of female education are properly conduced : 
ie falary paid by the community i$ L.10, and a houfe. The roll 
: the poor amounts to the number of 150* The provifion col- 
&ed in the church for their fupport, about L.8 fterling yearly, 
id a fmali fum bearing intereft; admits only of one dividend in 
e year ; tut the extremely needy receive occafion*! fupply. The 

B b 2 number 

I - 


jiumber of inhabitants are 2400, of whom about noo appertain to 
the borough. There are feveral families of Aotibuxger Seceders, 
and a few of the Episcopalian perfuafion. 

Mifcellaneous Information.] — On the fouth fide ,pf the town, on 
jthe bank of the river, is the Caftlehill, where flood a royal fort, | 
,pf which the Thanes of Cawdor were hereditary conftables till the | 
year 1747. The conftabulary gard/en is ftill diftinguUhed as anj 
. article of the valuation of the eftate, to the extern of I^.g. 10s. Scots, \ 
At a very remote period of antiquity, the.caftle was fituated nearer] 
to the fyore, upon the influx of t.he river ;. which, fimilar to the; 
Spey and Findern, then flowed half a mile farther weft ward along j 
the fliore than its x prefent termination. There are fome perfons! 
itill alive who remember to have feen at fpring tides yiftiges of its j 
foundation, at prefent' a confiderable way within the bed of the ; 
pcean. The chapd of the Virgin Mary, built at Geddes in thej 
year 1220, ha$ ever been the burial place of the family of Kilravock. 
The burial ground around it is alfo ftill in ufe, In 1475 Popaj 
Sextus I V t granted a discharge for 100 days penance for everjrj 
vifit to this chapel on certain high fe&ivals, and alfo for a certaiaj 
nextent of donation for the repairs of the building. 

The county of Nairn confifts of 4 pariflies, with fome incon« 
fiderable corners of fome that are contiguous of the county of Ii 
yernefs.- In the reprefentation in Parliament, it is conjoined wi 
the county of Cromarty, on the oppofite fide of the Frith; eai 
elefting their commiflioner alternately. The office of the flieril 
.was hereditary in the family of Cawdor till the year $7471 wheni 
was made a part of the (heriffdom of Moray. And witb the com* 
mon county courts, that alfo of the IJieriff, by his fubftitute, is re? 
gulariy rnairjtajned in the town. - 


. .Situ/itiop, Soil, Climate.~\-~Ym$ parifh lies on the {bore of thl 
Frith, weft ward of that of Nairn, having a wiag of the parifh d 
petty interjeftefl between its fouthern fide and the mountain. Thfl 



name- in the Gaelic, when a little torrefied, denotes the height of 
the edge: the greater part of the cultivated land, lying upon a 
plain extended backward from the fharp edge of a fteep bank, riling 
100 feet above the level beach of the fea. The fouthern or land fide 
of the parifli is ftretched a little more than 2 miles ; and it might be 
conceived as a promontory terminating in the Frith, having the cape 
waihed off alroofl: to the level of the fea by fome inundation, in an 
x sera beyond the notice of hiflorical record; while the appearance of 
the ground, both in the fmoothnefs of the compacted* gravel of the 
plain below the bank, and in the fteepnefs of the bank itfelf, fug. 
gefts this idea. It might alfo with probability be conje&ured, from 
the quality of the fand of which the bank appears to be compofed, 
that the fubftanceof this promontory, wafhed up again upon the , 
fliore of the parifli of Dyke, formed the Mavis hills, and the .maga- 
zine for the irruption over the eltate of Culbin. 

There is in the parifli a confiderable variety of foil : ftiff clay, 
deep black mould, {hallow black foil, and light fand. The parifli 
lying either pretty- high, or ftretched out into the fea, the climate is 
-rather cold, but neither wet p nor unhealthy. 

State of Property.] — The whole parifli is the property of Lord 
Cawdor, except the ground purghafed by Government for the Ra- 
tion of Fort George, acrid a farm for the accommodation of th& 
Governor. His Lordfliip pays the whole of the land tax affefting 
the valued rent, which extends to L.600 Scots. The real rent of 
the parifli when Fort George was built .was L.315 fterling, and 
L.£omore, which was the rent of thef farm fold to Government. 
The parifli contains 1985 acres, of which 966 are moor: after fup- . 
plying the inhabitants, it, in general, difpofes of 300 bolls. It is let 
in whole to one tenant, who fubfets the greater part, in farms of 20 
or 30 acres; the beft arable land at L.i. los.the acre, and that of 
pn inferior quality from 5s. to 7s. 6d. 

The fituation of Cromwell's citadel upon the influx of the river 
at Inverriefs was originally chofen by Government for the ftation of 
Fort George ;bujt the Magiftracy of that town, from an apprehen- 
fion of its tendency to corrupt the morals of the people, eluded its 
ereftion there, by fuch an exorbitant demand for the price of th« 
ground, that the Duke of Cumberland, in a huff y upon the-reporv 
of able engineers, found the ground whereon it now {lands to be 
the raoft eligible, which, with the farm that has been mentioned, 



was purchased from the famity of Cawdor. The work was com- 
menced in the year 1747, under the direction of General Skinner: 
the original eftimate was L. 120,600 fterling ; but it required a little 
more than the addition of L. 40,000 to that fum. The citadel oc- 
cupies 15 EngHQi acres of the point of low ground already describ- 
ed. On three fides the ramparts rife almoft out of the fea, which 
can be introduced at pleafure into a formidable excavation ftretched 
along the fourth, with which the ancient foffe round any Gothic 
caftle could not either in breadth or in depth be compared. It is 
faid to be the only regular fortification in Britain : every member 
of the work is covered by the defence of fome other, and the be- 
fiegers can take no ftation without being expofed to its fice. The 
depreffion of the out-works is fo managed, that the interior of the 
citadel commands every part around it, and the plain is fo broad on 
the land-fide as to afford no advantage from any higher ground, 
- while its gravel is fo compaft and folid as tq make the opening of 
trenches extremely difficult. It has 4 baftions, is mounted by 80 
cannon, and well fupplied with water. Beiides the bomb-proof 
apartments under the ramparts, the interior of the> citadel con fills 
o( handfome fquares of barracks, elegant accommodation for the 
Governor and other officers, a fpacious armoury, a fecure bomb- 
proof magazine, convenient (lores, and a neat chapel. It is fuffi- 
cient for the accommodation of 3000 men. 

It is hardly poffible to contemplate the art. and fcience difplayed 
in rendering it defenfible, without admiring the advancement in 
fortification fince thofe rude ages in which the capital of Afia was 
protected by a fimple earthen rampart, flanked only with fome 
towers of wood, and without even the fecurity of a ditch. Homer 
reprefents Patroclus,upon having repulfed a fortie of the Trojans, 
Springing lightly on the top of the wall : an aflion which the judi- 
cious bard would never have admitted, upon a perpendicular (lone 
wall and a broad ditch. 

The ufefulnefs of Fort George is not now very obvious : great 
improvement has no doubt taken place in the manners and fenti- 
ments of the people of .the country around, fince it' was firft gar- 
rifoned, to which it is not eafy to fay how much it may have con- 
tributed. Confidering the (late of the country at that time, its in- 
fluence may have been confiderable ; but it would have been inef- 
; feftual (liU, without the free accefs to every quarter which the for- 


mation of roads has opened, the knowledge and new ideas which the 
eftahlifiiment 'of fchools has difFufed : to which it may be added, that 
the protection of the perfons and of the fubftance of the comraoa 
people, by the equal extenfion of the laws to every rank, hath pro- 
duced among them a fatisfa&ion and elevation of mind unknow,h 
to their anceftors, the flaves of baronial defpotifm. ^ ' 

. State EcqUfiqftical. ,}— The church was removed from the vici- 
nity of the ground fold to Government, to the plain above the 
bank, about the year 1769. Its walls, as well as thofe of the 
manfe, are formed of clay, without any ftone or lime.. The burial 
ground remains at the old ftation of the church, and is alfo ufedby 
the people- of the fortrefs. The right of patronage appertains to 
Lord Cawdor. There is no parochial fchool. The number of the 
poor amounts to 50: the money contributed in the church for 
tlaeir fuppoft amounts to about L. 15 fterling in the year. The 
number of people, exclufive of the inhabitants of the fort, is 802 : 
there are only a few Seceders.diffenting from the national church. 
MifuHaneous Information.'] — The Gaelic and Englifli languages 
,are fpoken with equal readinefs. There is a confiderable village, 
Campbeltown, containing about 300 inhabitants, which has been 
raifed in confequcmce- of the occafiqns of the garrifon. It main- 
tains 8 boats, from 5 to 8 tons burden, employed in the white and 
herring fifliery : the herring are chiefly fold to fishing buffes. Sal- 
mon are alfo caught in the Frith. On the boundary of the parifli 
of Nairn, there is a rude obeli£k, about 6 feet in height, reported 
. to have been ere&ed on the grave of 3 chief, who lpft his life in a 
filly fcuffie about a cheefe., 


1 * 

Siluation, Soil,-CHmat*-~\ — Croy lies on the fouthern fide of Ar- 
clerfier, and upon the weft of Nairn. It is interfefled through 8 
miles of its length by the river of that name, on the weftern fide of 
-which it is extended in the direction northweft from Nairn, for the 
fpace of 16 miles, confiding almoft of one continued low ridge of 

• white 


white mooriffi ground, on which there are feveraJ fmall plots of 
poorly cultivated land. The foil along the river is a fertile loam,- 
and in feveral parts fields- of a good quality are (bund ; but a greafe 
part xs poor and thin, on a cold hard foil, and the. crop fubjefted 
to damage when the harveft is late and wet. - • ' ■ 

State of Property.- — The parifli, in the counties of. Nairn and 
Invernefs,- is fliared" among ten proprietors. The family feat of 
Kilravock is an old tower, fuppofed to have been built iri the year 
1460, to "which an elegant modern manfion, on a rock overhanging 
Ihe river, .is conjoined. The gardens, an orchard, and a confide- 
rable extent of natural and planted wood, embellifti the environs. 
The domairv is in the county of Nairn: the valued rent amounts ta 
L.792./ A little farther up, pleafantly Situated on the banks- of the 
river, is. Holm, the feat pf Mr. Rofc, in the county of Invernefs, a 
neat modern houfe, embellifhed by natural and planted wood :■ th« 
valuation is L.120. Still farther up the river, in the fame county, 
is Cantray, the manfion-hpufe of David Davidfon Efq. He has at 
once ornamented arid improved his ample property, in a very; high 
degree : more than 400 acres of wafte hav£ been brought into the 
higheft ftate of cultivation : his plantation* e*ce*ed 2000 acres: he 
has built a fplendid and commodious manfion, and a handfome 
bridge in its environs, of the greateft utility' and ornament. Hij 
domains are in both counties : the eftate of Clava in Nairn* valued 
at L.292. 15s. 8d. added to thofe of Cap tray" and Clavala in the 
county of Invernefs, extends his valued rent in this parHh to the 
jfum of 'L»8<)9«' Arthur Forbes of Cullodenr Efq. has lands in both 
counties within this parifli : his valuation in Nairn of L. 358. 14s. 
6d. added to that of Lenoch and Bellbraid in the county of Inver- 
nefs, makes his valuation equal to L.449. ^si 6d. The reft -of the 
parifli is wholly in the county of Invernefs. The old caftle and 
eftate of Dalcrofs, the property of Mr. Mackintosh of Mackintosh, 
is valued at L.190; Part of the barbny of Inches, the property of 
Mr. Robertfo**, is valued at L.230. Daltalich, a part of*the eftate 
of Lovat, is valued at L.116. 13s. 4d. Mid Leys, the property of 
Mr. Baillie, is valued at L.133. 6s..8d. Leys, the property of Col. 
Frafer of Culduthel, is valued- at L. 130 : arid the property apper- 
taining to Mr. Cuthbert of Caftlehill, valued at L.56, makes the 
tvhole valuation of the parifli amount to L. 2995. 14s. 6d> Scots. 

The greater part of the farms are below L.20 fterling of rent- 

Chap, tit*] PARISH 6F croy. icf5 


Several of them are inconfiderable crofts, lately brought into cul- 
ture, and threatening to return to their original ftate of moor. 
There are a few rented from L.40 to L.50, managed in the beft 
manner. ^ 

State Ecclcfiafiicat.'] — The pafifh, in its prefent extent, confifts 
of Croy, and the parifli of Dakrofs, annexed before or about the 
-Reformation. The vicar of Dalcrofs is mentioned in the records 
of the titnes pf popery ; and the burial ground, Hill ufed a little, 
and the walls* of its church, remain ; and its glebe makes a part of 
the prefent glebe. The names of both parifhes are fuppbfcd to be 
originally French, Croix, the, crofs, and De la Croix : but as a dif- 
trifl: in the weftern quarter of the kingdom is named Glencro, ot 
croy, it may be of Gaelic birth. The ftipend, including the allow- 
ance for the communion, is L.30. its. fterling, and 80 bolls of 
grain. The right of patronage is equally fhared between the fami- 
lies of Cawdor and Kilravock. The diftricT: called Leys is fo dift^ 
ant from the church, that, during the fummer and autumn months,* 
public wbrfhip is performed there every fourth Sunday, in the open 
air. The fabry of the parochial 'fchool is 16 bolls. of bear i the 
fees of education, and the perquisites of the office' of feffion- clerk, 
make the whole eftablifliment equal to L.22 fterling yearly. The 
Society for Chriftian Knowledge maintain alfo a fchool in the pa^ 
Tifh, with an apf^ointment of fterling, befides the houfe, gar- 
den, fuel, and the maintenance of a cow, furniihed by the proprie- 
tor and people* 'Both fchools are flourishing and well attended J 
Except 4 of she Epifcopalian perfuafion, the whole of the people,' 
amounting to 1552, appertain to the national church. 

Mifcdlaneo us> Information.'] — It was k> this parifli, near the* 
middle of the ridge of moorifh ground on the ftde towards the ri-* 
.ver, that the decifive and important a&ion of Culloden was atchiev* 
ed. After Prince. Charles- Edward had fully ascertained the fentii 
ments both of England and Wales to be adverfe to his defperatef 
attempt,' and found himfeif duped in the fuppoft which had beevi 
fo liberally pramifed by France and Spatn, the councils of his ad-" 
herent chiefs,- diftrafied by jealoufy and differifion, were deeply* 
marked by the infatuation of defpair: for though prefumption only 
could flatter them with the hope of fuccefs, and defeat mull be! at- 
tended by inevitable deftru6lion, yet under the advantage of the 
terror and alarm which they had thrown over the capita!, their fuc* 

C c cefsfu! 

. \ 


, cefsful retreat almoft from the environs of London, fo wqnderful 
in every circumftance, the refources which they ftill poffefled, and 
the additional fupport which they might acquire, had. they then filed 
for peace, and carried on at the fame time the war, they would have 
obtained an amnefty for the whole of the common people, and eafy 
terms for the lefs diftinguifhed chiefs; and while they retained the 
command of feveral ports on both fides of the ifland, the Adven- 
turer himfelf, and fuch as v could not reafonably hope for pardon, 
might have eafily retreated to an afylum on the Continent. This 
however they did not attempt. In the mean time royal forces 
thickened every- where around them ; every diftrift almoft of the 
wcftern Highlands (Invernefs and Fort-Auguftus excepted) wai 
occupied by formidable detachments of adverfe troops. The Duke 
of'Cumberland arrived at Aberdeen about the end of February, 
and, having .completed his magazines, commenced his march with 
the laft divifiQn of his forces upon the 8th of April, and render- 
voufed at Cullen with the whole army on the nth. On the morn- 
ing of the 12th, Major Gen. Hufke, with the cavalry, a body of 
loyal Highlanders, 15 companies of grenadiers, and 2 field pieces, 
attended by the Duke himfelf, preceded the army to the banks of 
the Spey. The Duke of Perth, the Lords John Drummond, Kil- 
rnarnoch, and Balmeririoch, and Secretary Murray, bad for Tome 
time taken up their quarters in the mawfe of Speymouth, on the 
other fide of thpt river. The mini ft er has left it. on record, thai 
though they ufed him civilly, a«d gave him no disturbance con- 
cerning his principles, yet it was' e^peniive to him, and public *vor- 
fhip was fufpended during their foj our n there. 2oqo men was the 
force under their cpmroand, able to have prevented the paflage of 
the royal army, or to have defeated .them whien ftruggling with the 
power of th? ftream; but; on their appearance on the fouthern bank, 
the rebels fled off towards Elgin!, :with the moll unaccountable pre* 
cipitation.. The horfe,, the grenadiers and Highland- 
ers, immediately paffed over, but. not with fuch expedition as to 
warrant a pur£uk. The whole army thereafter forded the river, 
to the depth of their. middles, and one grenadier and 4 women, 
borne down by its rapidity, were drowned. They encamped in 
the vicinity of the manfe ; and his Royal Highnefs, with a more 
cordial welcome, occupied the»ftajte bed, from which the Duke of 
Perth was difpo{Tc2ed. . Their march on Sunday the, 13th reached 


Chap, Ill ij PARISR OF CROY. 197 

to the church of Alves : the encampment was formed on arable 
field, then green with the fpringing corn ; the owner confidered 
the crop to be deftroyed, but it was found to have been thereby 
greatly improved. On the 14th they marched forward to the 
town of Nairn, The Duke entering into the 87th year of his age, ' 
they refted on the 1,5th, folemnizing the aufpicious anniverfary, 
and trimming their accoutrements and arms. 

By this time the greater part of 7 the rebel- troops, from various 
quarters, under different chiefs, had rendezvoufed with the Prince 
at Inverness. But inftead of prudently retreating to the faftneffes 
of the mountains, which then afforded ftore of live cattle for pro-'* 
vifion, where their regiments would have been recruited, and their 
force augmented by a.ftrong reinforcement of the Macpherfons, 
then aftually in full march to their aid, and where perhaps the dif- 
after of Clofterfeven might have by anticipation been prevented, 
they weakly drew out to meet their fate upon Drummoffie moor, 
Where they lay the whole night under arms; having very little pro- 
vifion: two bannocks of bread only to each man. And in the 
anxious expectation of the advance of the royal army, they waited 
in the order of battle the whole of the fucceeding day ; during which 
they were joined by 1400 men, under young Lovat, Keppoch, and 
Locheil. Having formed the weak purpofe of furprifing the Duke's 
army in the night of the birth-day folemnization, they marched eaft- 
ward after fun-fet in two columns: but then faint with hunger and 
fatigue, many were unable to come up ; embarraffed by the length 
"of. the columns, they were obliged to make feveral halts; and many, * 
overpowered with fleep,. dropped off unperceived in the dark, and 
lay hid in the fields. And at the diftance of 3 miles, it was found 
impoffible to reach the Duke's army before the rifing of the fun, 
and only then with half the number that had marched off the moor* 
Charles therefore was relu&antly prevailed upon to meafure back 
his way to the ground firft chofen for the battle, in which he was 
rejoined by the greater part of thofe who had ftraggled in the noc- 
turnal march. Immediately on regaining their ftatiori, great num. 
bers difperfed in qucft of provifion; and many, overpowered by 
fatigue, lay down to deep on the heath. About 5 o'clock in the 
morning, the army began their march from Nairn, nearly 15 miles 
tfiftant from the place of engagement : and the repofe of the wearied 
clans was difturbed by the alarm of their approach. ; They formed 

C c.2 the 


the order of battle with at leaft 1000 fewer than they had muftered 
on the preceding day : the front in 13 divifions, each clan under • 
its refpe&ive chief, having 6 field pieces *in the middle of the line} 
to fupport the front, were difpofed Fitz- James's horfe on the right, 
covered hy the wall of an inclofure; 4 companies of French piquets 
compofed the middle column; and on the left were 5 companies of 
Lord John Drurnmond's foot, and a body of horfe compofed of the 
Prince's guards: open to the centre of the foot was the young 
Adventurer and his body guards ; and in his rear was the line of 
refer ve. , ' 

The Duke's army formed in 2 lines alio, and 3 regiments, for the 
corps of referve : the dragoons, under Haw ley, were on the left 
flank, and Kingfton's horfe guarded the right; the artillery, con- 
fifting of 10 field pieces, were placed 2 in the centre of each regi- 
ment: fo that fome pieces were capable of flanking the enemy on 
-whatever part of the line the impreflion might be made. The royal 
army confifted of 881 1, and, the other numbered 8350. About one 
o'clock afternoon the artillery of both parties opened: that of the 
rebels was ill ferved and inefficient, but the king's made dreadful 
liavock among them: which Lord George Murray, the leader of 
the right wing, perceiving, called on them to advance; and ^500 
charged the left wing with their ufual impetuofity. Barrel's regi-' 
inent and Monro's were yielding to the preflure of this column, 
when they were fuftained by 2 battalions under Wolfe, advancing 
from the fecond line; by whefe clofe fire great numbers fell, 
while the cannon continued to pour deftruclion with their cartridge 
lliot. Meanwhile the dragoons, aided by the militia of Argyle, 
having opened paffages in the dyke, broke in upon the right flank; 
while Kingfton's horfe, upon the left, met them in the centre, com- 
pleting the confufion of the rebels: their rout in lefs than 3a 
minutes was final, and the field covered with the flain. ; The 
French piquets in their right covered their retreat for a little by a 
clofe and regular fire: then retiring to Invernefs, they furrendered 
themfelves prifoners of war. The road to that town was firewed 
with the bodies of the dead. Many friends even, who had come 
to (hare the yiftory, were facrificed in the undiftinguifliing exulta- 
tion of the viftors over the uprefifting foe. An entire body of the 
rebels, however, marched off the field of battle, their pipes playing, 
£nd the ftandard of Charles difplayed. On the fticcieeding day 


C&ap.m.'] PARISH OF CROY. - : ^99 

fcooo met on the road to Badenoch, and, after a little deliberation,* 
finally difperfed. 

In every inftance of civil war, rapine, defolation, and murder; 
jvill be the cruel lot of numbers, though unrefifting to either fide.' 
The moderation x however, of the rebels in the feafon of their fuc- 
cefs, confidering their neceflities, is defervedly worthy of the moft 
diftinguifhedpraife: private property, fave a trifling exa&ion at 
Manchefter and Glafgow, remained inviolate in both their peregri- 
nations from one end' of the ifland almoft to the other. Yet the 
objefts of fpoil were moft tempting to undifciplined and needy ad- 
• venturers ; and their ideas of honcfty and juftice had impreffed but 
faintly the virtue of forbearance and felf-denial: and, fave only in 
the rage, of battle, they were extremely delicate and gentle refpec- 
ting the effufion of blood. But with an extremely different mea- 
sure was it meted to them in the day of their calamity. And not- 
withstanding the wickednefs of their attempt to fubvert our religion, 
liberty, and glorious conftitution, it was not poflible to regard the 
fallen fufFerers without pity, without condemning the rigour of that 
vengeance to which the weak and fubmiflive were doomed. The 
foldiers of the, king, not contented with the blood which had been 
fo profufely fhed in the heat of a&ion, traverfed the field after the 
battle, and maffacred thofe miferable wretches whom they found 
unrefifting and maimed; Tome officers even, uninfpired by fenti- 
roent, untin&ured by humanity, bore a part in ti>is cruel fcene of 
affaffination. But that day did not fate the vengeance of the loyal 
powers: In the month of May they advanced into the Highlands, 
and encamped at Fort Auguftus, which had been lately by the re- 
bels blown up; whence detachments were to every quarter fent 
off: the men, hunted down like wild beafts, were, {hot upon the 
mountains, or put to death in cold blood, without the form of trial ; 
the women, having feen their fathers, brothers,, and hufbands mur- 
dered, fubje61ed to violation, were turned out naked with their 
children to ftarve upon the barren hills ; one whole family, fhut up 
in a barn, were confumed to allies ; every houfe, hut, or habitation, 
-was without diftinftion burned. So a£Hve and alert were thofe 
jninifters of vengeance, that in a few days neither houfe nor cottage, 
man nor beaft, was to be feen within the compafs of 50 miles: all 
fvas ruin, filence, and defolation! 

Yet jollity and glee alone refotmded in. the camp at Fort, Auguf- 


tus. Upwards of 2400 black cattle, with droves of fheep and goats, 
and troops of horfes,, were brought in — the plunder of the murdered 
peafants: and horfe- racing among every rank and fex prevailed* 
His Royal Highnefs gave a holiand fmock for a prize: and the 
wives of the foldiers ftarted on the bare. backs of garrans, riding, 
with their legs on each fide, like the men. On the fame courfer« 
Hawley and Colonel Howard run a match for 20 guineas ; and the 
firft of thcfe heroes, by 4 inches, won. 

• While thefe circumftances are recorded in the page of hiftory. 
let each fucceeding generation beware of foftering rebellion, or ex- 
citing infurreftion, but only to obtain relief in fituations that can 
be hardly rendered more calamitous. 

The vanquifhed Adventurer, all his hope of a cfown in one half 
hour difpclled, rode off the field with a few horfemen, accompanied 
by Lord Elcho and the Duke of Perth. Crofling the river Nairn,* 
he retired to the houfe of a gentleman in Strath-herrick, and after a 
mournful conference with. Lord Lovat, difmifling his followers, 
he wandered about, a wretched folitary fugitive, furrounded by 
armed enemies; chafed from hill to dale, from wood to heath, and 
from more to more; lurking feldom in a cottage, fometimes in a 
cave, and frequently on- the bare wafte, without attendants, and 
without other fupport than what- the pooreft peafant could fupply. 
Sometimes, affuming women's attire, he appeared a lady's maid; 
and. fometimes, in the habit of a travelling mountaineer, with a wallet 
on his back: he was rowed in fifher boats from ifle to ifle among 
the Hebrides, paffing through the midft of his enemies unknown, 
expofed to hunger, thirft, and wearinefs, to cold and wet, in con- 

' tinual peril : he trufled his life to tfye fidelity of more than 50 in- 
dividuals, mofily in the loweft paths of fortune, and knowing that 
to betray him raifed them at once to affluence and wealth,, by the 
price of L.30,000 fet upon his head ; but they detefted riches oa^ 
fuch infamous terms, arid they miniftered to his neceffitres with 
the utmoft fidelity and zeal, even at the hazard of £heir own def- 
truQion. Through the whole courfe of his diftreflcs (which wer* 
fuch as hardly any ofherperfon ever outlived), he maintained tW 

* inoft amazing equanimity and good humour: never abandoned by, 
his hope and recollection, he ftill found fome expedient that faved 
him from captivity and death. At length, in the fifth month of hii 
painful peril, he got op board a privateer of St, Malo : by means of 

' ' ' s*thick 

Chap. III.] PARISH 0* CALMR. fori 

a thick fog, be pafled through Leftock's fquadron. unfeen, and ar- 
rived in fafety at Rofeau in Bretagne; his eye hollow, his vifage 
wan, and his con ftitution greatly impaired by famine and* fatigues. 
The hiftory of his race, in every generation, loudly admonifihefr 
" all kings to be wife, and all judges bfthe earth to be inflruSed:" 
ever t;o govern with difcretion, abd with fuch care,f<6r the public 
weal, as may preferve the love of their fubjefis, and maintain their 
reign over people, happy becaufe they feel themfelves free. 
' There is little now to be feen, on the field of battle ; but it is ftill many. The graves of thafe who fell are ftrikingly dif- 
tinguifliable by th^ir verdant furface of grafs rifing through this 
brown (unrounding heath. About 50 orily of the army fell, ©£. 
whom 6 were officers * one of them Lord Robert Ker : the number 
of the rebels who were killed in the a&ion and. in the purfuit has 
feeen computed at 2500. Bullets and fragments of armour, which 
are picked up by the people of the neighbourhood, are anxioufly 
fought after, and preferved with care as cufxofrties, or as valuaBte 



Situation, Soil, Climate.~\— -Calder,. derived from the Gaelic 
dix, wood, and dur, water, is connefled with Npirn on the ftorth t 
id Croy on the fouth. It meets with Auldearn and Ardcfach ac 
te eaft, and extends fouthward to the confines of Moy and Qja* 
dt. Its fouthern quarter is enlivened by the \Findern, and 
Wt of its northern, fide by that of the Nairn, to which the ftrean* 
f Calder, partly in a deep rocky channel, thickly flirouded with. 
pod, a variety of fpreft" trees, haftens from, the weft. The flat. 
&in of the lower part of the parifh, as. it ftretches fouthward, rifes 
to a hilly trafl,. and elevates its boundary with Moy into a loftjf 
j>untain. The foil, in general neither wet nor deep, may be def- 
ined as kindly, (harp andiertile, diverfified in- the lower part with 
>ts of moorifii and rocky ground; in the higher it is more gene* 
%y brown heath, covering extenfwe tra&s of the peat morafs. 
&e 3ir is accounted remarkably falubrious. 

^ . State ■ 


- State joJ Property.'] — The parilh, chiefly in the county of Nairn 1 , 
with a fmall part in that of Invernefs, extends ks total valuation t# 
the fum of L.1963. 12s. Scots; of which the property of Lord 
Cawdor, comprehending Auchendune, Torrich, Inchgeddle, and 
Streens, amounts to. the valuation of L.1565. 12s. tod. This is 
the family feat and original refidence of the ancient thanes. Similar 
to the manfion of Kilravock, a modern building has been* conjoined 
to an ancient tower, built by royal licence in the year 1454, guarded 
on the weft by the deep rocky defile of the ftream of Cawdor, and 
furrounded on the other fides by a ditch and drawbridge. The 
environs, U has been noticed, as its name imports, are naturally 
•embeHifhed by the landfcape fcenery of wood and water; and tbey 
have been alfo improved by the decorations of art. In the loweft 
vault of the tower, the trunk of a hawthorn tree Hill ftands in the 
original ftation where it grew out bf the rock; over which tradi- 
tion relates that a dream, directing the fituation of the fabric, pro- 
mifed profperity to the race whilft it fliould remain. 

The lands of Clunes and Torbey, mortgaged to Dr. Campbelh 
are valued at L.114. 7s. 2d. to which the valuation of his eftate of 
Budzeat, in the county of Invernefs, of L.160 Scots, is alfo to be 
added. Mr. Rofe of Holm has Drumurnie, valued in the whole at 
L.123. 12s. of which a part, amounting to L. 50, appertains to the 
county of Invernefs: The real" rent may be at prefent eftimated 
about L.1200 fterling, arifing from about 4500 cultivated acres, 
rented from 2s. 63. to 15s. the acre; to thefe are conjoined about 
9500 under wood, broom, and natural pafturage; the remainder is* 
moor and mountain peat, about 18000. The extent of the farm* 
are frpm 40 to 100 acres: and about 70 ploughs are employed iri 
their cultivation. 

State EccleJiafticaL~] — The old name of the parifh was Borivon 
properly Bar Ewan : literally denoting Ewan's height, or high cotnW 
try; and figuratively, excellent, or St. Ewan, to whom the parfon* 
age was dedicated. The church originally flood in the fouthern 01 
higheft quarter of the parifh, till about the year 1619: and 30 yeaii 
after it was moved into its prefent central Ration* a wing from tM 
parifh of Auldearn was annexed at the eaft. The value of the livii^ 
including 20 bolls of bear and 20 of meal, is equal to L.80 fterling 
The right of patronage appertains to Lord Cawdor. The falary 
the fchool is 8 bolls of bear and 8 of meal, and t.x. 5s. as the cled 

Chap, ill.] PARISH OF ARDCLACff. ZO% 

of the fefliori, with the official perquifites, and the dues of eduCatitfn 
from about 50 fcholars, the mean number through the year.. . The 
poor upon the roll amount to 40, and the provifion for their ne- 
ceflities about L. 12 yearly, arifing from the contribution of 85a 
perfons, the members of the national Church; there being only 
'one Epifcopalian, and one Seceder in the parifh. 

Miscellaneous Information.] — The people, in general, are hu- 
mane, moral, and religious, there being few law fuits or quarrels 
among thern ; they are very induftrious; they difpofe of a confidei*- 
able quantity of vifiual at Invernefs, Nairn, and Fort George, 
where their fat cattle and fheep are like wife fold; they difcover no 
propenfity for the military life, in which, or in the navy, very few 
i engage; they are contented with their frtuation, and difcover no 
Ldefire to leave the parifh, although every other year a, few la^s, as 
• adventurers, apprentices or fervantfr, feek their fortunes in Edin- 
burgh, London, or America; they complain of the uncertainty 
.of their leafes; and they are troubled by the caprice, wantonnefs, 
and extravagance of the farm fervants. 



, Situation* Soil, 'Climate.'] — The parifh of Ardclach, denoting it* 
,the Gaelic high Jlony ground, occupies a confiderable fpace of the 
fouthern border of the county of Nairn. It is interfered, for the 
[greater part of its length, by the river Findern, which, at. its eaft- 
ern corner, divides it from Edinkielie ; and it meets with the pa- 
rifh of Duthel in the fouthern mountains. The parifh is a hilly 
diftricl, furnifliing little other paflure but what is produced with 
the heath. There is however a confiderable extent of wood, birch, 
bazle, and a(h, fir, aller, and oak* The foil is (hallow, on a hard 
gravelly fole, and much encumbered with ftone. Although the 
air is fuppofed to be healthy, yet the people, young and old, are 
peculiarly fubjeft to the eryfipelas. Still many have furpaffed the 
70th, and a few the 80th year, of their age. j 

Slate qf Property.] — The valued rent, amounting to L,*$£S<i$* 


^d. Scots, is fhared among 4 proprietors. On the eftate of Mifs 
Brodie of Lethin is a handfome manfion-houfe, at Culemoney, 
with gardens, plantations, and inclofed fields. The valued rent i* 
L.1708. 11s. $d. Charles Gordon of Braid Efq. has the lands of 
Mid Flanefs, valued at L.182. 10s. 8d. Colonel Cuming Gordon 
of Altyr has Glenernie and Craigroy, at L.185; and Lord Caw- 
; dor, Boath, Benehar, 'and Keppernach, at L.31L 19s. 4d. 
- The farms are in general but of fmall extent. The mode of cul- 
tivation which was introduced into this kingdom by the Roman 
Catholic clergy, long before the reformation of religion, ftill re r ; 
mains unreformed. A fmall ill-formed plough, drawn by 4 cattle . 
and 4 horfes, or by 6 cattle andj2 horfes, produces about the third j 
return of bear, rye, and oats, chiefly of the fmall black hairy kind, 
befides a plot of eabh farm in potatoe. The whole arable land is 
fuppofed to be comprifed in aooo acres. The real rent in the year 
1785 was proved, in a law-fuit for an augmentation of the ftipend, 
to be L.£43. 8s. $d. fieri, and 283 bolls of vicinal r but the fole de- 
pendence of the people is on their cattle ; and having no leafes, they 
feel no permanent nor fteady intereft in the foil. The number of 
black cattle is about 1000, that of Iheep 2000, and 300 horfes. 

State EcckJiaJlicaL"\ — During the Roman Catholic difpCnfation, 
there was no fixed paftor in Ardclach. It was not a parifli by it- 
felf till about the year 1638, when it was disjoined from Edinkie* 
lie, and Donald Macpherfon thenw>rdained its firft minifter. The 
• itipend at prefent is L.55. 16s. od. and 31 bolls 3 firlots and 3 
pecks of oatmeal. The glebe is nearly 5 acres, and a little natural 
pafturage. The right of patronage appertains to Mifs Brodie of 
Lethin. The falary of the parochial fchool is L.10 fterling: the 
number of fcholars nearly 40. The Society for Cbriftian Know- 
ledge fupport a fchool in the extremity of the parifli, where the 
fame number of fcholars attend. The Society have alfo joined 
Mifs Brodie in fupporting a fpinning- fchool, making its. eftablift- 
ment between them equal to L.10 fterling. There is no other 
fund for the poor, who amount to 34 upon the roll, but the con- 
tributions of their neighbours at their meetings for public worfhip, 
about L.4 fterling in the year. The whole of the parifhioners are 
members of the national Church, 1186 fouls. 

Mifcellaneous Information.'] — There is a confiderable quantity 
of woolen cloth called plaiden> and a coarfe tartan, a kind of 



>road clotb, anda^fmall quantity of duffle, made for fale in the 
pil'ies of the tenant! ; and wool has fold as high as 18s. the ftone. 
brt of the afli, birch, and aller timber is alfo wrought into im- 
lements of hufbandry. Many emigrated to the other fide of the 
Jobe, before the breaking out of the American war. 




Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — This parilh, comprehending the four - 
es of the Findern, conjoins with Ardclach and Calder oh the fouth 
id fouth- weft. Its greateft length along the courfe of the river is 
rly go miles : its mean breadtji is about 5. The country is bar- 
, bleak v and* mountainous. The cultivated ground, in narrow 
fripes or fmall plots on the banks of the river, exceeds not the 
Hrtieth part of the parifli. The principal fource of the Findern, 
the diflance of 50 miles from its termination, is a copious ftream 
bing from the fiflure of a great rock called the Cloven Stone. The 
raejic name of the river is the uisgern; and,, from the length of 
i courfe between high mountains in this pariih, it is called strath - 
8ln: although, from a narrow pafs towards Invernefs, by which, 
the honeii times of our more godly anceftors, inroads were made 
tto the low country, and where a few could fiop purfuit, its an- 
ient name was $tar-sach-na-gaul, the threshold of the High^ 
tnders. This pafs was found then fo convenient for the more re- 
Dte banditti of Badenach and Strathfpey, that, for the free ufe 
it, they agreed to pay the proprietor a tithe of the fpoil : the p.e- 
liar Gaelic epithet of this honourable acquirement is impreflively 
snaerobered, fignifying the collop of the prey, which confifted 
biefly in cattle. After the diftrift was cleared of wood* and partly 
Itivated, it obtained the fofter appellation of moy, denoting the 
in: the greater partof the diftricl: under this appellation is a val- 
, detached in a direction north-weft from the courfe of the river, 
ich itfelf ftretches up towards the fouth-wefl. The modern 
\ D d 3 name 


name of the other diftricT: fignifies the valley of Fergus. The foil 
pf the cultivated ground is for the moft part of a very good quality, 
but the v climitte is much colder than that of the neighbouring pa- 
rishes, and the crops later. The fnow in general begins to fall by 
the middle of November, and frequently continues till March or . 
April j but the inhabitants are healthy, and feveral have attained 
nearly to the age of 90 years. 

State of Property .]— Moyhall, the family feat of -dSneas Mack- 
intofli of Mackintofli, the chieftain of the clan, is valued with the 
lands of 'Suffin at L.674. 13s. 4d. Dr. James Mackintofli of Kyla- 
chy, the author of the Vindicice GaL inherits Eafter Banchat and 
Wefter Strathnoon, valued at L.510. 6s. 8d. William Mackintofli 
of Balnefpie has Eafter Strathnoon and Muckle Corrybrugh, at 
L.276. 13s. 4d. Lachlan Mackintofli holds Raigmore, valued at 
L.90, William Mackintofli of Aberairder has Invermafron, at 
L.53-.6S. 8d. John Mackintofli potTefles Dalmigvie, at L.79. 103. 
Angus Mackintofli of Holm inherits Frae, at L.46. 13s. 4d. Du- 
gald Macqueen holds Pollockchak, at L.50 : and Lachlan Macpher- 
fon has Weft Banchar, at L.50 : extending the whole valuation of 
the parifli to thefum of L.2142. 10s. 

The real rent is about L.1000 fterling. Pafturage is the import- 
ant object. The farms, though of confiderable extent, are for the 
moft part let from L.5 to of rent: their number is counted 
about 200. Befides the money rent, each tenant is burdened with 
the payment of wedders, fowls, eggs, and other articles, and much 
labour in the digging and carriage of fuel, in reaping the corn, and 
in carriages to and from diftant parts of the country : all which t 
though noway perceived in th£ revenue of the proprietor, moft ef- 
fectually check the improvement of the country, and mar all calcu- 
lation of the value of land. The ihprtnefs of the labouring feafon 
requires 246 ploughs, each in general drawn by 4 horfes, to which 
2 oxen are in fome cafes added. The number of horfes is about 
900, black cattle 1800, and fiieep 12,000. The rents are paid, and 
fuch neceflaries as the farms do not produce, are provided by the 
yearly fale of part of the live ftock. 

Slate EcckfiaflicaL~\-A.\. has been already noticed, that the pres- 
bytery of Invernefs was eftablifhed a feparate judicature in the year 
1708, into which, in the arrangement of this undertaking, this pa- 
rifli falls to be the firft, 



Although Moy and Dalaroffie in fome refpe&s are uncontie&ed, 
«ach having its own church, they have been 'under the charge of 
one paftor fince the times of popery. The refidence is in Moy, but 
part of the glebe is 9 miles diftant, at the church of Dalaroffie. 
The ftipend is L.69. 14s. 2d* fterling. The right of patronage ap- 
pertains to the family of Kilravock. The falary of the fchool is 
L..8. 6s. 8d. and L^2. 10s. as the iee of the feflion-clerk, which, 
with the other emoluments, makes the whole eftablHhment about 
Ij.Zo yearly. . The poor in general do fomething for their own fup- 
port : the annual fund raifed, as in the neighbouring parishes, is 
about L.5 fterling. Many depend on begging for their mainte- 
nance. There are a few of the inhabitants of the Episcopalian per- 
fuafion j but as the whole perform the duties of public worfliip in 
the parifii church, they may be all accounted of the national efta- 
irfifhment : their number amounts to 18 13 fouls. 

Mifcellaneous Information^— In their fentiments the people are 
-extremely wedded to prejudice, and in their manners to old cut 
torn* They may perhaps be religious ; but it is certain that in one 
cafe they preferred f^crifice to mercy. The language, drefe, and 
mod of the peculiarities of the ancient Highlanders, continue 
without alteration : their houfes are of the lame conftru&ion with 
thofe of their predeceffors for many generations, the fire-place near 
the middle, and the family feated around it. In the fttfrmy fea-* 
fon of winter, the feverity of the weather arrefts all induftry in the 
field : the care of their cattle is almoft their only occupation. In 
the fpring, their exertions are great and Unremitting till the feed- 
time is over ; in the harveft, they are equally diligent in fecuring 
their crop before the winter fets in ; and the great labour in fum- 
tner conGfts in providing the (lock of fuel. 

The lake of Moy is fomewhat more thai* a mile in length, and 
rather lefs than one in breadth. It abounds in char, and a variety 
of other trout of various fize and colour, Near its middle is an 
ifland, about 1 acres in extent, nearly in the lhape of a violin : on 
its fouthern end are the ruins of ancient buildings, of confiderable 
extent : the remains of a ftreet, the whole length of the ifland, 
and the foundations of houfes qti each fide, are readily diftinguifli- 
aWe. In the year 1 762, two ovens were difcovered, each capable 
of baking 1501b. avoirdupois of meal. In the year 1422 it con- 
tained a garrifon of 400 men, and here the chief of Mackintofh 



refided, except during the winter, when the country was inaceef- 
fible. The walls of a more modern building remain pretty entire: 
an infeription over the gate imports, that it was built in 1665 by 
Lachlan, the 20th chieftain of the clan. The garden, ftocked with 
fruit trees and bufljes, is ilill in cultivation. 

At the diftance of feveral hundred yards, is another fmall ifland, 
formed by the accumulation of common rounded (tone. It was 
the prifon, when the punifhment of malefa&ors was vefted in the 
chiefs. The miferable prifoner could fcarcely ftand with dry feet 
when the lake was at the loweft" ; but in the feafon of rain, if the 
furface was then no higher than now, the water rofe nearly to 
its -middle; but within the fpace of 24 hours he was condemned or 
let free. Near the north end of the lake, there is a chalybeate 
fpring, accounted medicinal for headaches and diforders in the 
ftomach. There is a confiderable extent of natural wood, chiefly 
fyrch and alter, upon the banks of the Findern, 


Situation, Sail, Climate."] — The river Nairn winds eaft-war4 
from its fources for the length of 23 miles through this parifh. Ths 
cultivated grounds extend from about 2 to nearly 4 miles jn breadth, 
The name of Daviot is believed to "have been given to the fmall er 
jliftrift in honour of David Earl of Crawford, once, its proprietor; 
who built a fortrefs, lately r??ed for the lime-rubbifh as manure* 
The other name in Gaelic is dun-le-chatti, the kill of the clan, 
Chattan. This ancient tribe, under the various furnames of Mack* 
intofli, the chief, Macgilliyray, Macpherfon, Macbean, Shaw, Smith, 
and Gow, continue in the pofl'eflion of an extenfive tra& upon 
either fide of this hill ; which yet bears upon its fumroit the tokens 
of having been the rendezvous, and the place whence the iignal* 
were made, as the exigences of remote times required. The church 
of this diftrift ftands near its bottom : that of the other a few miles 
to the north-weft of Moy. The appearance of the country is not 
inviting: where the hills are not covered with heath, " oa which 



no tree is teen," jhey are naked rock.; while large tra&s of peat 
morafs, or barren moor, deform the vales below. Among thd 
mountains there are feveral lakes: that of Dundlechak is of the 
rooft confideration ; it discharges one of the branches of the river; 
it is very deep ; it is the lake which never freezes in winter, by the 
moft intenfe and longeft froft: but in a calm night during the 
fpring, it is readily frtfzen over in the fpace only of one night. 
The lake of Ruthven, though about halF the extent of the other, 
being 3 miles in length, and nearly one in breadth, is vaftly its fu- 
perior in the eftimation of the angler : there is no pike in it, but it 
is well flocked with trout, of the Lochlcven kind, fimilar to falmon 
~ when dreffed; 4 or 5 dozen, from 3 to 8 lb. are at times caught in* 
the fpace of two hours: and one or two boats are kept on the lake 
for the purpofe only of fifhing. Weft ward for fome miles front 
the church of Dunlighty, the hills are chiefly compofed of rock ; 
and almoft every-where along their bafe innumerable fragments, of 
enormous bulk, appearing to have been violently fevered from 
their parent cliffs, exhibit the moft fatisfaftory proof that earth- 
quakes have been more frequent and more dreadful in this quar- 
ter' of the ifland than either tradition or hiftory records. Near the 
church of Daviot, and for fome miles above it on both fides of the 
river, there is a natural objeft of another kind more {hiking ftill r 
the ground is more than 300 feet of perpendicular height above the 
level of the Frith; it neverthehsfs prefents a great many fand hills r 
which evidently appear to have been formed by the current of 
contrary tides, under the flux and reflux of the ocean. At that 
period, not only this ifland, but the greater part of Europe, muft 
have been the bottom of the fea, probably during the antideluviaii 
aera, or in that more early period when " the Spirit of God moved 
** upon the face of the waters, before he divided the waters which. 
•' were under the firmament from thofe which were above it/' 

In fome places the foil is fandy and light ; in bthers it is fpongy 
and wet, incumbent on clay; there are alfo tra&s where it is black, 
of the quality of peat earth; and in many places all thefe kinds are 
compounded together. A confiderable proportion of the foil is, 
however, fertile, arid capable of producing pretty plentiful crops: 
but the climate is variable and unpropitious; and oftentimes the 
whole labour and hope of the year i* Mailed in one night or morn* 



ing in the months of Auguft or September, by the mildew frofly 
to which the belt arid loweft fields are mod expofed^ 
% State of Property.] — In its political circumftances, the parifh is 
placed in the counties of Nairn and Invernefe. It is at prefenfc 
the inheritance of 8 proprietors. John Macgillivray of Runma- 
glafs Efq. has the valuation of L.400 Scots in the county of Nairn, 
and L.486 in that of Invernefs. David Davidfon of Cantray Efq. 
holds a valuation of L.226. 6s. 8d. "Captain Macpherfon of In- 
verefhie has a valuation of L.56. 13s. 4d. jEneas Mackintofh of 
Mackintofh Efq. has the property of Daviot, at L.448. William 
Mackintofh of Culclachy, L.313. 10s. Captain Mackintofh of 
Aberairder, L.694. 6s. 8d. James Mackintofh of Far, L.200. And 
Arthur Forbes of Culloden, L.108. 6s. 8d. extending the whole 
valuation of the parifh to the fum of L.2933. 6s. 8d. At the family 
feats of Dunmaglafs and Far, the improvement of draining, en- 
clofing, and planting, has been for fometime carried on with pro- v. 
priety and fuccefs. The ftate of agriculture is in extreme back- 
wardness: the fmall black hairy oats and rye are the principal 
crops: common oats and barley fucceed but in few places, and 
frequently mifgive. The quantities of land are denominated da- 
vocks, ploughs, and aughteen parts: they were at firft afcertained 
with regard to the quality, rather than to the extent; and as, in* 
feveral cafes, the quality has been fince improved, thcfe denomi- 
nations now appear arbitrary and uncertain. Few. tenants, occupy 
more than one aughteen part, the rent of which is from L.3 to L-5 # 
befides-a variety of fervices exa&ed by the landlords, both in feed 
time and harvefl — fo flagrantly detrimental to all improvement, that 
of late fome of the proprietors begin to difcover that the practice 
of the landlords in the higheft cultivated diftrr&s of the kingdom is 
more wife than theirs; that they will become more refpeftable by 
having their revenue wholly in money, afcertained by the number 
of the acres on their eflates; having their tenants in other refpefts 
entirely independent, and hiring farm fervants Sufficient for the 
cultivation of the lands in their own occupation. Qf late the black- 
faced fheep have been introduced into the higher parts of the dif- 
trift of Dunlighty; and they do not appear to fuffer from the cli- 
mate: the mean value is 9s. each, and the number about 2000^ 
The cornmpn crofs-breeds are double that number, arid their meant 



value about 5s. each- The number of black cattle havte been di- 
rniniflied by inereafing the number of the fliefep; they flill count to 
about 1300, and their mean Value about L.s each, Horfes are ge- 
nerally ufed in the cultivation of the land: they are of fmall fize; 
their number about 800 5 and their mean value about L.s. 10s, 
, State Ecclefiafiical.'] — The parifhes of Davxot and Dunlighty 
were united about the year 1618. The refidence is at Daviot, at 
the diftance of 7 miles from the church of Dunlighty, where pub* 
lie worfhip is performed every alternate Sunday- The ftipend is 
L.77. 6s* fterling, with a fmall glebe, detached in parts as in the 
original pariflies* The right of patronage appertains to Lord Caw- 
dor. Tift appointment of the fchool-mafter, including the emo* 
luments of the office of feffion clerk, is about L.12. The number 
of the poor is nearly "46; and the funds for their provifion, raifed 
in the common farm, and augmented by an endowment of L.36, 
bearing interefl, exceeds not L.5 yearly. The members of the na* 
tional Church are 1265: and there are 430 of the communion of 
the Epifcopalian Church of Scotland, who have a chapel for them- 
felves in the parifh, but can only afford to have public worfhip 
there once in 3 or 4 Sundays: during the interval they aflemble 
with their neighbours in the pariQi church. There are two Sece- 
ders of lefs liberality of fentiment. 

Mifcellaneous Information^ — The people are devout and. rega* 
lar in their profeflion of religion, difpofed to reft fomewhat on ex- 
ternal forms, which, however, does not appear to have any bad 
effeft on their morals ; although in fome of the lefs efTential duties 
they are not wholly pure. .They have however a fenfe of mame 
and honour, in a high degree for their ftation. They are frugal; 
and they would be induftrious, if the climate and other particular 
circumftances offered the fame excitements which happier fkuation* 
pofi? fs. There are about 60 young men who migrate fouthwards 
for employment during the feafons of fpring, fummer, and harve^ft: 
but by this means they have not generally increafed their ftock. 
They have introduced expenfive drefs and other luxuries among 
the labouring clafs; they have alfo raifed the price of labour at 
home; and they live through the winter a burden op the common 
ftock of their families. The gentlemen of the country want hot 
encouragements, in its. own improvement, fufficicnt to retain tKem 
at home, and which would greatly redound to their mutual advan- 

Ee tage; 


tage: for this end *they muft na doubt place" their tenants in the 
fame fituation as to eafe and independence with thofe in the foutb, 
-who can thus afford to abftraft the labour of the north. By this ' 
means alfo, the induftry of a great part of. the people who live with- 
in 4 or 6 miles of Invernefs would be in a fhort time dire&ed into 
a more profitable channel, both for landlord and tenant, than that 
in which it prefently runs ; namely, in preparing peat and turf fuel, 
and carrying it to the markets of the town, which is regularly con- 
tinued twice in every week round the whole year, not excepting 
* either fpring or harveft. About Daviot there is lime-ftone rock in 
the bed and banks of the river : it contains a great many fmall 
metallic cubes, not exceeding the fourth of an inch, confifting of a 
great proportion of lead, and of that colour. There are a confider- 
able number of weavers employed in making coarfe woolen Huff. 
The other artizans only accommodate the country : for which there 
are alfo 1 fulling and 14 corn-mills. ' 


Situation, Soil, ^Climate. ~\ — This pariih extends along the river 
and lake of Nefs, from the borders of the pariih of Invernefs, about 
' 20 miles, to that of Bolefkin. Its Gaelic name, dar-uish, awk- 
wardly expreffes its fituation, fignifying water of water — the river 
of or from the lake. Its eaftern fide borders with Daviot and Dun- 
lighty, and its breadth is nearly 4 miles. It may in general be re- 
garded as a valley, between mountains upon the fouth and north. 
By thisL fituation, the winds are for the greater part from the weft 
or the eaft ; and in dry furamers, did not heavy dews commonly 
fall during the night of a warm day, the corn and grafs would be 
quite parched. The foil is generally light : in fome parts of the 
higher grounds it is the beft ; and in feafons free of froft or very 
frequent rains, it is very produ&ive. The air is efteeraed Talu- 
brious. The lake cf Dandlechak, mentioned in No. xxm. as well 
as that of Lochnefs, is partly within the bounds of this parifh. ' 

State of Property .] — The parifh is fiiared among 8 proprietors* 



Mr. Frafer Tytler, advocate, has Bajnain, at the valuation of 
L.880. 6s. ^d. Alexander Frafer of Dell Efq. has the valuation of 
L.go. 10s. iod» James Frafer of Gortuleg Efq. writer, to the fig- 
net, that of L.59. 18s. id. Simon Frafer of Farralin Efq. L.59. , 
16s. Simon Frafer Efq. of Coleman ftreet, London, L.533. 6s. 8d* 
The valuation of the Lovat eflate in this parifb is L.392. 9s. 3d* 
jEneas Mackintolh of Mackintolh Efq. holds the valuation of L.90. 
and David Davidfoii of Cantray Efq. that of L.73. 15s. extending 
the total valuation of thepariQi to L.2i8o. 2s. 8d. . x 

State Eccle/ia/licql^—Thz church and manfe are fituated to- ( 
wards the 4 middle of the parifti, upon the end of the lake of Nefs, near 
where it begins to discharge the river. The ftipend is L.40 fter- 
Jing, 24 bolls of barje^ and 24 bolls of oatmeal. The right of pa- 
tronage appertains to Lord Cawdor* The fchool is not flourish- 
ing: the falary is L.5. *is. and the number of fcholars about 20. 
The poor amount to the number of 60: about L.4 yearly is con- 
tributed by the people in their affemblies for public worfihip ; to 
which there is the farther provifion of the intereft of L.70, be* 
queathed by gentlemen once landholders of the parilh. The num- 
ber of the people amounts to 1365, of whom a very fmall propor- 
tion are diftinguilhed as Diffenters. 

Mifcellaneous Information.']-->-Tht memorial of the thraldom 
and incurfions of the Danes, is ftill preferved in this country, as 
well as on the coaft of. Moray. About 3 miles, inward from the 
lake of Nefs, the veftiges of a fortrefs, known by the appellation 
of CHASTAL.PUN ri-chuan, the Jlrong caftle of the King of the 
Ocean, reminds us, that Britannia did not always rule the waves, 
but that the kings of Norway and Denmark once affulned the title 
of the matters of the fea; and fuggefts the. humbling fpeculation 
of the rank we (hould now hold ajnong nations, were times fuch 
as thefe to return- Yet thefe were the times when the heroes of 
Moryen moved in their ftrength ; when the king of Sehna (hone 
in the brighteft robe of renown. Their tombs ftill rife *on the 
lieath : their fame ftill refts on the ftones. Here fought tha father 
of Offian; and here fell the fon of the Norwegian king* Many- 
piles of ftone mark the dark dwellings 'of the (lain : one larger than 
the reft together, rifes over their youthful chief: his name, Ajfiee % 
transferred to the adjoining hill, is ftill recognized in Druma/his 
and Sft£ijU FIANN> the chair of ' Fingd, is fhown as. the feat of that 

E e 2 *. heroj 


fiero, when the ro# of battle ceafed, along tbe heath, when he r^ 
tired, from the ftrife of the field. / 

Ahout 9 miles from Dun-Ri-Chuan, another fortrefs, Dunda- 
radel, is recognized as one of that chain of iftrong holds, which the 
ftate of fociety vthen required, for tranfmitting telegraphic fignals 
from the one more to the other along this great vale, from the Ger- 
man ocean at Invernefs to- the Atlantic at Fort William. 

The people now, with very few exceptions, live in peaceful ib« 
duftry. The deer and roe ftill bound over the defert, and herd in 
the extenfive. plantations of fir, in which the lower part of the 
parifh is clothed. But oats, barley, and potatoe, are the principal 
productions of the foil : upon the laft of thefe, the poorer clafs in * 
great meafure depend for their frugal fubfiftence, 

'•*#» *o» *^» ««* *&* «^» u>* *4* 



Situation, Soil, Climate."] — A circuit up into the ftountain, and 
back again to the ftiore, through 6 parifoes, has made no advance 
in the courfe towards the weft j for the parifh of Petty lies next to 
Airderfier, in a progrefs up the Frith from the eaft: it extends 8 
miles along the more, and inland for about the half of that extent. 
The face of the country is nearly level, containing large trafib of 
cultivated field; where it rifes gently into the mountain, they are 
feparated by brooks, which in fome places fall over the rocks in 
natural cafcades: and, befides tufts of trees almoft at every farm- 
houfc, the Earl of Moray's plantations of fir, and oak, and other 
♦ foreft trees, in different places^ have plothed more than'joo acres, 
which about 20 years ago were bleak and barren heath. The foil, 
in part, is a fertile black mould: but the greater proportion of it 
is Tandy and light; yet capable of being cultivated to good account 
by grafsr feed and the' other green crops. Although the ground is 
rather flat, there are no marines nor ftagnate water. The air is ge- 
nerally ferene, and the climate dry; the crops being frequently 
damaged by drought in the fummer months. 

State of Property. y^ -The parifh, in the" flieriffdom of Invernefs, 


Chap* III.] ' . PARISH OF PElTYV , «$ 

except a fmall fpot in the county of Nairn, is^poflefled by 4 pro- 
proprietors ; of whom the Earl of Moray has the Valued rent of 
L.2423. 10s. Arthur Forbes of Culloden Efq. L.441. 15s. Jame« 
Rpfe of Brea Efq. L. 157. 3s. And Lord Cawdor L.120: extend- 
ing the valued rent of th&pariih to the fum of L.3142. 8s. 
; Caftle-Stewart, a large old building on the Earl of Moray's pro- 
perty, has been for many years uninhabitable: it is furrounded by 
an extenfive grove, which flielters a fpacious garden and orchard, dif- 
tinguifhed by varieties of flrawberry, and a fpecies of fmall cherry, 
the black and red geen, tranfplanted- from Kent about a century 
ago by Alexander Earl of Moray. 

The number of farmers is not lefs than 90; of whom 3. or 4 
pay from L.60 to L.100 of rent; the greater part only vary frqm 
£,.20 to L.25: there are feveral below L.10. And befides thefe, a 
number of ftill fmaller tenants are planted as improvers of wafte 
ground ; with cottagers, who are labourers and mechanics ; and as 
many fifliers as man 3 boats. The greater part of the land is let 
from 12s. to 14s. the acre, fome of the beft as high as L.i. and 
fome as low as 5s. ; making the mean rent about 14s. the acre. 

State EcdefiaflicaL] — The church is inconveniently placed on a 
fpot almoft detached from the parim, near the manje, on an emi- 
nence rifing from the head of a fmall bay which fets in from the 
Frith. The ftipend is L.30 fterling, and 78 bolls of barley and 
jneal. The glebe is about 10 acres of poor light foil. The Earl 
pi Moray holds the right of patronage. The fchool is in a pretty 
central fituation, about half a mile from the church. The falary 
is * 2 bolls of oat-meal, colle&ed in fmall but various proportions 
frbm araortg all the tenants. The fcholar& are numerous : but 
.fvith the fees, and official perquifites as feflion clerk, the whole ap- 
pointment exceeds not £.20 Iterling yearly. The poor are not 
numerous, owing to the great and increafing fcarcity of fuel : but 
*he country is much infefted with beggar vagabonds from other pa- 
-riflies. The provifion for the parochial poor is contributed in the 
^(Temblies of public worfhip : it amounts to about L.6 yearly. The 
number of inhabitants is 1518, of which a few are Diflenters of the 
An>tiburger Seft. 

Mifcsllaneous Information.']— The inhabitants are fober, induf- 
trious, and peaceable. They have frequent convivial meetings, 
Where, after fpending fome hours cheerfully, they part in a friendly 

x manner, 


manner* Drinking to excefs and quarreling are accounted re- 
proachful, and thofe addifted to thefe are avoided. They fhow 
attachments to old falhions: the plaid is the only part of the high- 
land drefs which is generally laid afide : but the women have adopt* 
cd more of the drefs of their fex in the low country than the men. 
About 40 years ago there were ^y iters in this part of the Friths 
but, one fmall fpot excepted, they are now entirely gone. The 
.watet is (hallow near the fhore: and the fea retires to a great dif- 
>ance. There are places where a commodious harbour for the 
fmaller veffels might be made at little expence. There are 4 com 
mills in the parifli : one is turned by the flux and raflux of the tide. 
There, are 2 earthen mounts near the church, evidently artificial ; 
they are compofed of fand enclofed in a coyer of fod, exaftly cir- 
cular, contrafted gradually frojn the bafe, 150 feet in circumference, 
to the top, only 120,; perfe&ly level at the height of 42 feet ; theur 
name, tom mhoit, the court kill, imports they were intended £qjT 
tl>e adrniniftration of juAice. , 

... / 


Situation, Soil, Climate^"] — This parifli extends weftward along 
the Frith, from Petty to Kirkhill, about 8 miles. It is interfe&ed 
by the river Nefs* Upon the fouthern fide it extends up the river 
to Durris; and on the other to the parifli of Urquhart, about 6 
miles. In fome places the country is level; in others rocky and 
mountainous. The foil, with fonue exceptions, is a black light fer- 
tile loam. The climate is early ; the air healthful and dry. 

State of Property. ~\ — Exclufive of the burgh lands, and the pro- 
perty of the community, the parifli is poffefled by 1-3 landholders. 
There are artiong them feveral handfome family feats and fhowy 
villas. Culloden-houfe, the family feat of Arthur Forbes Efq. 
about 3 miles eaftward from the town, is a magnificent ftrufiure, on 
a broad plain, N extended from the Frith to the mountain, embel- 
lished by large plantations, fertile enclo fares, gardens, and orna- 
mented ground : the valued rent id L.457., 18s. Scots. Dochfoujr, 


*» J 

Cimp. m.j PARISH OF INVERNESS.' ~2ij 

the property of Alexander Baillie Efq. is valued at L.566. 13s. 4^ 
Inches the property of Arthur Robertfon Efq. at L.383. 6s. 8d. 
Dunain, the inheritance oi Colonel 1 John Baillie, at L.320. ios # 
Torbreak, the eftate of Alexander frafer Efq. at L.325. 6s. 8d* 
Muirtown, the property of Hugh Robert Duff Efq, L.266. 13s. 4*. 
Culduthel, appertaining to Colonel James Frazer, at L.305. 8s. 
Holm, belonging to Angus Mackintosh Efq. at L.103. 10s. Doch- 
garroGh, the property of* Macbean Efq. valued at L.150. 

Caftlehill, the eftate of Lewis Cuthbert Efq. at L.168. David 
Davidfon of .Cantray Efq. holds a valuation of L.200. ^Eneai 
Mackintofli of Mackintofli Efq. poffeffes Eflich, at L. 100. And Sit 
J^mes Grant of Grant Bart, has a valuation of L.120 : extending 
the total valuation of the country part of the parifii to the fum of 
L.3566. 18s. The rents of the more confiderable farms are from 
L.40 to L.300 : and the fmalkr tenants are gradually wearing away; 
The whole extent of the arable acres may be eftimated at 5000; 
varying in value from 13s. to L.2 ; and garden ground near the 
town brings from L.4 to L.5 the acre. The hoifcs in the parifh 
are numbered about 600: the black cattle and iheep, of each about 
1000. There are 13 meal mills, 3 flour, and a barley rnills. The 
falmon filhery on the river Nefs begins on the 30th of November, 
and ends on the i8th of September: it has been let by the whole 
proprietors for almoft 40 years to the Berwick Fifhing Company, at 
the rent of L.330 yearly; upon the renewal of the leafe, now al- 
moft expired, it is fuppofed the rent will rife to double that fum: 
About 350 barrels may be the yearly produce difpofed of in the 
London market, as noticed in the fiftiery of Spey, and in the trade 
of Findhorn. The trouts of 4 or 5 lb, fome reaching to nearly 12 
Jb. are fold in town and country at 3d. per lb. The chefts, or 
cruives, and dykes, are formed where the riveris divided by an 
ifland, prettily wooded by young plantation, at a little diftance 
above the town. - * 

The burgh is fituated on the fouthern bank of the river, almoft 
at its influx into the Frith, with a confiderable fuburbs on the other 
fide, conne&ed by a magnificent bridge of 7 ftately arches. The 
body of the town, which at prefent may be faid to be new built, 
confifts of two principal ftrcets, crofling each other from fouth to 
north, and from eaft to weft. The public buildings, the town- 
Jkoufe, eourt-houfe, apd jail, are placed nearly where the ftrecte 




interfeA each other. The churches are at the north end of th£ 
town, upon the bank of the river. The laft charter is granted by 
James VL before his acceffion to the crown of England. After 
ratifying and confirming all charters, rights, and privileges, granted 
by William, Alexander, David, James I. James V. and Queen 
Mary, " of new grants, and in perpetual feu confirms, to the Pro- 
M voft and magi ft racy, the land of Drakies, a*d the foreft thereof % 
•• the lands of Markinch, with the pafturage thereof, with the parks 
", and woods; likewife the lands called Barnhills, Claypots, Mill 
•* and Millfields, the Carfc and Cairn Laws, with the common 
•• moor of the faid burgh ,• likewife the water of Nefs on both fides, 
«' from Clach-na-gaich to the fea; with all .fifhings, ports, havens, 
** creeks, the ftill-fifhing, the red pool; with power to begin to fift 
*' on the laid water with boats and nets on the 10th of November 
" yearly, and to ufe cruives and water chefts ; with the ferry of 
•' Keflbk and tha right *of ferrying on both fides : farther, all the 
44 mills called the king's mills, the fuken and mult-ares theYcof, 
4 * with the aftrifled and dry multures, of the Caftle lands : and all 
44 corns which have or fhall receive fire or Water within the parifh 
44 of Invernefs, as well out-fuken as in-fuken, to pay multure and 
•• knavefliip at the. faid mills; with power and liberty of pafture, 
41 peats, foggage, turf, in all places ufed and wont, and particularly 
*' in Crarg Phadrick, Capulach moor, Daviemont and Bogbain ; 
48 with power of ferrying on Lochnefs. With markets weekly on 
41 Wedaefday and Saturday ; and 8 frfee fairs in the year, on July /, 
44 Auguft 14 ^ in September, Roodmafs; on November 10, Mar- 
" tinniafs; in December, St. Thomas's fair ; on February i,»Peter's 
44 fair; and on April, the 25, St. Mark's fair. With the petty 
44 cuftoms of all cities, towns, -and villages, within the fhire, and 
44 particularly of the colleges of Tain in Rofs, Markinch, Chan* 
*' onry, Dornoch, Thurfo, and Wick in Caithnefs, to be applied 
44 to the public good of Invernefs* That no fliip break balk be- 
44 tween Tarbetnefs and Invernefs ; and our faid burgh fhall have 
, 4i coroners and fteriffs within themfelves, and a Gaildry; with a 
44 Dean of Guild; that there be but one tavern: "that rio one in 
** the fhire make cloth but burgeffes: with power to make ftatutes 
44 and rules for the burgh." 

The revenue of .the community, arifing from the feu duties and 
cuftoms of the burgh, witlva trifling toll for keeping the bridge in 


Chap, in.] £ari&h of itivttxvss. tig 

repair, without any connexion with the towns arid villages in- their 
charter, does not much exceed the fum of L.300 yearly. 

The magiftracy confifts of the Provoft, 4 Baillies, the Treafuref, 
the Dean of Guild, the Deacon Convener, reprefenting the 6 in- 
corporations, 10 Merchant Counfellors, and 3 Deacons* of the 
trades; in all 21. They have a Cleik and Clerk Depute. The 
old Council eleft the new at Michadmas yearly ; who then-/ out 
of their number, eleft the Provoft, though he is generally continued 
for 3 years: the Baillies, Dean of Guild, and Trcafurcr, are gene* 
rally for 2 years. The 6 incorporations are, the weavers, taylors, . 
flioemakers, fkinners; the wrights, including houfe- carpenters, ca- 
binet-makers, wheelwrights, and coopers ; the hammermen, includ- 
ing fmiths, tin-fmiths, copper-fmiths, filver-fmiths, watch-makers, 
braziers, cutlers, and faddlers. The other crafts of mafons, cart- 
wrights, bakers, butchers, and barbers, are not incorporate. 

To the detail of the commerce in No. x. at the port of Findhorn, 
it is only neceflary here to add, that the harbour is commodious 
and fafe, and kept in due repair. Seven veflels belong to it, mea- 
furing nearly 500 tons, and navigated by about 30 feamen, inclufU. 
ing apprentices. There are 9 fifhing boats, each managed by 6 
men, catching the fame kinds of fifh which have been mentioned 
as the tenants of the Frith, with an occafional vifit of the herrings 
and a few fprats. 

About the year 1763, a manufacture was eftabliftied of hemp into x 
cloth, for tarpawling, facking, and bags, for the confumpt of Bri- 
tain and both the Indies, employing above 1000 men, women, and ' 
children. They earn from is. to 10s. in the week. The. hemp is 
imported from the Baltic. 

. A manufacture likewife of white and coloured thread was efta- 
bliflied about the year 1782 : the flax alfo imported frqm the Bal- 
tic. This bufinefs in like manner employs about 1000. men, wo- 
men, and young people, in the progreflive operation of heckling, 
fpinning, twilling, bleaching, and dyeing. They earn from is. 6di 
to as. in the week. The Company have 16 agents indifferent 
ptrts of the country around, employed as managers of the fpin- 
ning department. The threads are fent to London, to be difperfed 
over the wbrld. 

There are two tanneries and one tawing work carried on. The 
tanned leather is confumed at home: the white is f^nt to London. 

F f There 


Tl>ere ar« alfo two tallow; chandlers, and a foap-boijer, a brick- 
work, and ableachery, and nearly a. dozen of brewers of ale for 

It may be inferred from the law* of David I. colle&ed hi the 
Reg. Mag. b.i. ch. 16. that the office of (heriff had been eftabliQi- 
ed previous to the middle of the 11th century, and in that period 
that there was but one flierifi* northward of the Grampian moun- 
tains, and his ftation at lnvernefs. The purport of the law requires 
the {heriff to aid any perfon accufed of theft, in apprehending the 
man, from .whom he might allege he had purchafed the ftolen arti- 
cle : " Gif ane dwells bezond Drumalbin, in Moray, Rofs, Caith- 
41 neffi, Argyle, or in Kintyre, he fall have 15 days, and alfo ane 
«•' mojath, to produce his warrant before the fchiref : arid gif he goes 
41 for his warrant dwellafid in Moray, or in Rofs, or in anie other of 
• c the ftcids or places pertaining to Moray, and can nocht find, or 
*' apprehend his warrant, he fall pafs to the fchiref of lnvernefs, 
•' and the, fchiref fall fend with him the King's fervants 3 quha fall 
V fee that righteouflie treated and handled, conform to the 
••law of the land." 

. It hath been feen in No, vi. that the Hon. Archibald Douglas 
was {heriff of Moray in the year 1369, and that Robert Hay, /heriff 
of lnvernefs, affumed the prerogative of judging along with him at 
Elgin, in a queftion refpe&ing the multures of the lands of Quar- 
Tywood.. m Gilbert de Ri*le.„ knight, is found, however, by the char- 
tulary of Moray, to have been flieriff of Moray as early as the year 
j 263; was not before 1661 that the boundary of the flieriff. 
dom of lnvernefs with that oi Rofs was particularly fixed. In the 
6th Pari, of James VI. in the year 1503, it is ordained, •* that 
'" the juftices and fheriffs of the north ifles have their pface in In- 
9i vernefs or Dingwall; that Maraore and Lochaber come to the 
*• juftice court of lnvernefs ; and becaufe the fteriffdom of Inver- 
*' nefs is too great, that there be a flieriff made of Rofs, who (hall 
*• have full jurifdicTtion, and fhall fit at ,Tain or Dingwall ; and 
* c that there be a flieriff at Caithnefs, who (hall have jurifdi£Uon of 
•• the haill diocefe of Caithnefs, and (hall fit at Dornoch or Wick; 
♦' and the. {hire pf Rofs and Caithnefs (hall anfwer to the juftice 
*• aire of Caithnefs.' ' 

Originally there could be but one cbimniffyry or Bifhop's court 
in each diocefer When the refidence of the Bi&op was fixed is 


Chap. III.] M&lSff OF INVERNESS. 221 

the vicinity of Elgin, he muft have committed a branch of his ju- 
rifdifiion to a de'pute at Invernefs. 

From the great confidence which the firft minifters of the golf- 
pel merited, they were frequently entrufted with the curatory of 
the eftatcs of dying perfons, which at laft they claimed as matter of 
right,* gradually extending their pretentions to judge in tythes, pa- 
tronages, teftaments, fcandal, breach of vow; marriage, as a fa- 
crament; and divorce arid in dowries, becaufe of their connexion, 
with marriage ; and in all questions where an oath interveaed, as 
being a part of religious worfhip. 

When prelacy was finally aboliflied, the commiffary courts were 
eftabliflled by the State, embarrafling and complicating the courfe 
of civil juftice, by continuing a feparate. channel for. certain por- 
tions that are fancifully deemed improper for difcufiion before the 
common courts, and in other matters optional to the peo- 
' pie to have recourfe to cither. The forms of civil juftice have 
been long maintained, but in many cafes fimilar to that of reli- 
gion, without the power of it. « 

Stutt Ecclefiaflical.^ — Before the year 163.8 the town and parifli 
ef Invernefs was under the charge only of one minifter; and in 
the year 1706 their number was encreafed to 3. The ftipexxd of 
the firft and fecond is L.45. 2s. 4d. and 84 bolls 1 firlot 2 pecks, 
the one half bear and the other oatmeal, with each a glebe fomc- 
what leTs than the legal extent; the allowance for the communion 
being included. They have right to a manfe, which the want of 
ftea,dinefs and unanimity between themfelvesprevents from making 
good. The ftipend of the third minifter is fecured by a grant from 
Queen Anne on the bifhop rents of Moray. and Rofs, for the funi 
of L.108. 10s. without manfe or glebe, or allowance for the com- 
munion. The right of the patronage of the firfl and third livings 
appertains to the Crown, and that ©t\the fecond to the family of 

iLovat. There are two modern handfome churches, in one of 
which the fervice is performed in the Gaelic tongue. There is a 
fmall congregation of Antiburger Seceders, and a fimilar aflembly 
of Scots Episcopalians; and of late a Metbodift meeting- ho ufe, at- 
tended chiefly by manufacturers from other counties. 

Prior to the year 1787 the eftablifhment for education, fimilar 
3to that of Elgin* and Forres, confided of a grammar fchool, and a 
iohoo\ in which reading Englifli, writing, and arithmetic, were 

' Ff2 taught. 


Aaught. There had been two fmall legacies bequeathed for the edu- 
cation of 8 boys, and in that year fubfcriptions for an academy, on 
a cornrirehenfive plan, were folicited in France, A,meric^ t and 
both the Indies, as well as in Great Britain. Thefe fubfcriptions 
exceeded L.6277 fterling, and an elegant edifice was erected in 
an enclofure of 3 acres which had .been purchafed. The accom- 
modation confifts of a largB hall, and 6 fpacious apartments for the 
philosophical apparatus, the clafTes,' and the library, \v:hich-had 
been founded about the beginning of this century by Mr. Frafer 
and Dr. Bray, who gave many books, and a fum, of money for 
raifing a falary for its keeper. To (he annual income anfing from 
the fubTcription fund, the Magiftracy have added an endowment 
of L.70 fterling yearly, by which the teacher of Englifti has a fa- 
lary of L.30, wij^h a fee of 12s. yearly from each fcholar in his 
clafs : the teacher of Latin and Greek has L*40, with a fee of L.i. 
4s. from each of rus fcholars yearly : the teacher of writing, arith- 
metic, and book-keeping, has L.30, with a fee of L.u 4s. from 
each of his fcholars yearly: the teacher of mathematics has L.4C 
with L.2. fes. yearly from each of his. fcholars : the re&or, who 
teaches civil and natural hiftory, natural philofophy, aflronomy, 
.and chemiftry, has a hpufe and L.50 of* falary, and L*3. 3s. yearly 
from each in his own clafs, -betides- a fmall fum paid by each ftu- 
, dent. The academy retains in whole about 200 ftudents. The 
firft feflion^commences on July 16, and terminates on December 
eo; and the laft begins on January 5, and concludes on the 10th ; 
of June. 

V The directors of tlie academy are, the Provoft, the 4 Baillies, 
the Dean of Guild, the' Sheriff, and the Moderator of the prefby- 
tery; fubferibers to the amount of L.^o, during their lives ; and for 
their own lives and their heirs who fubferibed L.160 ; and 5 gentle- 
'rnen of the county, elected at the Michaelmas meeting of freeholders 
yearly. At the defireof the Highland Society in London, there is 
a c'lafls opened for teaching the Gaelic tongue, with a falary from 
.them of L.15 yearly, 'to which the ufreciors have added the fum 
of L.16, There is likewife a dahcingHchool, and a mafic fchool, 
detached from the aeaddmy, under the patronage of the Magi ft rates. 
The Society for propagating Chriftian Knowledge have eftablHhed 
4- of their fchools in the remote quarters of tjie parifli, and there 
are 6 private fchools in the town, « . 



The number of poor on the. parifh roll amounts to about 220, 
*>f which, about 70 are ftated penfioners, receiving a weekly or 
.quarterly fupply, from about L.i. ,5s. to L.4 yearly; and occa« 
jfional fupplies exceeding that extent are fometimes granted to fa- 
milies jin diftrefs. The fund arifing from bequeathments, chiefly 
in the lafl century, , amounts to L.2520. 18s. 10s.; and a farther 
JTum of about L.70 yearly is contributed by the people in their 
meetings for public worfhip. The calhier is a refpe&able citizen, 
generally one of the Magjftrates, and his accounts are accurately 
balanced yearly. The whole populatiop of the town and country 
parifh amounts to 10,500, of which the number of Diflenters, 
though not with precifion afcertained, is comparatively infiguiS- 

Mifcellanews Information."]— -The inhabitants of the town and 
parifh are decent and regular in their attendance on the ordinances 
of religion. They are well affected to the government of their 
country : they are good neighbours, and induftrious in their ref- 
peftive occupations. The proprietors of lands and houfes about 
the town are about 40. In the year 1754 the real rent of the 
pariih was L.575. 7s. lifd. fterling, and 3268 bolls 3 fir!ot% 
and, at that period the value of the boll was about 10s. : fince then 
the land rent has been more than doubled. ' There are 2 clubs 
eftablifhed in the town, who have formed funds, by which they 
are enabled to fupport difabled members to the extent of 4s. or 
6s. weekly. The lower farmers and cottager? are greatly more in- 
duftrious, fince relieved of the fervices to their landlords, m con- 
fcquence of which they are alfo more cleanly in their perfons and 
houfes, and considerably improved in their attire. About 30 years 
ago, there was only one 4-wheeled carnage in the parifh; at pre- 
fent there are 12, with 2 coaches and one 2-wheeled chaife. 

On the northern bank of the river, a little farther up than the 
ifland that has been mentioned, there is a curioully infulated 
mount, refcmbling a fhip with the keel uppermoft.. It rifes 2^0 
jfeet above the level of the river, is 1984 in length along the bale, 
and 176 in breadth. 

On one of the fummits of the great range of mountains, which 
have been mentioned as ftretching backward from the champaign, 
along the Frith to the weftern fhore, there is the rock Craig- Pkadrick % 
1150 feet ubove the level of the river, exhibiting the remains of 



vitrified Fortification, fuppofed to have been the rpyal residence of 
the Pifiifh monarch Brudius t upon whom the light of the gofpel 
firft dawned* by the pious rainrftration of St. Columba. The 
•ftrufturc of this fortification is remarkable, and has attracted much 
of the notice of the antiquary. The ramparts are not conftrufted 
of detached blocks of the vitrified fubftance, but in continued, ex- 
tenfive, and unbroken mafles, exhibiting fatisfa&ory proof of their 
having undergone the procefs of vitrification, on the foundations 
whic,h they at prefent occupy ; having been formed, as is fuppofed, 
by a pile of earth,' trunks of trees, brufhwood, and ftone, ibme 
feet in thttkftefs, between a double row of clofe pallifadoes, fufed 
by the ftrength of the fire in its own combuftion. It is however 
hardly poflible to account for the prodigious mbunds of vitrified 
matter upon the eaft fide of the rock, without the idea of volca- 
nic production, although prior, perhaps, and wholly unconneQed 
with this fortrefs. 

At fome diftance from the mouth of the river, a confiderable- 
way within flood-mark, there is a large pile of ftone, of very re* 
mote antiquity ! cairn aire, its Gaelic appellation, denotes the mo- 
nument of the fed. A fyeacon apprizes verTels entering the harbour 
of their danger. Weftward in the Frith, three other fimilar piles re- 
main, one a huge heap near the middle of the eftuary.yet acceflible 
at low wat£r. From the urns that have been difcovered, they mull 
fie fepulchral monuments; and they have been Originally placed 
at a confiderable diftance from the water's edge, carrying back our 
iclea to a period, when the eftuary terminated at the influx of the 
Kefs, and the courfe of the Beaulie alone winded along the margia 
of the vale. The jiame of the town, parifh, * county, river, and 
lake, has been by a very ingenious inveftigation derived from the, 
Fall of Foyers, ess is one Gaelic noun which fignifies a cataraB. 
The lake into which this uncommon fall is alrrioft immediately dif- 
charged, might be not unaptly termed loch-NA-ess, the lake of the 
cataraft. Thas the riVer and town would naturally derive their 
appellation from a relation, clofer than what is frequently formed 
merely by vicinity : yet it is not common for an objeft to impofe 
a name which itfelf does not bear. Though there are feveraL wa- 
terfalls, fuch as that on the river Shin, and thofe upon the Clyde, 
more ftriking than that of Foyers, yet jrbxie have diftinguifhed any 
place by the Convcrfion of a common into a proper fcame, Hardly 
1 car* 

CAll'-xii.]} parish of raiiajiij..' s»5 

can an iuftance be adduced, unlefs it be a mean village; juft over 
, a trifling fall in the river Tyne, denominated Lin town: and w this 
cafe, the river whtch conftitujes the fall of Foyers is named Feoch*] 
Hn, denoting in the Gaelic, from the appearance and form of the 
water in its projection, over the cliff, the Jlr earn with the column. 

It might therefore be conjectured, that when thefe fepukhral 
monuments were ereftcd fo far within the dry land, a promontory, 
now wafted away, flood over the influx of the river, expreffive, 
by the terms nefs and inver, of the fituation of the town, which in 
time extended its appellation to the lake and country around. It 
has been already fuggefted (No, xvl), that the materials of this pro- v 
montory,. wafted up upon the ftores of Auldearn and Dyke, may 
have contributed to the formation of that deilruftive magazine of 
fand over the eftate of Culbin and its vicinity. 


r Situation, Soit> Climate."]— -This parift extends about 5 miles 
from that of Invemefs along the Frith to its head, and nearly 3 
•miles farther upon the bank of the river Beaulie, to the limits of 
the parift of Kiltarlity. 

The plain or low country of Moray has been described as fpread 
«ut along the fhore, but contracting its breadth, as does alfo" the 
Frith, a* they ftretch towards the weft. This great plain terminates 
upon the eaftern confines of this parift, which may be conceived 
as an acclivity rifing gently from the edge of the water to the breadth 
of nearly a mile. Weftward of this, the Frith contracts fo as to 
leave a plain along the bottom of a hill, which may be flill regarded 
as one of thofe low ridges which it has been faid diverfify the chanw 
paign of Moray ; for behind this hill there is a vale, as> if the river 
Beaulie had once occupied its fouthern, as it does now its northern 
fide, mixed with the tide : by thefe two plains and the intervening 
bill, the breadth of the parift in its weftcrn quarter h expanded to 
the breadth of 3 miles. 

The foil in the low^r part of the parift is a ftrong rich clay, pro- 


ducing, when properly cultivated, equal to any in Scotland ; but* 
with improper treatment, liable in a dry fcafon to bind fo faft as to' 
ftint the crop, and in a rainy fpring to chill the feed with cold: 
3s the country rifes, the foil becomes a fertile loam, yielding, though' 
at times a lighter, yet a lefs precarious crop; higher ftill in the' 
country, the foil becomes lighter, incumbent on gravel, but* in 
favourable feafons moderately produ&iye. 

The climate is temperate and mild, lefs expofed to rain than the 
countries on the fouth and weft : and the harveft is generally con- 
cluded by the middle or end of Oftober. 

State of Property. — The valued rent of the parilh, lhared among 
$ proprietors, extends to the fum of L.2068. 17s. of which the 
cftate of Lovat comprifes L.1093. los * 4^- Reclig, the property 
of Edward Simon Frafer, extends to L.170. Newtown, the eftate* 
of Major Thomas Frafer, extends to L.384. Lentron, the freehold 
of Thomas Warrand Efq. to L.288r And Arthur Forbes of Cullo- 
den Efq. has a valuation of L.133. 6s. 8d. The extent of the farms 
are from L.10 to L.15 of rent; about the number of 8 rife to the 
extent of from L.30 to L.60 ; and feveral artizans and labourers 
poffefs fmall farms, from 5s. to L.g. The mean rent of the acre 
may be ftated at 17s. 6d. exclufive of fome lands, let about 30 years 
ago, that afryet have not rifen above 10s. the acre : the real rent is 
about L.2000 fterling. The number of horfes about 400, the black 
cattle about 800, and -the^Chsep about 1000, of which 200 are of 
the Bakewell breed. 

State EccUJtqfticaL'] — The pariflies of Farmea and Wardlaw were 
united in 1618. In the original parilh of Wardlaw, at prefent the. 
weftern diftrift, the church at firft was placed at Dunballaich, nearly 
2 miles up the river. By the Pope's bull, it was tranflated to. its 
prefent ftation as early as the year 1220. There is one of the higheft 
fummits of the ridge of hill upon the coaft of Duffus, called alfo* 
the wardlaw, ftill bearing teftimony by their natives to that mifer-. 
able government under which our anceftors for many generations 
found it neyffary to keep ward, or a watch upon the moft com- 
manding eminence of every diftrifl, to guard againft the fudden in- 
road of fome plundering band, or the invafion of fotne more for- 
midable foe. On more than one account* therefore, this hill was 
found to be the moft eligible fituation for the parifli church. The 
name of the other cpnftitueju parilh. denotes, in the Gaelic, that it 



was diftinguifhed by groves of aller trees, with which it is fiill to 
fotne confideration embellifhed. The Gaelic name of the prefenfc 
parifti is cnock. mhurie, Marys kill; having been a parfonage 
under the Roman Catholk difpenfation, dedicated to the Spoufe 
of the Carpenter. In the neighbourhood it is dignified by the name 
of the kill: but in EngliQi it is lefs eminently particularized by the 
appellation of KirkhilL The ftipend, including the allowance for 
the communion, amounts to L.52. 14s. 2d. and 40 bolls of bear, 
and 40 bolls of oat-meal, with a glebe of about 7 acres. The right 
of patronage appertains, to the family of Lovat. The falary of the 
parochial fchool. is I*.u..&s. ad. with the fees from about 6o» 
fchoiars, and the cuftomary emoluments of the office of feflion clerk. 
The Society for Chriftian Knowledge have alfo eftab lifted, a fchool, 
with a falary of L.12 fterling, which retains about 70 fchoiars. 

The number of poor amounts to 50. The provifion for them, 
made by the people in their affemblies for public worfhip, the hire • 
of the pall, and the intereft of a capital of L.50, amounts in whole 
to about L.14 in the year. The people altogether, excepting 6 
Roman Catholics, are members of the National Church, and they 
amount to the number of ii 90. » 

% Mifcellaneous Information^ — In the courfe of the'laft 50 years, 
greater progrefs has been made in the civilization of the people than 
for many centuries during the fubfiftence of the feudal eftablifh- 
xnent. While that fyftem continued, every chieftain a&ed as an 
independent defpot, committing depredations on the territory of his 
neighbour, as anirriofity prompted, or as avarice fuggefied; by 
thefe means the people upon contiguous eflates were heated by 
mutual hatred and conftant jealoufy. While the fruits of labour 
were precarious, the, incitements to induftry had no energy: while 
morals could, neither procure the good will of the chief, nor ward 
off the lawlefs depredation of a neighbour, ^they could win no re- 
gard. The ordinances of religion, in the primitive times of pref- 
bytery, were no doubt with the greateft punctuality, and fome at- 
tention to propriety, difpenfed; but religion was regarded here as 
beneath the notice of a race of warriors, and as inconfiftent with 
gallantry and valour; fentiments eafily imprefled upon people who 
could not read, and who, through their ignorance and credulity, 
were the abjeft flaves of their tyrannical and felfifh mailers. The 
provifiohs, therefore, by the government, for improving the powers 

Gg ' ' of 


of mind, have fecurcd the fidelity of the lower orders of the peo- 
ple, by the fanQions both of temporal and of Spiritual confideration. 
When deiftical fentiments wer£ originally publiflied, they at the firft 
bore away the upper and middle ranks of people, who could then 
alone form any opinion of fuch fophiftical fpeculations : the know- 
iedge of letters has now no doubt opened a courfe for the fame 
delufion among the loweft of the people; and while the charms 
of novelty remain, as hath been the cafe upon the introduction of 
every religious feft, it is probable that many will be milled: but 
atf it happened among the tapper orders of fociety, truth will in due 
time -prevail alfo among them. Iti the mean time their reafoning 
powers will become vaftly irflpoved, the eye of the mind become 
in all things more difcerning, the craft of vagabond preachers, Broil- 
ing quacks, and knavifh fortune-tellers, will be all equally expofed ; 
and Hhe unequalled Meding* of the Chrrftian rejigion, and of the 
Britifh conftitiition, will be more diftinftly apprehended and more 
univerfally revered. 


Situation, Soil, Climate.]— The parifhes which have been hither- 
to defcribed upon the borders of the province are bounded by the 
fhore of the Moray Frith, here terminated in the river ; which, as 
hath been fuggefted in No. IX. may have originally formed, and, 
fimilar to the rivers Clyde', forth, and Tay, imparted at the firft its 
own name to this great eftuary, and which the filly French epithet, 
BEAULiRU,j?tf<r place, impofedbythe monks both on the monaftery 
and river, has not been able to obliterate. The river ftill retains 
the name of Varrar, which it bore in the days of Ptolomy : and 
"the Frith ofVarrar is the denomination, without exception, adopted 
by every author who has had occafion to mention it in the Latia 
tongue. Its etymology may be afcertained from what has been 
fuggefted in No. i. relating to the import of the name GarmacJi. 

From Kirkhill upon the eaft, the parifh of Killtarlity extends 
along the fouthern fide of the river Varrar up to the influx of the 
Glafs ; up<m the fouthern fide of which it is then continued weft- 

Chaff. mf\ . PARISH OF 1HU/TARLITY, fcay 

ward to the mountains bordering pn KintaiJ, being; in part inter- 
fered by the Cannich, in its courfe from the lake of Afarig to its 
influx in the Glafs j but the eftate-of Erchlefs, a part of the for- 
tune of the family of Chifolra, although upon the north fide of 
the river, a little below the junflion of the Glafs, and alraoft inter- 
fering the parifli of Kilhnorae in the fynod of Rofs, appertains to 
the parifli of Killtarlity. Towards the fouth, the parifli fpreads 
wide, and rifes high, upon the mountains which border with Ur- 
quhart. In this quarter it is interfered by 4 brooks from the 
fouth- weft and weft, between as many broad rnoory ridges, which 
gradually afcend for nearly % miles, having fome cultivated lands 
alrnoft at their, fummits, and though now barren, and covered only 
by {tinted heath, yet bearing the tokens of ancient cultivation over 
their whole extent, when the low grounds were marfh or foreft, 
the haunt of noxious reptiles and ravenous beafls. The lower part 
of the parifli is pretty level. The foil in general is light and thin* 
but in many places deep and fertile : it bears a qonfiderable num- 
ber of fruit trees, reckoned as produ&ive as any in the north. 
The climate is healthful ; and although there is much lefs rain in 
the lower part of the country than in the di Ariel; of Strathglafs, 
Where the clouds, muftered by eddying winds upon the brows of 
high mountains, dafli down in heavy fhowers, but generally (pent 
before they reach the lower diftri&s, yet the people living there are 
.equally healthy with thofe in the molt genial fituation. 

State of Property.'] — The parifli contains i8q fquare miles, and 
nearly 92,000 acres, of which about the 30th part, or little more 
than 3000 acres, are arable, under corn and potatoe, with the ex- 
ception of a fmall proportion in fown grafs and turnip. Befides 
the natural meadow and mountain pafturage, there are about 1200 
acres in plantation, end nearly 5000 under natural wood, oak, ai- 
ler f birch, and hazel. The valued rent, amounting to L.245^. 15s. 
& divided among 7 proprietors. 

The family feat of William Chtfolm ofcChifolm, the chieftain 
of the clan, is pleafantly fltuated at Erchlefs, in a fweeping bend of 
the river, upon its northern bank, a little below the junction of 
the Varar with the Glafs. A great extent of rich and fertile corn- 
field lies around this great and elegant raefluage, embellilhed with 
walks, gardens, groves, and much ground greatly ornamented. 
%ts envirogs farther down the river are decorated by the pi&urefque 



ifland \of Agaifh, an oval nearly 2 miles in circuit. Formed of 
hard and folid rock, it rifes in a gentle (lope about 100 feet above 
the river: covered with a variety of Wood', it affords paftufage and 
flielter for (heep, goats, and a few cows, during the months of 
fummer and hatveft. Near its eafterh end, the landfcape is enliv- 
ened by a* fall in the river, about 6 feet in height, and a faw-mill: 
7 faws are wrought by 4 wheels, turning 80 or 90 times in a mi- 
nute, and cutting a log of 10 feet long, from end to end, in little 
than 4 minutes. ' This work was eflablifhed in 1765, whereby a 
revenue of nearly L.300 yearly is produced from theforefts of the 
chieftain. The greater part of the timber is felled in the parift 
of Killmorae, reduced into logs of 10 or 12 feet. It is drawn by 
horfes, about 2 miles, to the water, to be floated along the 3 rivers 
that have heen mentioned, for go or 40 miles, to the mill ; where, 
after being cut up, it muft be, flill carried by horfes below the fall 
of Killmorae, about 3 miles farther down than the mill, where it is 
, again floated in rafts to the Frith, and thence tranf ported to Leith 
and London. The timber makes a yellow ^deal, and the mofl du- 
rable in Scotland. The vale of Strathglafs extends backward be- 
yond the bounds of the province, into the parift of Kintail : but 
the valued rent of the Chifolm domains in the parifli of Killtarlity 
amounts to L.697. 10s. 

Farther down the river is Beaufort, ihe family feat of Lovat, 
the Hon. Archibald Frafer. Its name denotes that it was origi- 
nally a fortrefs. On the north it was fecured by a fteep green 
bank, rifing about 100 feet from the edge of the river: on the land 
fide, it was guarded by 2 ditches, \he nearefl about 40, and the 
other about 300 yards from the walls. Although the trades of for- 
tification may be ftill explored, the prefent edifice is a modern ele- 
gant palace, embellifhed by ornamented grounds, fhrubbery, ex- 
tenfive plantation, and natural groves. The garden, almoft itfelf 
a farm, is inclofed by a wall 18 feet in height, lined with brick, 
extended in various flexures upwards of 800 yards, opening right 
tjpon the fun from hour to hour, through the whole courfe of his 
diurnal rotation, and generally producing great quantities of the 
.fineft fruitage. It is watered by a clear, eopious ftream, and en- 
riched by a fpacious hot-houfe, both of which could be eafily re- 
ftored to their priftine efficiency and trim. *< 

In the environs of this fplendid manfion, is the grand fall of 


"Chap. Ill/] ' PARISft OF^ILLTARUTY, S3I 

jfcillmorae. The torrents of man^ hills, and the Arearrfs from many 
Jakes, united at.laft into the Varrar, fometimes inthe Gaelic called 
the monks' river, and the Beauly, in the vicinity of the monaftery,- 
roll on a majeftic volume, little inferior to theSpey, and rivalling 
-the Clyde or Dee. It approaches this precipice, about 20 feet in 
height, as if unfufpkious of the fall; 'collected there, and hover- 
ing, doubtfulas it were, for a moment over the gulph, as if forced / 
'reluctant by the unconfcious river behind, it is poured down 
without refiftance, in one unbroken ponderous mafs, with a fal- 
len heavy plungfc and an unvaried hollow roar : riling again through 
the preffure of the deep water, with much lefs ebullition or vio- 
lence than might bepre-fuppofed, it fluggiflily occupies the bottom 
of a precipitous chafm, at fuch a depth below as to excite appreu 
henfioh and dizzinefs on looking down into the fhadowy abyls. 
The northern brow of the cliff is decorated hy a little handforae 
tower, built by the minifter upon the environs of the glebe of 
Kiilmorae, from whence this great' object may be viewed in the 
noft comfortable circurnftances, and to the greateft advantage* 
Having flowly won its paflage through the rifted rock, the river 
winds in filence through the wooded dale, to meet the tide ad- 
vancing between the contracted fliores of the lerminatirig Frith. 

Hundreds of falmon at times are feen below, attempting to fpring 
up the fall, and they bound, when in full vigour, to an amazing 
height. Unconfcious of the unfurmountable fteep, they repeat 
their unavailing efforts, while many fwerve fo far to either hand, 
as to fall back upon a ledge of rock almoft level with the water 
upon both its fides* Branches of trees have been arranged along 
the edges of thefe (helves, to prevent the fifii from regaining the 
river: and by thefe fimple means 8 or 12 have been got in the 
courfe of a night. Here alfo the 'late Lord Lovat had a kettle 
.placed over a fire, into which fome of the fifh unfortunately plunged ; 
and, boiled in this manner, were ferved up to dinner, with the 
marvellous recommendation to ftrangers, " That the fifh had fpon- 
taneoufly vaulted from the river into the boiling kettle to be dref- 
fed:" which was afterwards explained by ocular infpeflion at 
the place. At thefe times, the falmon are frequently caught by a 
pole armed with 3 hooks joined back to back, dipped fqftly for 
jpnly hidf a minute in the pool under the fall, and with a fudden , 




jerk pulled back, generally hooks a fi(h by feme part of the body. 
The valued rent of tbe eftate in this parifli is L.1090. 6s. 8cL 

Eaftward from Beaufort, under tbe mountains towards Urqubart, ' 
,is Belladrum, the family feat of Colonel James Frafer; ahandfome 
modern houfe ; the furrounding fields brought into the higbeft and 
mod ornamental cultivation. The plantations were begun about 
the year 1760. Befides the decorations and fruit trees about tbe 
houfe, and a great extent of common fir, they confift of oak, afe, 
elm, beech, and., plane, various kinds, of poplars, mountain afl>, 
and fervice tree:, befides larix, New England pine, fpruce, and 
£lver fir. The valued rent extends to L.100 Scots. 

The parifli is farther embelliflied by the family manfions of other 
.proprietors. The valued rent of Kilbockie, appertaining to William 
Prefer Efq. amounts to L.370/. 5s. Baladoun, the property of 
Captain James Frafer 'Efq. is L.67. That of ^fcadale, to Captain 
Hugh Frafer Efq. is L.96. 1.3s. ^d. And Kellachy, to ■ ■ 
Frafer, is L.25. The real rent of the parifh amounts to about 
L.2000 flerling. The rent of the arable acre varies from 5s. to La. 
The land is cultivated by nearly 200 ploughs. The number of 
black cattle is e ft i mated at 3000, horfes about 730, Cheep 5200, and 
goats 420: about 200 of the (beep are an Englifh breed, and highly 
improved. v 

Slate EcclefiaJiieaLI — This parifli is cotnpofed of the ancient 
parfonage of Kilkarlicy, dedicated to St. Thalargus, and another 
parifh, Glenconvent, in the fouthera quarter of the diftriS, a vicar- 
age which appertained to the 'priory of Beaulie; and that they 
might draw the mpre tythes, the annexation was made under that 

The monaftery itfelf, of the fame order with' that of Plufcarden, 
derived a confiderable proportion of its revenue from tithes within 
the province of Moray, upon the margin of which it was placed, 
without its boundary, though in the county of Invernefs. It was. 
eftablilhed by James Bifet, a gentleman of confiderable rank in that 
country* in the year 1230. The only remains of the building arc 
the walls of what had been the place of worihip, bearing no trace 
of turret or fteeple, or any ornament of architecture. The floor is 
almoft covered with tomb- Cones of various ages,- many nearly co- 
eval with the building itfelf; the moil ancient, from their conduc- 


fion and form, appear to have been the lids of ftone coffins ; on each 
is a large crofs, furrounded by ancient vignettes,, f words, animals, 
and other fymbols, the import of which is not now to be defined. 
1 From there being no veftige of letters, it may be inferred, that, 
writing was not in this country underftood when thefe monuments 
were framed : as many of them muft have been carved under the 
eye, and probably by the hand of the clergy,, they muft certainly 
have bore fome written infeription, had the knowledge of letters 
Or reading penetrated at that time into this feat of inftituted devo- 
tion. The earlieft inferiptions are dated about 300 years after its 
foundation : they are in the Saxon charafter, upon the margin ge- 
nerally pf an effigy of the deceafed. But thofe more ancient mo- 
numents, in which the crofs is fo varioufly exhibited as the prin T 
cipal among the fymbols, become an interefting fubjeft of refleftion. 
Before the knowledge of writing, thefe fculptured fymbols ipuft 
have had important allulions to the much venerated memorials of 
thofe regards, which have ever Ipeen, at death, the moft interefting 
concern of human life. Thefe monuments, almoft themfelves 
obliterated, have proved faithlefs to the memory of the pious or 
refpeflable deceafed, which they were intended to perpetuate ; they 
have left undiftinguiflied.the characters which they were defigned 
to celebrate, and they only ferve to fhow, that the annals even of 
the tomb are perifhable and tranfitory as the life of man. 

The fituation of the parilh church is denominated tom-n a-cross, 

ike hillock of the crofs. A little more than half an acre planted 

with fir, mingled with a few oak, birch, and elm, now almoft eclipfe 

the church : and, after the manner of the moft ancient religion in 

the ifland, public worfhip is ftill performed here in a grove. The : 

ftipend is L.89. 9s. 4c!. and 46 bolls 3 firlots and 1 peck of barley. 

The right of patronage appertains to the nondurable Archibald 

Frafer of Lovat. In the, higher and remote parts of the parifh, 

conjoined with a diftriQ; of that quarter of the iparifli of Killmorae, 

there is a, miflionary clergyman eftablifhed by the royal bounty ; 

he officiates in 4 feparate diftri&s, at coafiderable diftances from 

each* other, with no little difficulty and toil. The lalary of the 

parochial fchool is 18 bolls 1 firlot 2 pecks of barley, with the ufuaL 

fees for teaching arithmetic, writing, and reading Engtiflh, the 

tiigheft attainments of theprefent teacher, and L.i. 13s. 4d. as the 

fee, befides the cuftomary emoluments of the office of feffioji clerk. 

- : * ' .Tine 


The tejiauU in. the remote diftrift retain by their own funds two 
young men, in their refpe&ivq quarters, for teaching their children 
to read and write. The number of the poor enrolled amounts to 
45. The provifion for them, raifed in the ufual manner from the 
people, with the peculiarity of rents upon fome of the .pews in the 
church, amounts to about L.ip yearly. The members of the na- 
tional ^Church are 2009; and the Diflenters, of the Church of 
Rome, are 486. 

Mifcellaneous Information.'] — There, are 6 Druid temples within 
a mijeof the church: one of thefe is within tjxe prefent church* 
yard. A fmall farm near the church is named ARD druigh naugh» 

' the high place of the Druids : another place is named blar-na* 
carrachan, the moor of the circles': and a third, ball-na-carra- 
Chan, the town of the circles. About 2 miles eaft from the church 
is fuuated Caftle Spynie; in the Gaelic, ch AST ail spuinidh* 
the fortrefs of the fpoiL The wall of the building is completely 
circular, formed of ftone without any kind of cement, about 10 
feet thick, and 54 yards in circumference ; it is placed on a hill 
almoft 800 feet above the plain, fo as to be in view of Cnock Farril, 
a contemporary ftrong hold, in the parifli of Fodderty on the north ; 

^ and on the weft it is in fight of dun fhi^ONN, FingaVs fort, which 
is fltuated on a conical hill, acceflible only on the eaftern fide ; it is 
alio perfectly circular, about 60 yards in circumference, juft vifible 
only above ground, but completely vitrified almoft: to thc<leptb of 
3 feet; evidently, and at firft view, the work of art, like Craig- 
Phadrick in Invernefs, no way connected with volcanic productions. 
An old record in Dunrobin Caftle, it is faid, explains this ancient 
rnode of building : bearing, that a ftranger had come from the 
ibuth, into Sutherland, wha had difcovered an excellent cement 
for ftrong buildings, compofed of iron ore mixed with other ftone, 
vitrified by the force of fire. 


\ Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — The courfe oj this furvey has been 

^itherto, conduced from the eaft, towards the weft; but it is direftei 

\ fouthwari 

Chap, ill.] frARISH*OF URQfUHART. 23:5 

fouthward from the banks of the Beaulie, along the weftern limits 

of the province, to the fources of the Spey, \ 

The parifh of Urquhart fkirfcs along the fouthern limits of thofe 

of Invernefs, Kirkhill* and Killtarlity, f weeping alfo in part by the 

eaftern boundary of thofe of Kilmorae, Km tail, and Glenfheal, to 

where the parifh of Kilmanivack, ftretched from the-Atlantic ocean, 

conjoins with that of Bolelkin, bending round from the eaft, acrofe 

;<jthe weftern termination of Loughnefs. The communication from. 

-the town of Invernefs, on the eaftern coaft, to Fort William on the 

weftern fliore, opened along the length of Loughnefs, 'has led its 

^courfe, in a general view, to be confidered in the fame dire&iori : 

Ibut although the termination of the lake at Fort'Auguftus be greatly 

to the weltward of Invernefs, it is alfo fo much to the fouth, that 

if the" cardinal points of the compafs are only in regard, its courfe 

with more accuracy may be confidered as lying in the dire&ion of 

north and fouth. Accordingly in Urquhart, the whole eaftern fide 

of the parifh is defcribed as being wafhed by the waters of the lake, 

Jby which it is feparated froni Bolelkin on the other fide. 

By the lofty mountain of Mhalfourvonnie, the parifh is divide* 
into f wo diftrifts, Urquhart upon its northern, and Glenmorifton 
npon its fouthern fide; and they may be both conceived as valleys 
ftretching nearly parallel, towards the weft* from the margin of the 
lake. That of Urquhart, a little inward, divides itfclf into two, by 
extending a branch foutherly into the fkirts of Mhalfourvonnie : 
each branch is watered by its own blue ftream, which, meeting in 
their courfes, have opened, as it were,, the country to the breadth 
of feveral miles of plain ; and they deliver their water into a bay, 
expanded to a confiderable length from the lake, and more than a 
mile' in breadth, the only place where ; the lake; of Nefs is not 
bounded by rock. upon either of its fides. 

The mountain of Mhalfourvonnie rifes almoft perpendicular, in 
>ne uniform face from the lake, to the height of 3060 .feet. On 
lje other 3 fides, a rounded rocky peak hath fhot up about a fifth 
>art higher than the general elevation of the mountain. From this 
t feems to have derived its appellation, fignifying in4he Gaelic a 
old zoartf or cxcrefcence of a hill. Upon the weftern .fide, at the 
ipttom of. the peak, is a fmall lake, which makes a confpteuous 
igure among the fi&ions of all the fyftems of geography, and whicfy 
rtUerwife' in this place would have met with no regard* Its fur- 

H h face 

Stfi PRES1MT &TAOT OF Mfc- FBOTlfoCE. [Otaj^ IK; 

face is'equal'to-dbjeiftt'4 acres t it is* fupported by fpringss and tfe 
jains which drift pretty frequent around; th& f*tes o£ the peak, fit 
dry weather, tile evaporation i* e<jua4to the water it receives*: in 
ftafqns of rain, it eirtits> a» foftall ftipeara^ft-omi its fouthepn en*, i 
might be inferred, from its being well' ffiocked' with' trout, whirl* 
require an extent, proportional ti> tbear number, of moderately 
lhallow water, that it is' r*6- where. of unfathomable depth; which 
has of late been ascertained 'to be the fafl*,- by the miniflteF of the 
parifh and another gentlemanv from its< fituation fo far within-dfe 
Aorray 'WilderncIV, it is more than prohaVle, that it ha* never beat 
beheld during any>iatenfe froft 1 . The troutf are in fuel* numbers 
as to hare- diftinguifhed this little lake by their own Gaelic cbarac- 
leriftic*, namely the lake oftfCt red-bellied> tranti 

The-profpeft from, the fummit of the peak is highly intereffing: 
the faculty of vifion kfelffeems to have received additional power: 
the view, is chiefly extended^in the courfe ofeaft and weft, com- 
manding- am eatent from* the environs- of' Fort George* nearly to 
Fort William; The whole e*panfe of tbelake lies together undfer 
the: eye* but: at fuch a< diftance below* as* to' fugged the idea-ef » 
narrow ditch, deep' funk- within fteep banks. The diftant'horrzoft 
from the weft, round over the north* is bounded'by the mountain* 
thro' Rofs- and Sutherland* to the mores of' Caithnefs-j and : thonga 
nothing hut the dun wafle, thinly diversified by the glittering of 
fcattered lakes, is Vo be'feen, a tracklef* defert of boundlefs extent, i* hardly poffible to banilh the idea. of the many fertile peo- 
pled vales* with the vafi'olis toils a«d luxuries, pains and pleafures, 
which from this' ftation are fo completely overlooked. The who! 
diftrift of Stratheric is difplayed upon the oppofite fide as- a paint 
landfcape under the eye ; but though the peak-, itfelf may Be d< 
cried by the mariner, immediately on his clearing Kinnarrd's 
where the Moray Frith is loft in the German ocean, yet the pr< 
peel; is bounded by the mountain- between Stratheric and the a 
of the Spey* The fall of Foyers*, directly over againft the peal 
upon the other fide of the lake, at the diftance of N nearly 6 mifat 
in a right line froro the eye, is among themoft interefting objeSft 
Its white fpray, controlled with the bleak mountain through whM 
it dafhes down, refembles the light of the fty feen* through tB 
arch of a diftant. gateway : it«« roar meanwhile grows or dies upfll 
-the ear, as the airy breeze propels oibears- away tfce found. T* 
. •• • ' ... va He 

*»Hey df G*enmorifton may be -diftinelly traced fcfr 2b mile* weifc. 
%rly ¥iom the take.: kis inhabited only for about the hstff df fliat 
length, and its breadth is no~wbere corifiderafcle: it open* ?t the 
tlHlance of 10 miles from the influ* of toe river of Urquhart : the 
>oad between winds over Che declivities in the precipitous 'face df 
Mhalfourvonnie, much encumbered by loofe angular -fragmerits of 
€he rook-: the -path too narrow for a carriage, along the verge of 
the wooded fteep which overhangs the lalke, is carried over nine 
flreafn-tff Al&enis -upon an ancient arch, named TstoCHET-NA-CRfe- 
fUfr-HEtftsfl, the bridge of the wooded rocks. Glenmorifton iefetf, 
ligmfying ihe great valley of ike deep cetfeade^ opens on the lake 
%eeween the fronts of two lofty cliffs, reared xyp in gloomy gran- 
deur t the oheiscalled^RAiG-KiNiAN, the giants* roik) Che other, 
fe fable peak projecting over the lake, is denominated STRtJXN-MXJ- 
%0h, the promontory -of the boar. The wildnefs of thefe characVe'r- 
iftic appellations drftrngullhes thefe interior regions no 'fefs, than 
the ftrifckig appearance e? their tyblime fqenery. ' The road is con r 
titiued to Fort Aqgufhis, acrdfe the river of Morifton, by an ele- 
gant Hgbt bridge of « ardhes, meeting oh a great rock in the mid* 
jd\e «ff the ftream, with a pretty cafctfde in each of its channels. A * 
*rim path winds down the river, through a grove upon the level 
tank, fof about 300 paces, to a -neat o&agon building, overhanging 
the teaigin juft before the great faM. Although the river has its 
ferigin tar Siftant -in ^Glenlheal, forming in its progrefs Ac long- 
wifldiag'Wke of Clanie^ yet the vohrme of water is not fo large as 
that which forms the fell of Krhhorack ; feat the height from which 
it is ^precipitated rs nearly the fame. The torrent, however, fpreads 
to a greater breadth, and »4vances with rapidity and increafing tu- 
temlUo'the fcrftheft verge of the gtriph, and broken by a rock in its 
fall, it toffes itfelf into fpray and foam, and at times, from fome flight 
rftdr&idft perhaps in the preffure oftheatmofphere, as if animated by 
iforne internal impetus of the flream, it botinds 'canfiderably higher' 
than its -ordinary reperouffion* which adds much to the vivacity of 
^his -fafckiattHg object. Here too, as at 'Killmorae, and with no 
feettefrYucccfs, the falmon attempt to vault ovef the fafi, and by a 
pole iimilarly armed wtth 'hooks, rnany with dexterity are occa- 
Conafly caught, rn the momentary flafh of their ill-fated bound. 
Below the cataraft, the river fweeps round in the fullen eddies of 
91 4eep and gloomy pooV teeming to pa^fe. in the fliadow of the 

li h 2 dark 


jdark furrounding cliffs and overhanging hills ; then on a fudden it ] 
burfts away ip a flraight and narrow channel, through which k 
jfhoots in deepened and condenfed rapidity, rulhing with a whiz- 
zing din along the fides of the rock, cut down by its' own ceafelefc 
violence, driving on refiftlcfs, amid the echoes of the impending 
cjiffs and high-towering hills. 

In both diftrich the foil is light and warm : in TJrquhart, it i&a 
fertile, though not a deep, loam ; in Glenmorifton, it is inferior, 
in general fandy and light. The arable grounds are pleafantly in- 
terfperfed with pafturage, and fheltered by natural groves, varied 
by murmuring brooks ; in one of them is the diftinguifhed fall of 
Divah, about 100 feet* of perpendicular height ; a winding path 
through a wooded bank leads eafily tp its bottom.; a volume of wa* 
ter only is wanting for the. completion of its grandeur. The clofe 
fhelter of the' woods, and the warm reflexion of the fun from the 
rocks, have ranked this country among the earlier Highland dik 
trifts : yet in aiUumn the return of rain is fo uriwelcomely frequent, 
as feldom to admit of faving the corn in the open air. Fabrics, 
therefore, peculiar for this purpofe,. are pretty generally erefled : 
the roof between ordinary gables is fuppotted upon timber polls, 
and it projects alrnoft a yard over the fides, which are wattled with 
wands neatly trimmed ; the infide is fitted up with rails, in which 
pegs are faftened, upon each of which, like the mufkets in an ar- 
moury, a fingle flieaf js feparately hung, where in a fhort time they 
become fo dry, in any weather, as to keep otherwife fafe, when 
their removal makes way for the crop of another field. Such dry- 
houfes are common upon the weflern coaft. On fmaller farms, 
the walls of the barns are built of angular ftone, in fuch an open 
manner as to admit, or rather draw in, the wind, while the rain 
trickles down along the outfide, ■ ' * 

State of Property."] — James Grant Efq. advocate, the author of 
Effays on the Gaelic Tongue, and on the Manners of the Celts— 
a fubjefl: which the diftinguifhed ingenuity and abilities of the au- 
thor have not been able to rnake generally irirerefting nt>w — has 
his paternal feat at Corrymonie, fignifying in the Gaelic St. Fionas 
hollow, or valley, transmitted through "a line of anceftors reaching 
back to the year 1509. in the-reign of James IV. It is fituatedin 
the mountains towards Killtarlity,' and upon the fources of the ri- 
ver of Urquhart. It is the farthest cultivated land in that diflrift, 


Ckap. Ill,] PARISH OF pRQUHART. * 23$ 

the defert firetching beyond unbrdken almoft to the wejlern fliore. 
The building, although not modern, is plain, without turrets, or 
apy ornament of archite&ure ; but it Is embellilhed by groves, a 
garden, and inclofed fields, and thofe bewitching beauties of a 
mountainous and ftormy region, fo inexplicably fafcinating to the 
natives' educated among them. The valued rent of ifhis ancient in- 
heritance amounts to X.210 Scots. 

The whole di ft rift of Glenmorifton is the property of Major 
John Grant, and an inheritance coeval with that of Corrymonie* 
The family feat {lands upon the fide of Loughnefs^ at fuch a dif- 
tance from the cataract, as to be foothed only by its gentle and! 
Uniform murmur. It is a plain but commodious manfion, com-» 
manding an extenfrve and varied view of the lake, woods, and 
rocky mountains ;. but except the houfe of Foyers, far diftant on. 
tfie other fide of the lake, it is not in fight of any other dwelling, 
and of the little cultivated field only in its own environs. 'In it*_ 
clofe vicinity, there is a pretty handfome building, erected about 
the year 1760 by the truftees of the forfeited eftates, to .promote 
the induftry of the Highland laffes, to inftruft them in fpinning 
fine yarn, and in fome other domeftic arts, rendering their time 
more valuable, and making' the youth of both fexes better ac- 
quainted with the advantages of diligence and the bleflings of in- 
duftry ; in the knowledge of which they might be ftill improved. 
This building, converted now to lefs interefting purpofes, is not 
th? feat of any manufacture, and remains the monument only of 
laudable defign. The valued rent of Glenmorifton^ is L.896. ios. 
Ifcs principal crops are, black oats, potatoe, bear: a little rye, and 
white oats, and cultivated grafs, may be alfo produced : it fupports 
about 500 milch cows, and a"bout 1000 other black cattle : with a 
proportion of thefe, it fpares alfo butter and cheefe; but the coun- 
try was not able to fupply provifion for its own inhabitants, about 
$00 fouls, before the general cultivation of potatoes Befides the 
fheep^ it can how fpare, it alfo difpofes yearly of a confiderable 
number of horfes. N 

. The reft of the parifli, valued at L.1113. 5 s * Scots, is the pro- 
perty of Sir James Grant of Grant, Bart* ; extending its whole, 
valuation to L.2219. 15s. Scots. There is a great proportion of 
the parifh occupied in farms of refpeftable extent, varying ^rom 
$bput' L.^Qto about L.100 of rent. Among thefe alfo, are feverai, 


f 40 PRESENT STATE OF THE SftWlNCE. [Gij^. ttl* 

handfome Wildings, occupied <by gentlemen "who cultivate dsi* 
fequcftered vak, and live happily in each other's fociafey ; three 
of -thefe, Shewglie, Loektetter, and Lakefield, are '•pfarfftBtfy Swe- 
ated round the borders <rf a little iake in the courfe of the river <a£ 
Ur-quhart, about one anile in length, -and more than half a mile in 
breadth* The cut free-ftone of the howfe of Lafre-ikW, which is oft 
the property of Corrymonie, was -carried from the 4hore of Duffus, 
at the expence of more than L.50. Sir James *Gra«t has &4fo built 
a «cat commodious raatvfion in the beautiful 1kuatior\ of {SaAhsa* 
ceaun, and where he otcafionally vifits. - The greater number of 
the tenants hold fmall farms, reaching from lets than L.i to £,.7, or 
L.15. The average value of the acre may be eftimated at i$s. A 
very confiderahle revenue » derived from the wood, part of which 
is horned in making red herring in Caithnefs, transported by the 
lake and river of Nefs to the hsats which receive it in the Friths 
The number of hlacfc cattle in the Urquhart 4iftri£t, are r ecfooned 
to amount to 2460, of which the ihird part are -milch cow«. The, 
real rent of the whole parifh is not fuppofed to exceed L.300* 

State Ecclefi&ftkaL~\ — Tlie gradual organisation of the Church 
of Scotland into the local unconnected judicatures of prefby terie* 
and fynods has been already noticed. It was not till the year 1724 
that the fynod of Glenelg, G®n lifting of 5 preftyteries, and sp, 
parifltes, was at the fir ft eftabliftied ; prior to that period, the parHhes 
of Urquhart, Boiefkin, and Laggan, appertained to the fynod off 
Moray ; with Kilhnallie and Kilhftanivak, they now compote the 
preSbytery of AbertarfF; the two laft were never in any fhap£ 
canne&ed with the province of Moray. 

. The church is prettily placed in a wood upon the hank of the 
river, and near the head of the hay* For the accommodation of the? 
upper part of the vale, there is aifo a chapel, about two*thirds of 
the way from the lake to Cofrytnonie, where public worlhip is 
celebrated every third Sunday. The ftipend, by a decree in 1796, 
is L.ioj, including the allowance for the expence of the commu- 
nion, The glehe is about 6 acres. Sit James Grant holds the 
rightof patronage. The parochial fchool is in the vicinity of thfc: 
church, with a falary of L.14 fterling, and the other whole cmolu* 
ments equal to L.*o more ; it retains, at an average, ahout 50 fcho- 
Jars: reading Eoglifli only, with writing aad arithmetic ajetaoghtt 


fkap. vaJ] temm op uKg&tiAttifc S4I 

1» highland dlftrifiisy widely feparated from each- ©tner iif eh* 
tracklefs wildernefs, the thoufand pound* of royal' bounty is dif- 
tributed with* the moft parsimonious economy.* but had it been 
originally adjtpftei, f© as to wake one permanent eftabftfoment 
yearly, the whole of the Highland* 'ere now would have altnoft 
been faffiGienriy appointed with regular clergymen, each- with a 
living 0$ L.^piffierting in* the year, aflfed this annual expenditure feveA 
set the taft. In the folitary gtens of Killtarlity and* Kilraorack, the 
miffionary, as has been noticed; toils taborioufly in rotation through 
four Separated congregation*. In Glenmoriftbn, where the raiiiifter 
of the parifh can only make occasional vifrtations, the public ordt 
fiances of the national religion are celebrated every third* Sunday 
i>y J fche miifiona*y eftablifhed for that dMSrifik, in connexion wiA , 
AbertarflF in the pariffrof Bole&in, and- Glengary in that of Kit 
ma-mvack, with- a felary of L.35 yearly. The committee for ma- 
naging this- bounty ha^ve alfo appointed a catechift for the whofe 
parifli, with atv allowance of L. 12 yearly. The Society for Ctorifl- 
tian Knowledge have eftabfifted a^fchool inGIenmorifton, andano*. 
t-her'm the interior, wpon the river of Wrquhart; the flrft witbaa. 
appointment of yearly, and the othep with one of ILio; to 
which L.4 is added to his fpoiife, as mift*efs< for the girls i« few- 
ing. The ftatatory accommodations of a houfe, kitchen garden-, 
tmd'fhe means of fupporting a cow,, are fti*niflied ; irt the diftriSs* 
Both mailers teaeh the reading of the. fcriptures in the Gaelic at 
well as in the Engliih tongue: and both -aMo, as well- as the cate- 
chift, are moft afliduous in waiting on the people moft refhote from 
the fituations of public worfliip-; inftrading thenvon the Sundays 
in the principles and duties of religion in. affifting their devotion* 
"By prayer, and their Chriftian edification* by reading the holy fcrip* 
tures. The Society, with' the country, are taking 1 meafures fot 
eftablHhirrg another fchool in the track of country between the two 
dliffrift^ about the ftirts of Mhalfourvonnie; 

In Urq-uhart, the number of the- poor on the roll is about 30; 
with a 4 capital of £..100 bearing intereft, die contributions in the 
affemblies- of public worffirip make the* fiind equal to L.15 yearly 
for their fupport ; frdnr which L.2. 4s. 6A. is allocated to the clerk 
*atid feffion officer* The fund* for the poor of Gienmorifton, kept 
wholly apart from -thp ether, is only about E.3 of church eont/ibw- 



tions> and tbe intereft of L;2£, although their roll of poor exceed* 
that of the other diftriS. 

The number of the inhabitants in the whole parifh, by an ac- 
curate enumeration, obtained fince the population table was printed* 
amounts to 2355/ exceeding the number ftated in that table by 306, 
and making the increafe of the. whole population qf the province 
fince the year 17^5,. equal to 537, inftead of the 254 there ftated* 
The whole inhabitants of both diflri&s are of the national religion, 
except about 80 of the people of Glenmorifton ; many of whom, 
in the abfence of their own Roman Catholic clergyman, attend the 
meeting of their proteftant brethren. 

MifetUneous Information^ — Before the year 1746, the parifh 

- was much diftreffed by the depredations of their neighbours in tht 
weftern Highlands, who plundered their cattle .and other property. 
The advantages of good government having reached £he molt un- 
civilized quarters of the ifland, property is now completely fecure. 
For more than 30 years, all differences among thfc people have beea 
moft fatisfaftorily adjufted by a: gentleman in the country, in the 
character of Baron of Bailly ; the people's money is thereby faved, 
and even the fpirit itfelf of litigation dies gradually away. The 
people are religious, induftrious, and loyal, In the year 1793* 
80 men entered cheerfully into the firft fencible regiment. At 
prefent there js one company of volunteers in Urquhart,. of 60 
men ; and one in Glenmorifton, of 40. The length of road that 
has been made, and is kept in repair by the parifh, is about 50 
miles. The fund for this obje£t is a commutation for the ftatute 
labour of 2s. from each male above 15 years of age, and about L.9 
aJTeffed on the valued rent, at id. fterling upon the pound Scots, 
amounting together to about the fum of L.60. The road from In- 
vernefs to tbe inn on the bank of the river of Urquhart* about 15 
miles,* was a grand undertaking : for a great way through the rocks 
of Abriechan, it required in many places the Waft of gun- powder; 
befides the perfeverance of the people, the county aid, and.Iiberal 
fubfcriptions from the proprietors and gentlemen of the parifh were 
bellowed. The modes of agriculture among the gentlemen are the 

, fame as in the low country. Sir James Grant has encouraged 
the improvment of his. eftate by donations of grafs feeds to the 
fmaller tenants : and he has huiit-a lint mill, and givesTimilar da- 


fap. in.]. 


fcions of lint-feed ; and the appearance of the people is' much 
proved, by being dreffed in linen of their own railing and ma- 

There is plenty of limeftone on Sir James Grant's eftate, and he 
courages its application as a manure by the free'ufe of the 
bury ; arid by quarrying the (lone at his own expence., and cal- 
ling it alfo for the poorer tenants, for cultivating ground in the 
iffe, at the rate of about .300 bufhcls to the acre, and from the 
pence of fuel, the expence of each bufliei i* eftiroated at 4d. 
pre than too acres of wafte have of late been gained ; and the rents 
ive been increafed alrooft three-fold in the courfe of the laft 
> years : yet the fituation and comforts of the people have been 
b in the fame time greatly ameliorated. The price of pravifions. 
regulated by the market of Invernefs. Unmarried farm fery 
nts have raifed .their wages to about L.6 fterling in the year;, 
d women fervants to half that fum : a day-labourer, without 
iuals, gets is. The Caftle of Urquhart has been already def r 
ibed. It may be inferred, from its being an objeft of fo much 
iportance in the regard of Edward, the monarch of England, that 
Bare not well informed of the flate and circumftances of fociety 
ancient, times. Its walls are ftill decorated with a confiderable 
iantity of cut free-ftone of a coarfe texture and hard quality : but 
econjefture is hopelefs about where it was. found, and by what 
eans it was tranfported ; when it is confidered, that a gentlemaa 
w found it moft convenient to import the cut ftone for his houfe 
>m the quarries on the coaft of Duffus* 



Situation, §oil, Climate.'] — The ifland of Great Britain is m- 
Srfefted by plains, or valleys, deprefled almoft to the level of the 
grounding main, in four different tracks, from the one lhore to 
*e other, The firft may be conceived along the fouthern fide of 
it Cheviot hills, where Scotland borders with England, from the 
'olway Frith to the influx of the Tyae. The fecond lies along 

li the 

[Chap. q| 


the great canal from the Frith of Clyde to the eftuary of the Forthj 
The third, beginning alfo from the flbore of the Clyde, lower dowj 
at Dumbarton, ftretches through the broadeft and moft central paflj 
of the kingdom, along the fouthWn bafe qf the Grampian mounj 
tains to Stonehaven an the eaftern fhore. The laft is ftretchd 
from the Atlantic at Fort William, through the parities of Kil^ 
manivack, Bolefkin, and Durris, to the Moray Frith at Invernefs.| 

Imagination may eafily conceive the Continent to, have gncj 
extended entire to the northern extremity of the Orkney Ifleq 
and the Pentland Frith to have been only a deep valley, fimilarHj 
thefe, fo little raifed above the level of the fea, or compofed of foci 
yielding materials, ( as to have given way in foroe ftorm to the viqj 
lence of the weighty furge, impelled by all the power of the welled 
wind, rufhing on unchecked from the American (hare. Theheadj 
lands, ftretching out to each other from the oppofite fides oftW 
Frith, feem to fuggeft the idea of forne violent difruption : thud 
Duncan's-bay Head projefts a riclgy bottom, fo high as to formj 
ripple, both by the flowing and ebbing tide, called the Boars i 
Duncan s-bay, fimilar to the fwell of the fame name at the mouij 
of the river Indus : the Pentland Skerries ftill remain in the fai 
direftion, and are met by the Lowther Rock, covered only durinj 
the tide, projefted from the ifland of South Rhonald/ha on 
other fide. In the fame manner St. John's Head fends out arid 
which forms the breakers called the merry men of May, meeting] 
fwell off Cantie Head, upon the oppofite fhore of the ifland^ 
Walls : while the lofty cape of Dunnet frowns againft its rival t 
Beary (the Berubium of Ptolomy), on the wefiern end of the fax 
ifland. The probability of fuch a junction is not lefs than tbaM 
Dover with the oppofite coaft of France. If the extreme rapid 
of the tide, driving through tire Pentland Frith, had ever beeni 
together flopped, as it is fome^imes partially checked by the win) 
there is no doubt but the fea mull have rifen higher and flow 
farther in upon the fliores of the Moray Frith than now. 

The parifti of Boleikin, with the lake of Nefs upon its well 
fide, occupies a feftionofthe laft of thefe valleys that have bfl 
defcribed. Abertarff, a diftrift of this parifh, lies nearly on a Iff 
with the lake upon its . fouthern end, as has been already nota 
the other diftrift, named Stratherick, may be conceived a valta 
parallel to the lake, about 300 feet above, its level, and fcreeufl 


fe/. III.] PARISH OF B0L$$KIK. 244 

rom its view by an intervening rocky ridge, rifing ftill higher,.and 
retched the whole length of the lake. The fide of this ridge, 
drich faces the lake, rifes to a great height, and with a fteepnefs 
Smoft perpendicular, from the very edge of the water ; and fave 
iiro or three fmatl plots, admits not of cultivation throughout its 
'hole length of 22 miles, from the church of Durris to the citadel 
f Fort Auguftus. The road from Invernefs to this fortrefs is cut 
at for more than 12 miles upon the fide.of this rocky deep, as far 
i the fall of Foyers, It has been formed by great labour, and at 
iuch expence, under the conduS of General Wade, who was then 
Dartered in a flope of the mountain, thence diftinguifhed by the, 
fpellation of the general's hut, the prefent ftation of the inn, 
rout a miie diftant from the fall. This road is not unpleafant 
jing, being hard, fmooth, and level : it is frequently immerfed in 
Dod, of birch and hazle ; but in general it is open enough to ad- 
it a view of the waters of the lake far below, waving their fur- 
de in gentle undulation towards the precipitous fliore, and the 
mmits of the lofty mduntains towering high upon either of its 
fes. Above the zone of the woods, the mountains are reared up. 
>fterile nakednefs, the brown heath and grey rock .but little dU 
frfified by a few fraall ftreams trickling down the fteep. Some- 
bes the road is cut along, and fometimes around the rocky fides 
\he hill, forming on the one hand a black unfurmountable wall, 
1 the other an alarming precipice overhanging the deep lake, that 
en the ftumbling only of the horfe imprefies the idea of inevi- 
tfe deftruftion. This route is generally defcribed as pleafant and 
mantic ; yet the unvaried landfcape, confifting of little befides 
t long narrow reach of the lake below, and the flcy above, while . 
i fteepnefs of the mountain admits of no deviation from the 
th, imprefies a languor, after proceeding a little way, with the 
>a of dercliftion and reftraint ; for no habitation, no trace of the 
>rks of man, arc fcen, fave the defolation of the caftle of Urqu- 
rt, rifing out of the water on the other fide, which is but little 
ieved by a defertcd church in ruins, and a lonefome burying 
>und, by which the road winds, near the fummit of the ridge. 

ancient times, it might have been the fequeftercd refidence of 
ne holy hermit, and in that regard might have been chofen for 

fituation of theparifti church, of late more, conveniedfiy placed 

Ii2 K ia 




the interior of the country, and more centrical upon the other 
of this interpofing ridge. 

The common foundings of the lake of Nefs are from 1 1(5 to 
fathoms : in one place, they ran to 135- By floods or fad den tbaifl 
it is raifed about 10 feet above the lowed watermark. The dej 
even at the very fides would admit a fliip of any burden to 
from the one end to the other. Though widening confiderably 
ward its fouthern end, where it is about 2 miles in breadth, 
fides are ftraight over its whole length, as the even banks of an 
tificial canal, fave the bay where the river of Urquhart falls 
To accomplifti its navigation by fails requires 3 days of moderate 
favourable wind, as the vefTel rnuft anchor during the dark, whic 
excepting at the ends, in Urquhart bay, and the creek called t 
Horfe-Shoe, can be only done at Aultfay and Portclair on 1 
weftern, and at the influx of the Faragack and Ffcachlin on t 
fouthern fide. Excepting an accidental blaft from either of th< 
glens, or an eddy fquall from any of the more elevated fuoomi 
.of the enclofing ridges, the winds muft always blow right along 
lake ; yet were the navigation between the feas completed, a pa 
could^be formed along the margin of the lake, and the trade in 
"weathers rendered certain and fecure by the draught of horfes. 

This immenfe refervoir of water is diflinguifhed by two pecu 
arities : drawn either from the lake or river, it is laxative to peop 
who are not accuflomed to drink it, and it has the fame efFeft 
horfes unhabituated to its ufe. Such therefore at the town of 1 13 
vcrnefs are invariably conducted to another ftreanu Befides thij 
neither the lake nor river were ever known to be frozen, by ti 
meft intenfe cold experienced in a latitude fo high as nearly til 
58th degree. No chymica] analyfis has been attempted for invi 
tigating the caufes of thefe 'qualities: when drawn either frpm tj 
lake or river, it freezes as quickly as any other water : even in. 
carriage to any part ot the town diftant from the river, it is for 
times frozen ,by tbe way ; yet during the mofl intenfe frofts, b< 
the lake and river fmoke ; a thick fog hangs over them, mkigati 
the cold to fome diilance upon either fide ; and linens, ftiffened b 
froft, are dipped in the river to be thawed. There is not ti 
leaft degree of current in any part of the lake, and the river ruu 
gently onwards to the Frith, never, overflowing its banks, in a chajq 


Ciap. ui.J parish of polesium. $47 

ael whofe fall is fcarcely 10 feet. There cannot be much differ- 
ence, therefore, in the level between the frefli water and the fait ; 
^hd without regarding the foundings by Mr. Scott and Capt. On 
ton, who 'did not reach the bottom with ^op fathoms, the depth o£ 
the lake is probably greater than that of the Frith. Both thefe 
properties may be therefore probably derived from the fame caufes 
in general, which produce hot fprings, or from fome unexplored 
connection with volcanic fire. This idea is countenanced by the 
extraordinary manner in which the lake was affc£ied on the id of 
Nov.* 4755, during the time of the awful earthquake at Lifbon. .' 
Raifed above the furface, near the indraught of the river, , the wa- 
ter flowed up. the lake with vaft impe^uofity, and drove up more 
^han 200 yards again ft the rapid current of the river Eoich, break- 
ing on its banks in a wave about 3 feet high. It thus continued, 
in alarming agitation, to flow and ebb, for more than an hour, 
^.bout 11 o'clock, a wave, higher than any of the reft, loaded with 
brufli wood, drove up the river,' and overflowed to the extent o£ 
30 feet upon the bank. A boat near the General's Hut was three 
times daflied on fliore, and twice carried hack ; the rudder at the 
{econd time was broken, the boat filled with water, the loading of 
timber dalhed out, and left upon the fhore. Although this com- 
motion at the bottom of the. lake affe&ed the fluid fo powerfully 
through all its depth, it was yet unable to fhake the folid earth, * 
through a mafs but of equal height only with the Water; for nq 
degree of agitation was in any place perceptible on land. 

The vale of Suatheric is feparated from Laggan and Kinguflie t 
pn the banks. of the Spey, by a wide and'defert mountain. .It is 
watered by 2 confiderable flrearas: the Faragack, from 'its north- 
ern, and the Feachlin, from its fouthern end, \t might be con- 
ceived, that this vale had been itfelf a lake, till its waters forced 
their paflage down through the rocky mound to Loughncfs. The 
Faragack has torn the mountain doping uniformly from its fum- 
mit to the bale; the, impending rugged rocky banks of the channel 
£ear teftimony of the violence of the difruption. 
. The Feachlin has been oppofedby more folid materials, although 
its influx is only about two miles diftant the other. Wind- 
ing for 10 or 12 miles from the extremity of the glen, and in its. 
jrogrefs collecting, many ftreams from the mountain on the,fouth 
qf, eaft, and grown into, a, river of ng fmall confideration, its current 


248 present State of ttfE peovince. {Chap, ill? 

turned towards the lake forced its paffage alfo through the interven- 
ing ridge. Juft entering within its rocky jaws, it pours perpendicu- 
larly from the cliff about the height pf 30 feet, in a form rcfembling 
the unequal columns of a great cathedral organ, into an abyfs every 
way environed by uncouth and rugged mattes of fable. rock, to the 
height of more than 60 feet above its tumultuous furface, fave the 
breach through which its courfeis continued, which is covered by 
a narrow ftone bridge fully in the front of this thundering torrent, 
boiling in the cavern which itfelf has hollowed, in turbulent, foam, 
ing, and ceafelefs ebullition ; as if fome vaft fubterranean fire 
glowed intenfely underneath this horrible cauldron: its effeft is 
greatly heightened by the dark red tinge which the river for the 
moft part bears, from the peat foil of the mountain through which 
its feveral currents flow. Confiderably farther within this finuous 
chafm is the grand cataraS, the celebrated fall of Foyers. A profile 
view of it may be eafily obtained from the highway, where a wall 
of fubftantiai mafonry prevents the danger of falling over the verge 
of the gulph : but to gain a nearer view, and in the front, requires 
a guide aflant the fide of the profound fteep, down to- a graffy hil- 
lock, projeSed half acrofs the chafm, which is really by fome 
neighbouring cottagers fupplied* The greatnefs of the eflfipft is 
even fomewhat augmented by this perilous approach, which cannot 
lie accoraplimed but by clinging from fpace to fpace to fome dragg- 
ling tree, or hanging by fome bufh, whilft the foot, unfcen, is 
groping for a hold underneath. The river at times is defcried at 
a vaft diftance below, increafing its tumult as it advances, ftruggling 
among the multiform mattes of rock which embroil its courfe, and 
roaring againft the oppofing cliffs, which moot rudely from the 
fides of its torn channel : meanwhile, the hoarfe roar of the urtfeen 
CataraQ: fwells louder on the ear; the hoary vapour is beheld in 
turbulent eddies, and in rapid afcent over the gulph, as the denfe 
fmoke of fome burfting volcano. 

' Gaining at laff the loweft ledge of the rock, a pinnacle detached 
from, but every way environed by the craggy fteep, , which from 
thence feems unfurmountable, though fcarcely lower than the 
middle of the fall, the.attention is overpowered, and the aftonifhed 
view arretted by this auguft objeft ! 

The river is beheld edgeways (hot from a cleft, a refittlefs rapid 
column, about a yard in thicknefs, and 20 feet in height ; its breadth 


Ckap. III.] , PARISH OF BOLESKltf; S49 

upon the upper fide remaining ftill unfeen, it dalhes with fo much 
momentum upon a Canting fhelve of the rock as to be entirely di- 
vefted of the appearance of the. element of water in any of its forms, 
but forced into the femblance of furioufly drifte'd fnow ; it hiffes 
down the flanting ftcep, broad fpreading as it drives into the un- 
explored profound, at the depth of 80 or 100 feet below the fhelve 
by which the column is firft broken, where clafhing not in unifon 
with deep roar above, it imperceptibly refumes its elemental form, 
and feems feebly to fimper off from the bottom of the rock through 
a pool that might be imagined to be of no uncommon depth ; even 
the red tinge of the mountain foil, which was wholly difpelled as 
it drifted down the fteep, is alfo unexpectedly reftpred. 

The remaining part of its courfeis continued placidly forafhort 
fpace between the wooded cliffs : it then meets the lake in a plain of 
BOjgreat extent, formed probably by the alluvion of its own current, 
as it is the only field upon the eaftern border of this long expanfe, 
decorated by the family feat and gardens of Mr. Frafer of Foyers, 
an agreeable, but feemingly a folitary refidence. 

In the contemplation of a fcene fo fublimely auguft, which, day 
after day,- and year after year, continues its perennial turbulence 
and thunder, without reft or cefiation, the feeblenefs of man, and 
the fhort-abiding power of mortal energy, is deeply impreffed upon 
the mind ; fentiments of reverence fpontaneoufly arife for that 
Almighty Being who at the firft arranged the fprings of nature, and 
regulates for ever its unconfeious, though varied, and moil power- 
ful exertion. 

The foil is, in general, a light and gravelly loam ; in Fome places 
znoorifh. The climate may be accounted, on the whole, rather 
fevere than mildly temperate, throughout the greateft proportion of 
the year : yet in fummer it is fometimes unprdpitioufly dry ; an4 
it would be reckoned early, were not the harvefts generally re- 
tarded by rains which frequently begin to fall out about the 
equinox. , 

State of Property. ,]— -The parifh is partitioned among feven land- 
holders. It comprehends a part of the Lovat fortune, of the hon* 
ourable Archibald Frafer, equal to L.2101. 18s. 4d. Scots. Simon 
Frafer of Foyers Efq. holds L.463. 13s. 4d. Simon Frafer of Fa* 
ralin Efq. holds L.82. 4s. lod. James Fjafer of Gortuleg Efq. 
holds L.38. 13s. ud. Captain Frafer of Knocky amounts to 


«53 PRESENT $TAT£ OF 1 THE PROVINCE. [Ckafjr. Itf, 

L.163 Scots, Captain Frafer of Ardachy, . L. 1 4 1 . 17s. Scots. 
And Alexander Macdonald of Glengary Efq. L.308. 5s. 8d. Scots, 
in which the valuation of the property of the crown is included, 
being a farm, and part of the appointment of the Deputy Governor 
of Fort Auguftus, and the ground occupied by the citadel itfelf ; 
extending the whole valuation to the fum of L.3299. 13s. id. Scots- 
There are fome of the lan4s in the perfonal occupation of the pro- 
prietors. The farms let to tenants are in general comprehended 
tinder a fmall extent of arable field ; to which, however, there are 
fome exceptions when the, rent rifes to above L.50 in the year. 
The average rent of the acre of the arable land may be eftfmated at 
16s. : but the pafturage connected prevents it from being accurately 
afcertained. , ^ 

State EcclefiafiicaL~\ — The church is now placed about 3 mile* 
up the river above the fall, and about a mile eaftward from the 
bank. The living, including the allowance for the communion,. 
is L.icfj. The right of patronage is a pertinent of the Lovat eflate^ 
The appointment of the miffibnary refident at Fort Auguftus, and 
the extent of his charge, has been mentioned iti the preceding 
number. In the central parts of the parifli, between the fall andf 
Fort Auguftus, the farmers hire a teacher for their children, by a 
fmall fubfcription among fhemfelves. The conductor of the mufic 
employed in the public devotions of the church, and the poor, 
which make up a pretty long roll, have a provifion arifing from the" 
donations made in the religious congregations of the' people ; who r 
except a few of the Roman Catholic communion, are all members 
of the Eftablifhed Church ; amounting to the number of 1402. 

Miscellaneous Information.] — The* original name of the ground 
where Fort Auguftus ftands was Killie-Chumin, the burial place 
of the Cumings. The caufe of this appellation is now wholly un-i 
known. It may be conjeftured, that, fimilar to rColumbkill, the* 
cemetary of the monarchs of feveral kingdoms, the cohfecrated 
ground of the chapel of Abertarff might have been appropriated by 
this ancient clan, during the period in which they numbered 14. 
titled chiefs, as the place of general interment. 

The citadel, rather 4 in a beautiful than in a ftrong fituation, is 
feated on a narrow plain, commanded by pretty high grounds upon 
the fouth and north* It hds the great river Eoich, pouring a deep 
.and rapid flood into the lake, upon the one fide ; and the gentle 


irff, gliding in a flender ftream through the plain 4ipon the 
flier ; Loughnefs wafhes the ramparts on the third fide: they are 
mpofed of 4 baftions ; and they afford accommodation for a gar- 
Ion of 400 or 500 men. It was originally built about the 1730, 
id received its prefcnt name in compliment to the father of 
teorge III. Its deftra&ion by the rebels in 1746 has been in- 
identally mentioned above. It has contributed fomewhat to the 
»proved police of the country. The little (loop which rides : 
aider its- walls adds greatly to the fcenery of fuch a mountainous 
mdfeape, and it eftabliflies the advantages of the navigation o£ 
le lake. 


Situation, Soil, Climate."} — Although this parifli be the higheft 
Scotland, in its elevation above the level of the fea, yet its- 
raelic name, properly na-lag, fignifies the hollow », cxprefling the 
)pearance of the face of the country, qompofed of deep and narrow 
ftlleys. It is feparated from the parifli of Bolelkin on the north,. 
y a vaft and lofty ridge of almoft inacceffible rock, named monu- 
,eie, the- grey mountain. From that quarter, therefore, it can 
inly he approached by the military road from Fort Auguftus to- 
Stirling, which forms the continuation of the boundary of the pro- 
ince on the weft ; it is conducted over the mountain of Corry- 
rioch to the inn of Garvamore, the fartheft and moft wefterly ha- 
litation within the linpits of the province. The road' is formed 
Jong the weftern bank of the river Tarff, acrofs its fources, to the 
ammit of Corryarioch, towering far beyond, and above many an 
ptermediate height ; the road winds through ftately trees in the 
eep groves of Inverifha, which are terminated, as the valley rifes 
bto the mountain, by lofty naked cliffs of pi&urefque and varied 
arm : a number of torrents, ftreaming from the higher parts of the 
Houfttain,. are poured with impetuofity over the precipice, and dalh- 
pg down from (helve, broken with all the wild varieties 
>f the rock, and foaming in their fall, exhibit fome of the moft 
iomantic cafcades that can be imagined. Some venerable pines 
f Kk wave 

t?t ntSZXT STATE GF THE TfLOYUJtt. [Chap, ttti 

wave among tbe rocLt, fcemn*g to watch over the inceffant mur 
mar of the torrent as they hafien their confluence to the cei 
tral rivulet, the fartheit branch of the deep-roaring Spey ; whi 
wreath* of birch adorn the more gentle declivities, where the fou 
datioas of the precipices have fhot into the bottom of the git 
The fommit of the mountain, attracting many heavy volumes 
mitt* is generally involved in clouds, which the Alpine blaft ro 
down in condenfing fogs around the lower hills, with the chilli! 
co«d and penetrating damp of fleety rain, mingled with fnow 
deeply impref&ng all the terrors of this dreary, though elevated fi 
litude* If the fummit can be attained with an unclouded fk 
• the landfcape is immenfe and tranfportingry fublime ; the whol 
horizon around is an arrangement of difiant mountains, far beyoi 
all poflible enumeration, immeafurably extended to the Weftei 
Ifles, and to the ea&ern more ; fome tra&s of country are general 
concealed by intermediate clouds, through which the more lofl 
hills raife their dun heads like iflands in the deep, giving a noti 
expreffion to the immenfe extent of the lower world around, i 
hibiting a fcene of boundlefs magnificence, lighted up tinder 
azure heaven, and bafking in the blaze of meridian day, enchaij 
ing for a time the mind, while it (hares in the fublimity of a pro 
peel, partaking fo much of infinitude, and imprefling the admirii 
imagination with its own relation to the univeffe, without boundai 
and without end. 

The defcent is more immediately precipitous in 17 traverfes ci 
acrofs the eaftern face of the mountain to its bottom : at which 1 
Spey having collected its infant ftreams into a fair but inconfid 
able lake, winds eaftward in growing majefty, progreffive towan 
the German ocean ; receiving from the Grampian mountains 
the fouth, the river Mafie, about the middle of the parifli : whii 
is bounded by the fimilar courfe of the Truim, from Druranachtq 
at the eaft. 

Parallel to the Mafie, at the diftance of 2 miles, the river PattaC 
holds an oppofite courfe, towards the great lake of Lpchlaggat 
the environs of which form a feparate diftrift in the fouth- 
extremity of the parifli : the lake is of great depth, with bold rod! 
Ihores rifing into woody mountains. Coill-more, t he great zvod 
the moft confiderable remain of the Caledonian foreft, extends 
miles along its t fouthern fide; the fcene of many hiliorical, tradition) 

Xk&p. Ill/] PARISH Ol? LAGCAN* ^3 

% waters, abounding with charr, and various lands of trout, are 
charged by the river Spean into the Atlantic ocean near Fort 
|illiam. There 'are feveral frhaller lakes: one bears the appella- 
m of loch-na-righ, the king's lake; all of them ftored with large 
ack trout of the raoft delicate kind. 

Jhe air, though moift and generally cold, is, upon the whole, 
ire and healthful. The climate is extremely variable, exhibiting 
difference ftrikingly perceptible at the diftance of each 2 or 5 
lies : it is often rain on one fide of the river, while it is dry on 
t other* 

The foil along the banks of the river, though rich, deep, and 
ipable of producing as weighty crops as in the kingdom, is how* 
rcr but little produ&ive, from the deftruftive influence of mun- 
ition, mildew* and. froft. The higher lands on the declivities* 
though ftony, produce more certain crops than the meadows on 
e plain, being ripened more early by the reflexion of the fua 
Dm the rocks. The lands in the diftrift of Lochlaggan, though 
gher, and in a climate ftill wetter than the banks of the Spey, are 
s liable to mildew and froft, from their being laid upon a bed of 
ae-ftone rock* 

State of Property.] — The Duke of Gordon, and Colonel Mac* 
lerfon of "Cluny, -poflefs the parifli : the valued rent appertaining 
this Grace is L.120&. gd. and that to the Colonel is L.599 Scots.* 
he land is occupied partly by gentlemen, holding farms from 
,30 to L. 1 00 fterling of rent, and by fhepherds, who hold fheep.*. 
rtns from L.60 to L.190 fterling of rent; the lower and moft 
Imerous clafs of tenants are the people, whofe rents vary, only 
pm about L-3'to L.6 fterling. The rent of land, in general* 
3ms to be on the rife: but the fheep farms only feem capable of 
bring any confiderable advance ; although the value of fuch farms 
pend fo much on the feafons, and on the markets, yet a high 
ba of their value is in general entertained : in the fpace only- of 
flbzen. years, the rent of one has advanced from L.30 to L.190. 
fheep -farms are all on the eftate of Cluny, and exceed not the 
ber of 5: they at prefent fupport about 12,000. The other 
s, flocked with black cattle, fheep, and horfes, fupport about 
fheep, 1600 cattle, and horfes. barely fufficient for labouring 
ie ground. The bed wedders fell at from 12s. to 16s. ; thofe be* 
bging to the poorer tenants, from 7s. to 9s.; wool unwafhed 

Kk2 fells, ' 


fells about 8s. the ftone ( ; frneared wool, about 5s, ; cows brii 
from L*4 to L.6 ; fleers from L.3 to L.4 ; and horfes of a fi 
iut hardy breed from JL.5 to L.6. The mean quantity of ra< 
produced in a temperate year is about a 450 bolls : but that is nj 
Sufficient for the fupport of the inhabitants. Only one third q 
£hat quantity was produced by the crop of 1782. The advantag 
x>f end ofu res, and the comfort of commodious habitations-,' are noi 
perceived; and the tenants, at their removal, are allowed the vain 
^of the dykes and buildings on their refpeftive farms. There are i 
the parifli 7 taylors, 6 weavers, 3 carpenters, 3 mafons, and 03 
fclackfmith, but «o (hoemakers regularly bred : the common peopl 
itoake their own does. . 

State EccleJiaJlical.~y—~Th!t minifter occupies a commodioq 
farm, on the eftate of the Duke of Gordon, near the church, whic 
was rebuilt in a central fituation in the year 1785. The glebe] 
let for L.i2 of rent; and L.20 is allowed by the proprietors U 
ihe parfonage buildings. The right of patronage appertains to tfc 
Duke- of Gordon. The ftipend, which is L70 fteriing, is faid t 
exhauft the tithes: but the proprietors of late, from perfonal n 
gard to Mr. Grant, have promifed to make it L.iop during the ti 
Hiainder of his incumbency. The parochial fchooi in the midft < 
the pariflb is an appointment of L.16* 13s. 4d. {Lerling, with tl 
cuftomary fees and perquifites of office : the number of fcholai 
from 50 to 80. The Society for propagating Chriftian Knowledi 
maintain two fchools in the weftern wings, of the parifl). The pr« 
vifion for the poor arifes only from the contributions of the peop 
when in church. The members of the. National Eftablifhinent a, 
^26* ; and there su*e 250 of the Church of Rome, 

Mifcellaneous Information*] — la the naidft of th* Colli- mor 
is a place diftinguifted by the name of the ard merigxe, ike hcig 
far rearing the Jlandard* It has been held facred from remc 
^antiquity, as the burial place of 7 Caledonian kings; who, ace of 
ing to tradition, lived about the period when the Scots, drivi 
northward of the Tay by the PiQs, held their feat pf governing 
at Dunkeld. It is likewife, by tradition, represented as a difli 
gui&ed place foxhunting: and it abounded in deer and roe 1 
they were lately expelled by the introduction of (beep, with wtoj 
they never mingle. The, kings, it is faid, and their retinue, hunt 
on the hanks of the lake for the greater part of almoft every fin 



jner : which is rendered probable by it* vicinity to the parallel 
roads of Glenroy, which muft have been formed folely for the 
purpofe of betraying the game into an impaflable recefs, and could 
inot have been executed but by the influence of fome of the firfl; 
-confequence apd power in the ftate. In the lake are two neigh- 
bouring iflands: on the largeft, the walls remain of a very ancient 
building, conipofed of round ftone laid in mortar, untouched by 
the mafon's hammer ; here their Maje flies relied from the chafe 
fecure, and feafted on the game: the other) named ellan-na- 
xijne, the iflatid of dogs, was appropriated for the accommodation 
of the bounds; and the walls oi their kennel, of fimilar workman- 
fhip, alfo remain. , 

Near the rrridfl of the parifli is a rock 30a feet of.perpendicular 
ieight ; the area on the furninit, 500 by 350 feet, is of very difficult 
accefs, exhibiting confidenable remains of fortification ; the wall, 
about 9 feet thick, built oh both Us fides with large fiag-ftones 
without mortar. 

Near the eaftern end of Lochlaggan, the venerable ruins of St. 
Kenneth's chapel remain, in the midftof its own cortfeCrated bury* 
4ng ground, whichis ftili devoutly preferred to the other, 


Situation, Soil,, Climate. "\ — The Spey, on quitting the pari(h of 
X,aggan, winds, in a variety of beautiful curves, through a level fer- 
tile meadow, interfering the parifli for its whole length, nearly 17 
aniles, to its extremity at the eaft. Its breadth from the banks q£ 
the river, extends to either hand almoft 10 miles; but of this ex- 
tent the vicinity only of the river, and the valleys along its tribu- 
tary ftreams, are inhabited, the reft being a wildernefs of mountain 
,pafturage, where a few huts are thinly fcattered, for the accommo- 
dation of thofc tending cattle in fumrner. Thefe mpun tains ex- 
tend fouthward to the banks of the Tay, and northward by the 
fources of the Findern, in the parifli of Moy and Dalaroffie, to the 
fcke and the river of Nefs. The name in its literal import figni- 



fie$ the head of the fir wood r but the firs have retired to fucfo a 
diftance, thatjt has loft all right to that appellation. There are, 
however, feveral aller and willow trees interfperfed on the banks 
of the Spey; and though parts of the riling grounds on the fouth 
are clothed in natural groves of birch and hazle, yet the country in 
general appears deftitute of wood. The river Truim fe^arates the 
fouth fide of the parifli from Laggan at the weft ; an£ the Fefliie, 
holding a courfe nearly parallel for 15 miles through the Grampian 
hills, forms its boundary on theeaft. The extent between thefe is 
divided by theTromie nearly into equal parts; but holding a fhort- 
«r courfe, its ftream is proportionally lefs, yet larger than the Gy- 
nag and Calder, confiderable brooks fent into Spey from the north. 
From the windings of the river in the meadows of Kinguifie, it 
Way be inferred, that its noted rapidity takes place only in a lower 
part of its courfe. The alluvion of Feftiie, therefore, in an aera 
extremely remote, has depofited a bed of gravel at its influx, which 
has expanded the Spey into a lake called Loch Inch, about a mire 
in breadth, and almoft two in length, which, with all the rivers 
that have been mentioned, contains trout and pike, falmon, and 
charr. Some years -ago, the proprietors concerned in the lake 
laid out almoft L.500 in making a cut through this bar J but, 
through want of fufficient declivity in the ground, the draining of 
the lake mifgave; but the refurgitation at each fwell of the river, 
upon the meadows, about its weftern end, has been in a great mea- 
fure by this means taken off. The foil in the meadows is fandy 
(lime, the fediment of the water, incurrubent on a light loam, which 
refts on a bed of clay ; and in the higher grounds, it is alfo in ge- 
neral a light loam, with a mixture of fand. This diftricl:, however, 
is but little adapted for the production of grain. Storms are fre- 
quent in every feafon, and frofts are uncommonly intenfe : they 
begin early in autumn, and continue late in the fpring; and heavy 
falls of rains are frequent in the harveft months, fo that the crops 
are always uncertain. From the great elevation of the country 
above the level of the fea, the climate is naturally cold; and though 
from this it might be regarded as healthy, yet the low meadow 
grounds have fo little declivity, that every flood overflows them ; 
the ftagnation of the water renders them fwampy, and produces 
noxious vapours. Hence rheumatifms, confumptions, and their 
kindred complaints, are frequent. 




State of Property. ,] — The parifh is poffeffed by 6 proprietors. 
The only family feat is that of William Macpherfon Efq. of Invter- 
efhie, pleafantly fituated on a rifing ground, near the fkirt of a 
wood above Lochinch, and 4s its name imports, at the influx of 
the FeQiie into the Spey : his valued rent in the parifh, including 
Killyhuntly and Ballnefpick, is L.691 . Clunie, Benchar, and Inver- 
nahaven, on the banks of thejSpey, with "Pboinefs and Eterifti on 
thofe of the Truim, the eftate of James Macpherfon of Reiville Efq. 
amount to the valued rent of L.461. 13s. 4d. Scots. Land in the 
diftrift of Inch, appertaining to Mackintofli of Mackintofh, amounts 
to L.t6o Scots. Major George Gordon's eftate of Invertromie is 
L.80 Scots. Colonel Macpherfon of Cluny has the lands of Noods 
and Bialledbeg, 1^273. 6s. 8d. And the reft of the parifh apper- 
tains to the Duke of Gordon, valued at L.1763 ; making the whole 
valuation of the parifh equal to L.3929 Scots. 

The cultivated farms are in general of inconfiderable extent : 
and the habitations mean black earthen hovels, darkened by fmoke f 
and dripping upon every fhower. Barley, oats, rye, and potatoe, 
are the produce of the cultivated ground ; but the quantity obtained 
is not fufficient for the fupport of the inhabitants. Black cattle is 
their primary objeft, for the payment of their rents and for other 
neceffaries. The whole number of ftieep does not exceed 7000: 
" part of them, and of their wool, with a few goats and horfes reared 
in the hills, are alfo fold. Blackfmiths and weavers excepted, there 
are few mechanics of any kind : there being no village, they have 
no centre of traffic, nor place of common refort, fo that a variety 
of necefTaries mull be brought from the di fiance of more than 40 
miles. The wool which might be manufa£lured in the country 
niuft be fent by a long land carriage to buyers invited from another 
kingdom ; and flax, which might prove a fource of wealth to both 
landlord and tenant, muft be negle&ed, becaufe people ikilled in 
tjie various procefs of its manufa&ure are not collected into one 

State EcdtfiqflicaL~\ — It was obferved, that upon the eftabliffi- 
xnent of the prefbyterian government, the prefbyteries of Elgin, 
Aberlaur, and Aberaethie, made only one. In the year 1707, 
Elgin was disjoined ; and in two years thereafter, the other two 
-were alfo feparated into, their prefent independent jufifdi£ions : 
3ivd, iu the prefent arrangement, KinguiCch makes the firft parifh 


' A58 rRESEtfT $TATK OF Ifcfc Mfe&VINCE. ££**£. *& 

in the prdbytery of Aberflethie. Th6 ftipend, lately augriicmcd, 
is L.100 fterling. The rent of the glebe is L.12 : and as thetfe ii 
no manfe, the landlords pay L.15 fterling for the hire of a houfe 
to the minifter ; who rdides on a commodious farm at a Httle difc 
tance from the church, which has been lately rebuilt in a very neat 
and handfome falhion. The right of patronage appertains to the 
Duke of Gordon. The falary of the fchool is L.11. 6s. 8d, fterk 
and L.2 as clerk of-the feffion, with the concomitant fees, and the 
perquifites of that office : the number of fcholars Varies from 20 
to 50. The poor on the parifh roll amount to more than 50; 
and the only provifion for their neceffities is the contributions of 
the people in their affemblies for focial worlhip: they are all of 
the national Church, amounting to the number of 1803 fouls. 

Mifcelldneous Ififormation.']-r-Therz are fome Druid circlet, 
which bear teftimony of the many generations which have fuc- 
ceeded each other, in this part of the country. The remains of 
the Roman encampment and of the Priory of Kinguifie, have 
been already noticed. The green mount, on which the ruins ol 
the barrack remain, rifes on a marfliy plain to the height of 60 feet j 
the area of its fummit meafures 360 by 180 feet.. It is fuppofed 
to be wholly artificial : and fome of the old people mention, that, 
on finking the well within the barrack, planks of wood were found 
laid acrofs each other at equal diftances, from near the furface tfr 
the bafe. It was originally the fituation of the Caftle of Rttthven* 
the feat of the Cumings, lords of Badenach. After the rebellion*, 
in the year 1715, it was purchafed by government; and a fpaciou* 
handfome barrack was ereQed, confiding of two buildings placed' 
parallel, and two baftions in the diagonal angles, connefted by the 
ramparts: it could have accommodated 2 companies of men and 
feveral horfes. The party quartered here joined General Cope on 
his route to Invernefs in Auguft 1745, leaving only Serjeant Mol* . 
loy and a dozen men ; who, in September thereafter, maintained 
the barrack againft 200 rebels : for which gallant defence he wai 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant. In Fehruary 1746, being 
again befieged by 300, under General Gordon of GIfcnbucket, and 
fome cannon, for 3 days he made fuch a good defence as procured 
the mod honourable capitulation : the buildings were then deftroyed 
by fire; and its defolated walls now only remain. 

Several years ago a mine was opened, where fome pieces of very 


&+Wu] fAmn OF AtVIg, ' ££$ 

jich filver ore were dug op; but so attempt has been rfla4e to af- 
certain whether it be worth working, or *ou 

The people are in general diftinguiftied by their moderation in 
religious opinions. Inftances of theft are *ery uncommon : more 
flagrant crimes are now unknown. They are brave, but quarrel* 
iiune: they are hofpitable, but addicted to drunkennefs : they are 
polite, but little to be depended on for the fincerity of their pro- 
feffions. Their genius is more inclined to martial enterprife, than 
to the affiduous indnJlry and diligent labour requifite to carry on 
the arts *of civil life. 


Skiution^ Soil, £!imat€.^^THE parifltes of Laggan and Kingui* 

fie, with JUvie, comprife the Whole diArift oiftinguiflied by the ap* 

peiiation of Badenaugh, extending from <Corryarioch at the weft to 

CraigiElaeby af the eaft, upward* of 46 miles. The epithet kaden 

is ^familiar in the name's of places on the Continent, occurring 

twice tin the cantons of Switzerland, and thrice in the circles of 

Germany, probably of fimilar import in their languages to *hat of 

*he'OaelHvra whidh baden fignifies buJJiy,2iX\& AUGH, level ground. 

On the ncsrth fide of the Spey, the /parifh of Alvie is continued 

*iown 'the river from -KinguiGe for 8:miles; -and below this extent, 

•it ftretches down the river on bpth fides for two miles farther. 

The inhabited country, from the north bank of the river to the 

bottcfn of the mountain, is nearly 2 miles in breadth; and on the 

femthern fide,. it ftretches back into the Grampian hills, along a val- 

,I«y i more than a mile in breadth, through which the river of Feflie 

winds its courfe, to the length of'6 miles of peopled country. The 

hills into whkh it' extends, ior many mites beyond any h^bitatiofi, 

are extremely barren, many of them rocky, and raffed to fuch>a 

height, that vegetation fails upon their fumtnits. The interjacent 

valleys indeed produce a rich abundant pafturage in fummer; but 

in*winter;lhey are generally inacceffible. The lower arable part o£ 

the countiiy confifts of*a light :dry foil, lying on a fancy gravel* 

and trauch encumbered with ftone, producing we *ghty -crops in a 

LI wet 


wet feafon, but exceedingly parched in dry weather. The cli- 
mate is healthful and dry, and lefs fnow falls than at the diftance of 
a few miles to either hand, occafioned probably by its lying at an 
equal diftance from tl\e eaft and weft feas ; yet the mildews fre- 
quently injure the crops both of oats and bear. The early or late 
frofts generally hurt the potatoe to fuch a degree, as to be a great 
discouragement to the cultivation of that ufeful root; and it is Sel- 
dom that more than a third part of the crop of peafe, which are 
onlyraifed on land that has been limed, can be faved. The peo- 
, pie, however, attain to a good old age ; feveral beyond 80 years': 
the laft fninifter died at the age of 101 ,* difcharging the duties of 
his funftion until within 6 months of his death. 

State of Property. ~\ — The only family feat in the parifh is the 
elegant and fpacious manfion of Bellville, lately built by the tranf- 
lator of the works of Oflian, the property now of his heir, James 
Macpherfon pfq. valued in the cefs books at 1^384 Scots. The 
I>uke of Gordon's eftate amounts to the valuation of L.525. 13s. 
4d. Kincraigand Dunaughton, the property of Mr. Mackintofh 
of Mackintofh, amounts to L.350. Dalraddie, appertaining to 
William Macpherfon Efq. of Inverefhie, amourrts to L.132. 6s. 
8d. And Sir James Grant of Grant, for. the feu-duties of Dale- 
four, has a valuation of L.2 Scots : making the whole pari/h equal 
to the valued rent of L.1394 Scots. 

The inferior tenants are poor, and their habitations wretchedly 
comfortlefs* their farms are fmall, from L.2 to L.6 fterling'of 
yearly rent, and their land may be let from 5s. to 10s. the acre. 
The crops, confifting of oats, rye, barley, and potatoe, are in ge- 
neral fuftkient for the fubfiftence of the inhabitants. The parifh 
abounds with fir, birch, aller,.and a few oaks % carried by the poorer 
people 4a miles to the neareft market towns, in fmall parcels, and 
fold to procurer the few neceffaries. they defire. There is only one 
farm flocked wholly with fheep;. the whole of that flock in the 
parifh amounts to 7000; the black cattle to 1104; the horfes to 
£io; and there are 101 ploughs. The real rent does not- exceed 
L.800 fterling : aad L.ioo- yearly may be obtained by. the fale *f 
the wood. ' 

State Ecclejiaftica(\\- — The church, matife, and greater part of 
the glebe, are? fituated in a green penirrfula within a lake, which 
is half amile.ift breadth* aad a whole mile in length. It is :a 


Ckof : lAU~}\' r. /'' PARISH or ADVlfc. , . $6i. 

pleafant fituation in fummer*; but To extremely cold in winter, ; 
that the name pf the parifh in, the original Gaelic is fuppofed' 
elleibh, ike cold ijland; although, from the rocky mountain brow 
fkirting the north fide of the valley, it is more likely to* have been 
from AIL, a rod, fimilar to the parifh of Alves in Moray, and Alva 
in Banff- (hire. The church is fo incommodioufly placed in tbeeaf- 
tern quarter of the parifh, from, which it is ftijl farther detached by 
its peninfular fituation, that public worfhip is frequently performed 
in the church of- the di ft rift of Inch, in the lower end of Kinguifie, 
being much. more contiguous to the greater part of the people of 
Alvici Although the church was placed in the peninfula during 
the times of popery, yet this inconvenience could riot be felt dur- 
ing that eftablifltment, as there were 3 other chapels in the parifh? 
that of St; Eata at Kinrara, St. Droftan's at Dunaughton, and the .^ 
chapel of Macluach at Bellville. As the church in a fhort time it' 
muft be rebuilt, perhaps the more central fituation of St, Droftan's 
qhapel ought then to» be preferred. 

The ftipend, including the communion allowance, is L.70, with 
a glebe nearly 2 acres^arable, and furrlmer p^fturage for one cow. 
The proprietors allow L. "15 for keeping "the parfonage buildings in 
repair. The right of patronage pertains to the family of" Gordon* 
The fakry of the parochial fchool is L.10 fterling; and as fefliort 
clerk, the allowance is only the dues of the regiftration of bap- 
tifms, and the publication of the purpofes of marriage; for the firft, 
\s* 6dvand m. for the laftr the number of feholars about 30, with 
* the cuftomatry fees. The Society for propagating Chriftian Know- 
ledge maintain a fchool alfo in the parifh, with an appointment of 
L.-9, to which is added, by a bequeathed endowment, the'fum of 
L.5, for difcharging the office of cateehift in the quarter of that 
eftablifhment. The number of the poor is 25 : and the contribu- 
tions for their fuppon about L.3 yearly. The people are all of the 
national religion, and amount to the number of 1011 fouls. 
. Mifcellamous Jnformation^-^Tht people .have little idea of or fnanufaftiires, excepting a confiderable quantity of a coarfe 
l^ind of flannel called plaiding, or blankets, fold for about lod. 
the ell of 39 inches. Although all difputes are fettled by. the juf- 
tjee o£ the peace, without recourfe to the flieriff, or other judge, 
yer, fropj the difficulty experienced by the lower clafs in fecuring 
jgl fubfiftence, their hpnefty or veracity <irc not always to be depended 

LI Z on; 


otj: they have no inclination to leave the fpot of their nativity: 
and if they can obtain the fmalleft pendicle of a farm, they rejeft 
entering into any fervice ; and are extremely averfe to tnat of the 
military. They are fond of dram-drinking: and Squabbles are not 
infrequent at burials or other meetings. Few- of the older people, 
can read : and they are rather ignorant of the principles of religion* 
There are % retail fhops, 6' weavers, 4 taylors, 2 black Smiths, and 
two who niake the brogue (hoes wpr"n by the poorer people.. The 
rivers and the lake afiord trout, falmon, and pike.: the fahnoa are 
killed by the f pear, and caught by the rod of the angler. It is fup- 
pofed the trout of the lake do not vifit Spey by the brook which 
it difcharges, as they are of a better quality than thofe of the rivet. 
The great road from Inverness to Edinburgh is cdndu£ied up the 
north fide of the Spey for the whole length of the parifh ; k paffes 
through a number of little heaps, or piles pf (lone and earth, ©p- 
pofite to the church : the moft eonfprcuous one was. lately opened; 
the bones entire of a human body were found in their natural order,, 
with two Urge hau horns laid acrofs. 


Stv^tit £/*..* NUMBER XXXIV- 


'Situation, Soil, Climate .]~The river'Spey, on getting elear of 
the parifh of Alvie, forms the boundary of the counties of Morajr 
and Invernefs. . A part of the laft county, ftill ftretching down for 
7 miles- along the fouth fide of the river, and for the breadth of 4 
miles back to the bottom of the mountains, is diftin-guilhed by the 
"name of the parifh of Rothiemurchus, although it has bee» a part 
of Ejuthel fince 1625, upwards of 170 years. From the borders 
of Alvie on the north fide of the river, where the county of Mo- 
ray meets with Invernefs, Duthel extends down the river fo* 14 
miks ; and from the influx of the Dulnan, it extends backward 
along both banks of this rapid ftream for almoft 16 miles, near its 
iburces to the north- weft, in the mountainous defert'whieh is ia- 
,terpofed between the Spey and Findern, feparating this pariih from 
that of Moy and Dalaroffie on the north* It' was once difttnguUk- 
ed py a Gaelic appellation, which fignified. the talk} ofhetoes: h* 


Chap. 111*1 PARISH Of. D0TKEL. fltfg 

. modern name, applying to the courfe of the Dalnan, Which winds 
through, a valky of almoft ioqo acres, import* the excellent dale* 
The foil towards the lower end of this diftrid, which }s widened 
into a plain of feveral miles, is rich and deep, but frequently over- 
flowed by the Dulaan, which in the original fignihcs Jlaody. To- 
wards the upper end, and diftant from the river, although (hallow, 
it is fertile throughout. The ftirts of the hills a*e- clothed with 
fir, birch, and atler ; beyond which is the naked wafte, and the 
brawn health. In the: Gaelic,, rothemurchus fignifies the great 
plain of fir. Although fome parts near the Spey be of a deep and 
fertile foil, yet it is in general fiiallow. Its mountains beyond the 
foreft extend backwards to ..Athol and Breamar on the fouth. The 
climate of the whole parifh is extremely healthful: the common 
diftempcrs are probably occafioned by imprudent changes of wanner 
clothing for the Highland garb. 

State 4>f Property. y-~The diftrift of Duthel appertains to Sir 
James Grant of Graat, Bart. It is valued in the. cefs books of 
Moray at L.861. 17s. 8d. Scots. The number of its arable acres 
is 2183, all under born andpotatoe, excepting^ a few under turnip, 
cabbage, and fown grafs: they are managed by 105 ploughs. There 
are befides, in natural pafiurage and wood, 9467 acres, anil in moor 
and- peat earth 4650* exclufwe of the mountainous warfle/ Its real 
rent may be nearly- L. 1100 fterling. The only articles of export 
are black cattle, of which the diftrift fupports loasf; and iheep, 
which amount to 3424 ; and befides thefe there are alfo 3 1 5 horfes. 

The whole diftricl of Rothiemurchus is the property of John 
Peter Grant Eficj, valued in the cefs books of the county of Inver- 
nefs at L.4&J Scots. Its real rent amounts to about L.300 fterling, 
and as much may be drawn yearly by the fale of timber. From 
the number of people employed In its manufacture, an importation 
of grain is required for this diftrift : but that of Duthel fupplies 
its own inhabitants with provisions. The black cattle in Rothie- 
orurchus amount to the number of i$o* and iheep to £300, and the 

State EccUfiafticaL'\~T\)& value of the living, both glebes ex- 
rluded, is Lao*; fterling. The refidence is at the church of Duthel 
mly : public worfhip is performed but each third Sunday at Rothie- 
miirchus* The right of patronage appertains to Sir James Grant. 
Fbe falary^ and per<}«ifites of office, in the parochial fchool, amount 



nearly trf L."rfe in the year:? the number of foholars about 30. There ; 
are two fc hook eftablifltedby.the Society for Chriftian Knowledge. 
In the diftrifVof RoUiieiteurchiis, the appointment is L.10 fterling, 
and tbapexqirifttes drawn iri the country are valued at L.5 more: 
the number of Scholars about 30. In the Duthel.diftrift, the ap- 
pointment is L,^ with a few conveniences, tenifhedby the tenants. 
The. number of poor in the whole pari& is 23; and the contribu- 
tions made by their neighbours in both churches are about L.8 
yearly. The whole inhabitants are, of the Eftablifhed Church, 
amounting to, 1110. . ., 

Mifcellaneous Information.'] — There are feverai chalybeate foun- 
tains: tbat at Auchterblair has been found of ufeon gravelifh com- 
plaints. The people are extremely indufiriqus in . the cultivation 
of their po/feffions. <>The: country diftinguiibed by the appellation • 
of Strathfpey begins where Duthel borders with. Aivie, at a lofty 
rocky precipice called'Craigelachy, the rotok of alarm, the war-cry 
of the clan .Grant, and a motto in their: arihojial coat, diftant alraofl 
4P miles from a flmUar precipice of the .fame .name; where the pa- 
ri fli of fcnockando borders with, Rothes.. Near the centre ,of the 
diftri& of; Rothiemurchus, there is a; mountain of limeftone, and. 
pjenty of country- .; In this quarter are alfo two fmall 
lakes ; and by the romantic fituation of the furrounding bills, are, 
formed 5 very remarkable echoes. In one of them, named Loch* 
nellan, the i/land lake y are the walls entire of a very ancient caflle. 



. Situation, Soil t Climate.'] — The river Spey, expanded to it* 
greateft. apparent, magnitude, glides onward in a fmooth unruffled 
courfe from Rothiemurchus along the northern border of the dif» 
tri& of Kinchafdine in. the fheriffdom of In v,ernefv which is. con-- 
tinued on the fouthern fide of the river till it. meets that of Moray 
near the middle of Aberriethy, the lower end o£ which falls again 
within the county of Inverness, which ftretches.acrofs from the p*r 
%'ifh of Cromdale,.ull it borders on the county J>f Banff in the pariflt 

" 0}* 

CAafr iii.] • parish of aberniItAy. ' • ' 265 

of Kirkmichael, where there is a point at which the- three counties 
-meet. •• 

KiNiE-CHAiRDifc, in the Gaelic, fignifies the tribe of friends': 
and Abernethy, where the church of that difirift is placed, denoted 
the' influx of the Neth'y into the Spey. Thefe two diftri&ls extend 
the parifh 15 miles along the banks of the Spey ; and it is nearly 12 
miles to its . fouthern border, in the extremities of the valleys of 
Glenlochy arid Glenbruin, and the fources pf the Nethy, which 
interfe&s the parifh for the whole length of its courfe ; ,it is only a 
brook in dry weather, but it is f welled by rain to ftich confidera- 
tion, as to float down the timber to the faw-mills or to the Spey. 
There are feveral lakes in the parifh :- that of Glenmore is nearly 
circular, about 2 miles in diameter; it occupies the middle of an 
aged foreft of firs, the Iargeft and beft timber in Scotland; it dif- 
charges a ftream into Spey through a courfe of 6 miles, which hav-^ 
ing been deepened and itreightcd, and a fluice arm* dam canftriift- 
jed, forming at pleafure an artificial flood,- by which roafts for the 
veflels even of the navy, and the heavieft logs, are navigated into 
the Spey, which conveys them onwards to the Garmach dock-yard. 
In this quarter is a deep hollow in a mountain; the bottom, of in- 
confiderable extent, forms a lake, neither taking in nor eroiting any 
ftream ; but the rocky bank* rife around to a great height, and are 
clofely clothed with the ever-verdant pine, by the refleftion of 
which the water is always feen of the deepeft green colour, in every 
poflible fituation : it is ftored with abundance of fat trout, which 
glitter in the fame hue while viewed within the mound of this 
fingtilar cavity! The mountains pf cairngorum, the blue moun- 
tains * rife to a very confpicuous elevation on the f6uthern boundary 
of the parifh : they are never wholly free from fnow ; the forefts 
cannot extend themfelves to a great height on their fides, nor a tree 
rear hi head within the region of the cold; even pafturage itfelf 
Fails, and their rocky fummits are covered with a downy coat o£ 
felio w faplefs mofs : from them the profpeft is ftretched over half 
lie kingdom, from the mountains of Perthfhire to the Caithnefs 
>lains, and from the mores of Buchan to the fources of the Spey. 
The eye, accuftomed to flowery paftures and waving harvefts, is 
ftonifhed at the appearance and properties of mountainous regions : 
.ytv thefe conftitote a'great part of the earth ; and he' that has never 
feexi them mjuft live unacquainted wkh-much of the face of nature, 



aad with one of the great fceneaof human exi&ence. , The <maj< 
features of the uncultivated wildernefs, and extenfive profpe£b/ 
nature, gained from the lofty brows of rocky mountains, yield 
cxpanfiou of fancy and a native elevation of thought, aocoi 
with impreffions interefting and folemn, leaving on the 
traces of an entertainment ferious and fublime. 

The arable ground in the parifli bears but a fmall proportion., 
the uncultivated : a great part of the furface is covered with wocm 
much more is rock, hill, and mountain: part of the arable /oil 
thin and dry, part wet and cold, and part kindly and deep : a ftretj 
' of 3 miles, containing many hundred acres -o^this fertile quab( 
along the bank of the Spey, is often overflowed* The air and 
mate become lefs genial as the ground rtfes towards the mountain 
which occafion much froft and cold ; but in healtMalneis it is- 
exceeded by any part of the kingdom* 

State of Proptrty.'] — The diftrift of Kincbardkie, wkh all 
wood, k the property of the Duke of Cordon. The particulars^ 
the cantraft between his Grace and Meff. 0(bourn of Hull, \ 
Dodf worth of York, for the marketable timber in the foreft 
Glenmore, have beon already mentioned in the firft number of Uq 
chapter : k only remains to be added here, that his Grace has ai 
let to this company a confiderable farm in the Hurts of the fore 
for their accommodation in the management of the timber ; in the 
agricultural operations they have -adopted the modern pradice 
the country. In the cefs books of the county of Invernefs, 
• chardine flands valued at L.400 Scots. 

The diftrid of Abernethy appertains -to Sir James Grant 
Grant, Bart. The valuation of the Invernefs divifion is L'O* 
6s, 8d. and the Morayfliire valuation amounts to L.750. o,s. 4 
extending the valued rent of the whole parifli to the fum of L.iSj 
16s. Scots. The real rent of the Abernethy diftrift, exclufiv^ 
the revenue from the fale of. the wood, is about L.1400 fterlil) 
There are fome -farms in this part of the parifli in a high degree* 
improvement, having fubftantial and commodious buildings, ft 
ficient enclofures, and fields properly cultivated by able cattle* al 
implements of the beft form, and brought to the higheft ftate4 
-produ&ivenefs by lirne manure and green crops. The higher pal 
of the parifli might be alfo much improved, particularly by the 1 
plication of lime, which the vicinity both of the Quarry- and 

*, Kid 

rant m 

IftteWcftfcit.toprdvicief but the lands arelet in fun ridge, and 
>u* aay certain Urafe, and every imagination of improvement- 
b^thdrebyinftamdrieoufly and completely quafhed. The 
'mod* erf Amelioration within the reach of thefe poorer tenants 
to»ovb&ock'the Summer pafturage, nor the winter forage;- 
l^gteafter^miitibers of (heep and cattle than can be kept in good 
jitiotti.Tb* jirodu&ions, of the cultivated land are chiefly black 
1^ and barfcy, rye^ and pOtatoe. The ttup is always precarious* 
Elfre4(iie«tly miTgivfes to a very -diftre fling degree. Deducting 
l^feed, /and corri for the horfes) the whole produce amounts tor 
>' bolls, at an average of years ; about if bolls to each inhabit 
or provifion only for fix months of the year. . 
!he revenue afifing from* the foreft in theldiftriQ: of Abefnetby # 
mded over ;i 0,000 acres, is of great cohfideration. An unin-^ 
ipted teanufa&ure of this timber hath been carried on for more? . 
in, 60 years :• though the wood, therefore,: be in a very thriving 
tCi it does not acquire the bulk, or hardnefs, or quantity of ro-* 
which is found in timber of more mature age* It is yet re-* 
Hnbered in the country, fince the only mode that was known of 
king deals j was, by fplitting the timber with wedges, and trim- 
ing the boards with the adze or the ax \ and an upper room inl 
iftle-Graritis floored with deals of this kind, never fmoothed by 
te plane. In thofe days, the landlord got only a merk (is. l^d. 
5rling);inj the year, for as much timber as a man could in this 
i&ode manufa&ure. By fmall gradations of is. 8d< and gs. qd. it 
tad rifen 10 58. 6d* about the year 1730, when the York Building 
(Company purcbafed the timber of the. woods of Abemethy, to the 
paount of nearly L.7000 fterling. Great indeed was their begin. 
Ifepg : every. kind of implement of the beft form, 120 work-horfes* 
(Baggons, elegant wooden houfes, faw-mills, and an iron foundery, 
|1 furprifing liovelties in the country. They had a commHTary 
j^r.provifions and. forage, with a handfome appointment. They 
pparted much knowledge to the people, and taught them dexterity 
tt^many operations. Befides the faw^mills which they conftrd£U, 
pi* and the roads which they, formed through the woods, Mr- Aa* 
Jon Hill/ the poet,' the clerk to this eflablifbmem, firft {hewed the 
fcode of binding 3 .or 4 fcore of fpars into a platform* by. paffiag 
i rope thrqugh a hook of iron at both ends of each,, thereby form* 
ng a raft of 2 or 4 lengths of the timber, on whicbalfb a quality 
;• Mm «f 



qf ideals or other wood- i* laid, to the value in wWIe ojf gt 
t,ao fterling, and navigated down.ithe riy$r by a<man feafced H eack< 
^iwUwith an oar. Before this, they could only -cany dowaa Verj 
fmall quantity of.tifpber, bound together by a cord, totufadeii? 
a very hazardous manner, by a. man feated in. a vdTel madeof* 
hide, in a cylindrical or rather conical form, its infide extended by 
hoops of wood., It was managed by a paddle* and ths ' timber lni' 
to the condu&or's leg' by the noofe of a rope, to be (lipped as oc 
cafion required* that he might return .behind the raft, to fet it frc* 
from any (hallow. This, veffel the man carried home upon lfi» 
flioulders by land, as the tackle ofuhe rafts are yet brqught bacte 
Tradition relates,, that this eftabliflusent were the moft extpvaga* 
fet ever known in the countiy,, that- their Wafteful prodigality* 
ruined them (elves, and in part corrupted others. .Their pfrofafion 
was frequently difplayed in bonfires of whole barrels of tar; a&i 
'entire hogiheads of brandy were broached among the people, by 
which five men in one night died. It is likely*, however, that a 
plan, wifely concerted for conciliating the favourable regard df the 
natives, might appear as aflonifhing wafiefulnefs,' among >poor ant 
fimple Higblandraeri, and, like other marvellous relations, roigtf 
be exaggerated in the fucceeding repetitions of iL \ 

State EccleJ&jluaL~\ — The ftipend, lately augmented, is- L.iojf 
The right of patronage belongs to the family of Grant. At Abetj 
nethy, the church is* a neat wcll-fiiuflied building; that: ofiKincfaari 
dine, at the diftance of 8. miles, is alfo in good condition. The* 
is a burying ground at each, iaclofed by a triple, fence, a wall, ( 
hedge, and a. belt ;of wood. The . eAablifhment of the 
fchool, exclufive of the fees, is L.n. 2s. «d. and the perquif 
the office of/ feflio^ clerk. The Society for Chrtftian ELnowIe 
have eftabli&ed^ fchool in Kincardine, with «an appointment 4 
JL9 ; and he has tfye beft fchool-houfe id the Highlands. The] 
rMh is ltkewife accommodated with a latechift, by the royal 
ty.. The contributions made in the alfemblies for focial wor 
in behalf of the poor, amount to about L.6 .fterling, not fuffic 
to furniih them in Aides half the yesir. They are fupported by 1 
tenants, in begging from houfe to houfe; and in this mode: 
bolls of meal are diftributecf, fuppofed at a peck weekly, or 3 ' 
in the year, from each tenant. The. whole of the inhabit; 
amounting, to 1769, are of the national Church, 

\ ^ ' mi 

E&af. HI.] , PARISH OF CROMDALE* • «5o, 

*' MiJceHdntous Infotmation.~\—?Y)\z people are fagacious, well in- 
Irmed, frugal, very fober, and loyal to a degree that cannot be 
Wpafled. Political or religious fanaticifm have got no footing 
Bong them ; neither mifled by- the doftrines of thofe vagabond 
oatics tfeat infeft the coaft, nor milled by the tenets of political 
kmphlets : they are only difTatisfied with the mode in which they 
te by the landlords obliged to hire their farms. Chryftals of fome 
Uoe, fimilar to the kind at Briftol, are fomefimes found about the 
fctbrn of the mountains of Cairrigorum. They are 'for the mod 
ut found by chance, though fome pretend to know the vein where 
fey may be found by digging; yet it is- an employment by no 
Bans wofth following. The Red Cattle, the ancient feat of the 
innings, has been defcribed above. 


fc. ' 


F ' ' ' . 

rSituatwn, Soil* Climate.'] — Although a wing of the county of 
feverhefs might without defign be ftretched farther down upon the 
rath than upon the north bank of the Spey, yet the difpofition of 
ft two counties m the parifhof Cromdale appears to be the re- 
Irtt of contrivance, merely arbitrary and political. 
^Cromdale originally was three unconnected pariflies. Inverallan 
b the eaftern border of Duthil, and on the north bank of the Spey, 
his parted but unequally between both counties. Cromdale itfelf, 
Sthin the jurifdi&ion of Invernefs, extends farther down on both 
Itoks of the Spey : below which, Advie, the third of the original 
hrifhes, is continued to Knockando on the north, and to Inver- 
Nfrb on the fouth bank of the river ; extending the prefent pa- 
Ml of Cromdale to 9 miles in length on the fouthern fide of the 
IHer, and 18 upon the other. Its greateft breadth is 10 miles, from . 
Irkmichael in the county of*Banffto the cattle and lake of Loch- 
Horb, on the bank of which the counties of Nairn, Invernefs, 
id Moray, meet. 

^The foil'is in general thin and dry, with the exception of the 
Skins on the banks of the river, which in natural fertility are 
serned equal to the fields along the more of the Frith. The cli- 

M m 2 mate 


mate is allowed to be extremely wholefome. .While epidemical 
difterapers are very rare, inftances Qf'longevitya*. far ?s 90 year* 
<are many, and not a few get beyond that extreme term. of hum** 
jexiftence. x ■ . 

State of Proptrty^-rTht*.. whole parifl* is the property of Su 
James Grant of Gram, &art. 

The valued rent of the diftrift of Inverallan in the 

county of Invernefs is 
Th&t of Cromdale in the fame county 







.949 »4 










In Moray the valuation of Inverallan is * 

And of Ad vie is r * V «. 

, L.IO45 3 10; 

^Extending the valuation of the whole parifli to the fum of L.2465 
£*. Scots. The real rent at prefent may be eftimated about L.20Ot 
jlerling, , .. • • r - 

The family feat of Caftle- Grant rif^s on an eminence near ti 
jniddle of the parilb, on the north fide of the river* The body 1 
the houfe is 4 (lories in height ; its northern front makes 3 fi* 
of a quadrangle, having lower wings added to the length of the of 
pofitp fides. The original front towards the fauth \s alfo elegan 
though the workmanfliip of the 15th century. The accommodate 
-confifts of 20 handfome bed r chambers, exctufive of the puhS 
Tooms, th£ ground floor, the wings, and garrets. The paintings j 
the dining room, which is a magnificent hall, 47 by 27 feet, 4 
pf a proportionable height, are, a portrait of Charles I: andQud 
Henrietta, by Vandyke — The Virgin prefenting her infant foul 
the temple, and offering, her facrifice — The aged Simeon, e!a 
with the fight of his infant Lord, by Caracci — A full length 1 
Magdalene,; by Guido — A half length alfo, copied by Clark b 
Guercinpr- The Marriage of Jofepb and Mary ; the Adoration 
the Wife Men of the Eaft ; Henry IV. of France; taking leavei 
his Queen, by Rubens — Pygmalion and the Statue, by PodW 
Ruins at Rome, by Sanini — Head of Achilles, by Hamilton— *1 
large Landscapes — The landing of iEneas jn Africa ; Dido m 

% Chap* III*] PARISH OF CROMDAUU' **)%< 

with Mnas from the Storm; by Plymor — Family Portrait* by 
. Kneller, ]Weft, Ramfay, Allan, and Mifs Retd — Copies of the Por- 
traits 4 of Guercino, Caiacci, Angelo, and Fprdano, by Clark at 
.Rome — Still Life, Bafketmaker, and Milkwoman. 

The paintings 'in the drawing room, a. half-length of Magdalene, 
. by Guido— Venus mourning for Adonis,, by Guercino— -The cc* 
lebrated painting by Hamilton of Achilles mourning over -Pat ro- 
clus, attended ,. by* Brifeis, Chrifeis, and chiefs of Greece: the 
; prints of tb^s painting, which are not uncommon, difplay much 
of its expreffiqn— Copy by Clark of the Baptifm of Conftantine 
by Volteria — Eight fmall paintings in a frame, by Vandyke— A 
pencil drawing of Charles I. and : his Queen, from Vandyke's ori- 
ginal—A copy of Guercino's Perfian Sibyl — Andrpmache offering 
facrifice to He&or's Shade, by Mojrifon of Rofybaok — The Savi- 
our on the Crofs — Monks in a Cave— Family Portraits. 

The paintings in the different bed-chambers — Copy by Clarke 
of Guercino's Appftle Peter — Three fea pieces, by Vandermere— 
The Holy Faihily, by Paraginp — two, Paintings of the Civil Wars, 
fry Burguiongr— Several Portraits, by Sir Petef Lely — Two Land- 
f capes, by Ponf raft — Mars and Vulcan, an Italian drawings— The 
Refuritf&ion. of 'Lazarus — Adam and Eye-^St. : Veronica— The 
. Judgment of Paris — Niobe and her Children. : •»••*• 

In the hall are 301 portraits, by Watt, of gentlemen of the name 
. of Grant, moll of them exhibiting a true likenefs of the original. ' 
. In the ftair-cafe are, a Lady dreffing, by Titian — Danae receiving 
tbefhower of gold, by Corregio— Venus and Adonis, by Clark, 
from Lucas Fardano — An Encampment, by Baflau — A Highlander, 
a Piper, and an old Woman, by Watt. 

The houfe commands a pretty extenfive and pleafing Iandfcape. 
Southward the deep foreft of Abernethy, its broad dark-green plain 
encroaching .on the dulky fide of the lofty Cairngorujn* the pale 
. rolling cloud feizing at times its fummit, equalling its peerlefs ele- 
vation with the humbler hills, and the mountain anon discharging 
the hovering vapour, in lingering detachments, refumes its proud 
preeminence, and looks down upon its neighbours ; fpread eaft- 
.j*ard, lies the wide-bending cultivated plain of Cromdate, its green 
Jevel border illuminated by the blue-rolling river; and>on the north 
and weft, an irregularly curved range of hill difplays upon its fide 
thP Tenant mantje of flourishing plantation^ The park itfelf is of 


-2J2 ' PRESEtf* S¥At£ Of/THB PROVINCE. [Chap. in. 

great e£tehV<li verified with' the agreeable variety o£ thicket, grovfe,, 
and foreft, <?orn field, and meadow; a double line of tall trees ex- 
tends a cool (hade over a long lane* by the lofty canopy of their in- 
termingled foliage, impervious to the fummer fun andr the flighter 
fhower: the tvixti garden, the ornamented flirubbery, and feveral 

-pleafant ridings, iaay fuggeft * general idea of the environs of this 
refpe&able manfion, the extent of which may be conceived by the 
conanafs occupied by the Wood, nearly 4000 acres. 

About half the numberof fanns are rented at L.7, L.20, or L.25 
fterling, exclufive of fome lace improvements, and a few/mail lots 
for the accommodation of- tbfc labourers about the cattle. The 

. other half rtent at or above L.50 fterling, managed in the rnoft ap- 
proved fyfienl : the horfes and cattle of a fine brood and figure, the 
implements of the beft conftruftion, tod the buildings of the nioft 
fubftantial mafpnry and commodious form . 

At the diftance of nearly two miles weftward of the caftie, is 
the village of "Grantown; The firft houfe was. buik in the year 
iy$6 9 at that tinle in the midft of a pretty extenfive uncultivated 
moor. It is |)iiilt upon leafes of 190, or ten nineteens of years, 
On an extent of 21 by 460 yards ; rent free for the firft 5 years, 
and 5s.- yearly for the fucceeding 14 ; for the fecond period of 19 
years, 10s. yearly; growing to 11s. 8d. during- the third ; and to 
t^sr during the fourth ; and L.i thereafter for the duration of the 
leafe. The village, containing about 400 fouls, is regularly cori- 
ftrufted; the ftreet 56 feet broad, and the great fquare 180 by 70a 
feet in length, decorated by a handfome town- houfe, for the ac- 
commodation of the juftice of peace and baron courts. A brewery 

« was from the firft eftabliflied : and a claufe of the leafes prohibits 
the vending of fpirituous liquors without thp written permiffion of 
the proprietor. A dozen of retail fliops increafe the movement of 
hufinefs ; and weavers of wool, flax, and flocking manufa&ures, 
taylors, thoemakers, carpenters, mafons, and blackfmiths, and two 
bakers, with a regularly bred and fkilful furgeon, complete the 
accommodation of a very populous country around. Tfje land 
improved about the village lets at 12s. the acre ; to which the pro- 
prietor himfelf has added an extent of 60 acres in its vicinity im- 
proved by otie year's fallowing the moor, and the manure of 6q 
bolls, or 240 firlots, of lime to each acre. In the environs of the 
Village, there is a pretty extenfive Meacberjr, both of doth and 


Cktp* HI.] PARISH OF CROJbtPALE. . .. $73 

yarn; alfoaweH.cdttftni&edflafc-mtU; the operatibjiS/of both con- 
duced a* prefent by aT gentleman, a native of Ireland. ; The viHage 
poflefTes <pvery inland advantage in:tbe midft of a;igroat;and, pofiu- 
lou$ coantry ; ftore of peat fuel, wood* lime, flatfii, and ftonc, wiifc 
the command of a ftream of excellent water. . . . 

State EcclefiofticaJ.'] — The filiation of the cfcuFcb is centrical, 
qr* the foutb /bank ojf the Spey, in the wide feiaiciipiUar plain; of 
Crpmdale, which, ia the original, exprefles this . fixation $ it is a 
modem neat „weU.fini{hed building *.'TM ftip«nds.Jj8BclMd?ng Jthc 
allowance for the communion, equal to that of Duthel arid Abe?* 
itetby, is^ Part of the Iglebe, which ftill remains. in what 
was the parifli of Advie, together with the part > at ;the ; prefent rcffc 
dence, might be let for nearly. ,L*9< of < rent. Tbe. patronage is the< 
> pightof;the family. of Grant, - The 'Mary of th^lpafQchialfchocd, 
which is ,near ifce chjui>ch f is JLju. «s v gdv fterMjEjg^arui.theiemolu- 
laments ;of ffce oiBia&Qf feffiori clerk, abdut L^tflferiirigy tefedesrtKe 
fees of cducatiwi. There k alfe a< fdhoolieftJbl^ed:in:Grantown, 
r which, exclusive of the. fees from txt&ly ^ofafao&ars,.fof educatma 
in Jrench, Latin, writing, .arithmetic^ and reading jUgKih, 
appointment of L.2^ yearly; pf«which J Luo.arifeaftom:abequeatheft 
endowment,undex:the case of theipreftytery, Laoiby she jSotifety 
for Ghriftian Knowledge, and L^the. gratuity: of i Sir Japes 1 Grant. 
There is alfo in the village, ajptfitate fchool-miftrefs, where:girJs\andt 
children receive the rudimeats/pf their education. ->Qf late, z\fa ¥ 
an orphan hofpitai has been efiabtilhedrin Grantow/n, by a flare of 
the fund bequeathed by the. late Lady Grant of J^tmymujfk for the 
purpofes of charity. This .fiand was confiderably dirriiniffied by a 
fu^t in Chancery 'with the executors. One third part of this bei 
«ju©athment was, by her Lady (hip's will;* allocated for Scotland: 
the ,obje£l and the place to be .appointed by Dr- Gregory Grant of 
.Edinburgh, without direction or reftrainu The capital for this 
hofpita-1 amounts at. prefent to L.^aoo. ftock in the 3 perxerits. to 
■which Sir James Grant has added the fum of L; 150 fterling, and 
the.accomnfodarion of a houfe equal to:L.i2. of rent. The plan' of 
the Grantown hofpital is the fame with that of. the orphan hofpitat 
of Edinburgh; none are admitted .under 7', nor continued after 14 
years of age; and at prefent the number is limited to 30. Be fides 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, the girls are taught* fewing, weav* 
ing, and knitting wi*h wires ; and fuch trades as caivfce convenent- 


ly carried On withiri dooriare taught to thole "of the boys who 
choofe fuch employment. The prefent eftaltfiflniient h a govcr- 
neft, wkh fterling, and ft female fervant*?' and the yotuh at- 
tend ttefchdols in ihs village, trll the fund can admit of a tcach£r 
in the hofpital. ♦'- ..•: 4 ■'*••:: . ' :: - ' ' 

The contr&utiofiS made in the church fotthe poor articum to 
L<1*> or 'L.15 fl&rlihg; ge*tera1ly< diftributed to go 'individuals^ 
though jnore are occafionally admitted to a (hate of this provifion.' 
The whole inhabitants are of the national Church, amounting to' 
gooo fobl& - - • - N ;!,•.' . 

Mifcellarieous* Information ^— The people aire indttftrious, and 
of an obliging- difpofition. On public, occafions th£y are diftin- 
goifted by the neatnefs of their attire: the women 4 ate. alfo. noted 
afaorig their neighbours for cleanlinefs in tbeif hoUfe*i and far the 
doineftic maaufoftuire of webs- of woolen cloth* Theicaftle in the 
Hlfod of Lochnadbrb has been already mentioned.-* rff be herb pe- 
culiar to that iltland, diftinguifhed by the name of Lothnddorb Aail, 
appears to bet a mixture of red cabbage plants and common turnip/ , 
fown probably ;by the laft poffeflbr and never reaped, .and fince 
then degenerated through want of cultivation. They fpring up an- 
nually in a thick bed, without culture ; in fome favored fituation; 
the root of the: turnip is found almoft of a pound weight : but, in 
general, the root is fimilar to that of cabbage plants ; both are ufed 
as greens at the tables of the country people, and tran (planted alfo 
into their gardens' with the fame view : when they run to feed on 
the ifland, young cattle are ferried in to feed on them. 
. The laft. battle' in the revolutionary civil war,, in 1690, was 
fought on the plain of Cromdale, Colonel Livingfton, King Wil- 
liam's general, defeated the forces of the Vifcount Dundee with 
confiderabie flaughter, and many prtfoners. It was,; however, of 
little importance to the ftate, and needs not a particular relation 
here ; it is celebrated in a well known Scots ballad, happily def- 
Criptive of the humours* and fentiments of the age. 

The ancientname of Cromdale, skir-na luac, St. Luac's divi« 

Jion^ orparifk; tp whom alfoa well was dedicated: and Inverallatf 

is derived from the influx of the ftream of Toperal Ian into the 

Spey, a well emitting a quantity of water at once fufficient to turn 

the machinery of a corn mill. 

The names of many of the places in Strathfpey are the fame with 


Chap. i;i.] PARISH OF KIRKMICHAEL. , 275 

thofein Stratheric, it being afcertained, that the anceftors^of tbe 
family of Grant were once the poffeffors of that country on the 
, banks of Lochnefs. . 


Situation, Soii,Climate,~\-^THE northern limits of ftirkmichaet 
, lie on the fouthern befrders of Cromdale, and on the weft it meets 
with Abernethy, in the mountains of Cairngorum, and it occupies 
the weftern extremity of the County of Banff. The length betwtfeti 
the habitable extremes is 15 miles, and its. greateft breadth about 5* 
The Avon, in 'the Gaelic denoting fimply the river, takes its rife . 
< from a lake, to which itfelf has given its name, at the fouthern bot- 
tom of Gairngorum, and holding a courfe foutherly, ahnoft at right 
angles from the Spey, for nearly 10 miles, through a deep valley* 
the foreft of Glenavon, and daflhing down a cataralkbf 18 feet in 
height, meeting with the rivulet Builg, ftealing from its parent 
lake through its own green folitary vale, parallel ti> the Spey, a 
wing of the foreft, they proceed eafterly in the fame courfe,* till 
they turn with the ftream of Conlafs into a northerly direction, right 
onwards to the Spey; forming a confiderable fiver, on a bed chief- 
ly of limeftone, and thereby fo*extfemely pellacid, as to reprefenjt 
a depth of three feet fcarcely equal to one/ whereby many have 
been 10 the lofs of their lives deceived. • ' - ■ , - : 

i Along the Avon and its tributary brooks, the foil is a black fandy 
dearth: on the 'more elevated plains, it is a pretty -fertile mould: on. 
the declivities, it is a red earthy gravel, or in fome places a deep 
clay : and as- it fifes higher on 'the" hills' it is a mfore fterile moorifti 
gravel. Thdreis little to reconimjend the climate', always cold in 
winter, and in fummer feldom.warrrj, fubjefting the inhabitants to 
soughs, confurrrptkms, and diforcters of the lungs, by which many 
\t an advanced period, and feveral in Nearly life, are cut off; • and 
lervous fevers, frequently fatal, prevail during the fummer and 
utumn. . ' - r 

State of 'Property .] — The parifh is divrdedin'to ten little diftrifts 

Nn . called 


called davachs* from the Gaelic daimh, oxtn r and K\3CH>jitld % de- 
aoting as much land as can be ploughed in one fcafon by 4 yoke 
of oxen.* One of thefe, named Delnaboe, is the property of Sir 
James Grant, Bart, valued in the cefs books of Banff at L.233. 6*. 
8d. Scots : the other 9 appertain to the Duke of Gordon, amount- 
ing to the valuation of L.1925. 6s. 8d. Scots. Excluding the fo- 
reft of Glenavon and the mountain pafturage pertaining to Delna- 
boe, the whole parifli contains 29,500 acres, of which about 1550 
are arable ; the whole real rent about. L.i too fterHng. The whole 
number of black cattle amounts to 1400, the fheep to 7050, goats 
to g!0» and horfes to 303. The mean quantity of meal produced 
yearly amounts to 2560 bolls* which being jonly about 2 bolls to 
each individual, excluding the potatoe and garden ftoifs, would be 
equal to no niore than two-thirds qf the provifions annually re- 

Th$ village of Tornnatoul, near the middle of the parilji, con- 
tains 37 families. There is no raanufaflure : o£ry fome nfeceflary 
articles of merchandise retailed : and the men occafionajly hire as 
labourers by the day. 

. State Ecckjq/lifivi.'] — The ftipend is L.68. 6s. 8d. flerling, and 
L.10 fterling allowed by the proprietors fop keeping the parfonage 
buildings in repair. The glebe is nearly 10 acres, and might be 
let for L.6 fterling. The right of patronage is the property of Sir 
James Grant. The falary of the parochial fchool is L.$L 6s. 8d. 
with tbe ufuaf fees of education, a*id the perquifites of the office 
of feffion clerk. .. The Society for. propagating Chriftian Know- 
ledge have eflat>H(hed ; a fchool in the village of Tomnatoul, with 
an appointment of L.13. ios. where nearly 50 fcbolars attend. 
The number of poor on the parifli roll amounts tp 32, and tlie 
yearly contributions in the parochial church amount to little ; 
than 1^2 sterling;** The members of the Eftabliftied Church 
S92, and 384 are of the Church' of Rome, whb have their owb 
-clergyman, and a hand fome chapel in. the village of TortinatoulJ 
. Mifcellaneouj Information.'] — Although the ufual proportion of 
perfpns "copfpicuous for honour and integrity, benevolence and 
uprightnefs in their tranfa&ions, may be found in this parifli, yet 
among the generality, cunning has ftipplanted fincerity, and dil&* 
mulation, candour; profeffion fupplies the place of fincerity, and 
flattery isufed as a-Uire to betray the unwary: obligations arc ;re- 


Chap.ll\.\\ PARISH OF INVERAVON. , 277 

warded by ingratitude; .and when a favour is paft, the benefit is 
no longer remembered* oppofed to intereny promifes ceafe to 
be binding ; and the moft fuccefsful in the arts of deception ac- 
quire the efteem of uncommon abilities and merit. Sufpended be- 
tween barbarifm and civilization, the mind is stiver foftrongly in- 
• fluenced by virtue, as it is attra&ed by the magnetiftn of vice. • 

Mr. George Gordon of Foddaletter is juftly entitled to be tank- 
ed among the number of eminent men : as a chymift and a bota- 
njft, his knowledge was confiderabie, and it was applied to the ex- 
t'enfion of ufeful arts. He difcovered, that by a fimple prepara- 
tion of a fpecies of mofs produced by the rocks and {tone of the 
mountains, an elegant purple dye might be made. He eftabliihed 
a manufa&ure of this fubftance at Leith ; but its extenfiqn was 
cut off by his premature death in the year 1765. 

There^s a fountain of mineral water in th? parifli, of the fame 
kind with the wells of Pannanich : it is frequented by people fab* 
je£l tq gravel lifh diforders, and complaints in the fiomacb. 

At the end of Lochavon is a large natural cave, in a detached 

mafs of ftone, nearly 7 feet high and 12 in breadth. The cavity 

can contain 18 armed men. It is named ciachdhian, tkeji&ne of 

Jhelter. People often lodge, in it for a night, fotne from neceffity, 

Others inliunting and filing. 


Situation, Soil, Climate .]— The river Avon, having eft aped 
tnrough a narrow pafs from the parilh of Kirkmichael, holds on its 
courfe in the fame northerly dire&ion, through the midft of this 
parilh, for almoft 14 mijes, dafhing into the Spey about a mile 
higher up on that river than the church : the name of the parilh 
importing in the Gaelic this particular of the termination of the 
Avon, From the eaftern limits of Cromdale to the weSern hol- 
ders of Aberlaur, the length of the parifli along the Spey is 9 milef • 
The Avon having taken poffeffion of the foutherly quarter of this 
parilh for about the courfe of two miles, receives the ftream of the 

N n 2 Livet 


Livet from its own valley of Glenlivet, extending eafterly into the 
mountains with its lateral branches, the Tervie, Crombie, and 
Aultchoilnachan, for the fpace of 12 miles, forming a -detached 
diftrift of the pari(b. In the lower part of the country, the foil is 
light and dry; naturally producing broom; about the influx of the 
Livet, it is a fertile loam ; and higher up in this diftrift there is a 
marie pit : in fome places the foil is moorilh ; in others it is clay 
on a bed of limeftone : and every-where over the whole parift, 
there is abundance of peat earth, furnifhing in a dry feafon a^ fuf- 
fieient complement of fuel. Except one opening towards the 
north, where the country is waflied by the Spey, it is every-where 
environed by hills ; and the mountain of Benrinnefs, rifing on the 
eaftern border to the height of 2800 feet above the level of the fea, 
gives more caufe, in general, to complain of the excefs than of the 
deficiency of rain. On the banks of the Spey, and on the plains of 
Balhiajdallauch, the climate is early and moderate; it is colder in 
the higher diftrift of Glenlivet, the fnow lying oftentimes pretty 
deep in the fpring, when the fowing is diligently profecuted 

State of Property.*] — The family feat of Ballnadallauch (the 
to tun of the level vale), is pleafantly fituated on the banks of the 

, Avon, not farther from its confluence with the Spey than to main- 
tain the connection with both rivers. The exterior of the build- 
ing, and the artificial embellishment of the natural beauties, befpeak 
it the refidence of opulence united with the mod correft tafte: 

. the prefent great proprietor, General Grant, has expended almoS 
L.7000 fterling on decoration, united with permanent improve- 
ment. Similar to many of the feats of ancient families, the houfe 
was originally placed in the vicinity of very fwampy ground, which 
ha$ been completely laid dry by a number of coftly but perennial 
drains. He has enlarged the park over a great extent of wafte 
ground, rifmg on the eaftern fide of the valley, named badnagla- 
shan, the tufted boggy pajlurage, originally of no value, but now 
reduced to a ft ate of fuch complete cultivation as might be eafily 
let for a corn-farm of more-than L.200 fterling of rent, A long 
reach of an unfightly, precipitous, and craggy bank, which com- 
manded the principal front of the houfe, hath been clothed with 
the delicate and rich variety of verdure which a luxuriantly (hoot- 
ing grove of different fpecies of trees ean produce. The park ex- 

Chap. III.} PARISH OF mWftXVON. ' «7J 

tends up the Avon for a cortfiderable fpace, where it is terminated 
by a handfome bridge of thtee arches, connecting it with the other 
fide. The highway bends behind the eaftern limits of the park, 
acrofs the bridge, and down along the -margin of the weftern bank; 
exhibiting the delightful landscape below like a fair and animated 
painting, till it regains the lefs decorated country along the courfe 
of the Spey. In the cefs book of the county of Banff, the valued 
rent of the domain in this pariih, including that of Moreinch, Kii- 
maichly, and Pitchalhe," is L.1383. 6s. 8d. Scot?: but the houfe 
itfelf, with the park, and two or three of the adjoining farms, are 
placed, by their political connexion, in the county of Moray, 
valued at L.292. 8d. Scots. The reft of the parifh is the property 
of the Duke of Gordon, and in the county of Banff/ valued at 
L.2290 Scots: extending the total valuation to L.3965. 7*. 46. 
Scots. Though there are a number of the pofleflions but fmall, 
there are alfo many farms of very refpeftable extent. In the year 
1768, the real rent of the whole was proved in the Court of Tithes 
to be L.1148 fterling : fince that time it may have increafed nearly 
to the double of that amount. 

State EcdcfiafticaL~] — In the order followed in this undertaking*, 
- Inveraven falls into the firft place of the prelbytery of Aberlaur, 
which, as has been obferved, was ere&ed into a fepurate indepen- 
dent jurifdiQion from the prefbytery of Abernethy in the year 1709. 
Under the prelatjc difpenfation, Inveravon was the feat of the 
Chancellor of the diocefe. The ftipend, by decreet 1769, is L.jt . 
9$. and 48 bolls of meal, including the communion allowance. 
The glebe con fids of little more than 4 acres, of which a little lefs 
than 3 are arable. Sir James Grant of Grant, Bart, is the patron 
of the parifli. There is a commodious dated fchooLhoufe in the 
vicinity of the church: the falary is 12 bolls of oat-meal, with the 
fees of nearly 40 fcholars, and the emoluments of the office of fef- 
fion clerk. The Society for Chriftian Knowledge have eftablifhed 
a fchool in Glenlivet, migratory about $ miles from Defltie to Bad- 
navochle: the appointment is L.15 fterling. The number of fcho- 
lars vibrates from 20 to 90: but from the verfatile ftate of the 
:ftablifliment, it is not poffible that any ufeful knowledge can be 
ittained. The royal bounty fupports a miffionary clergyman in the 
liftriti of Glenlivet, with the pittance of L.25 : he conducts the 
ordinances of divine worlhip for 5 fucceeding Sundays at Auch- 


braek, aktut a i^ilqs above the influx of the Liyet ; and. on the 
fixth, at the diftance of 7 miles farther up among the hills, where 
the country is tbiftly peopled, where tjiere is np accommodatipn of 
a chapel, -where/one party is not pleafed, and where the other .is . 

In Glenlivet, alfo, there hw been a Korean Catholic eRabliCh- 
ment for almoft 100 years, on the banks of the Crombie, in a very 
fequeftered fituation among the mountains which feparate this dif- 
trift from the pariihes of Cabrach, Glenbucket, and Strathdon. It 
tvas chofen 09 the account pf its being fo much removed from 
, public view, ixu»thofe times when the Chriftians of the Church of 
Rome were, by the cjvil law qf Britain, and both its reformed 
churches, expofed to persecution. Its Gaelic appellation, scalar, 
implies an obfeurty orjhadowypl&cc; it may be tranflated* the dark, 
or gloomy land; and it denotes alfo the place where, in the days 
of other years, the hunter ; ftalked in arabufcade fpr the bounding 
roe pf the hill. 

The fchool is. properly the Bifhops feminary for edqeating a few 
of the Catholic youth in the principles of grammar and morality, 
and training them to a regularity of difcipline, in preparation for 
the colleges on the Continent ; where they are, in general, entered 
into ' holy orders ; although, on fome o'ecafions, the facrament of 
ordination has been adminiftered in the Scalan. The fchool at 
prefent contains from 8 to 12-ftudents, under the care of a clergy- 
man, who condufis-their education, and fuperintends the manage- 
ment of the farm and the houfe. It is now propofed to remove 
ihis feminary to the vicinity of Aberdeen; where it is to be efta- 
blifhed on a more refpeftable foundation, and conducted on a more 
enlarged and compreheftfive fcale., 

Upon the farm of Tombea, on the banks of the Livat, at the in-j 
flux of the Crombie, the paftor of the people of the Catholic 
communion refides; near his refidence, the chapel, a neat cleaa 
' flated fabric, is placed. 

The contributions for the poor from the parochial and miffioa-j 
ary churches amount to nearly. L.7 fterling in the year, diftributeA 
among 38 indigent individuals of the national Church. The Ra- 
man Catholics fupport their Own popr, by funds of their own for- 
mation. Their number is nearly equal to that of the pppr of tip 
Eftablifljment, the whole members of which amount to 1394, aqJ 


Chap* in.] *ARjsaor «v«iiAvoK.- ;; s8t , 

thofe of the Church of Rome, the Cftly diffeetfers* in the patiiH, 
are 850. . . -.' /'•;;•: ;.- «-:.:. . - .■ 

. MifcellancoHS Information i}^Ti^ proprietors, inattentive to 
their concern in the provifion eftablifiied by tHe ftattrtory law for 
the poor, difirGga*dcd an application ia< the year tjio by the feC 
Son, to take a loan at legal int£rteft of La 00 ftediflg^w cumulated 
by the moft' parfimoaious and frugal n^nagemenMnwrfciritted for 
thefpace of many years. The feffion theff€jf<fce difpofed of this 
capital,, with, the utmoft cauliog, between t^o T -g^i>tteiBbi ot land* 
ed property » in other parifiies : but though, j^ftl^clatfc^ no doubt, 
by their own provident addrefe, they' Were taught tHb mortifying 
teflon, that " riches, are not always to men *veto Qflfrrafa^arikag;" 
In a few years; the affairs of botfr debtors fell int^ diibnkr, and 
theiF capital was jn a great i$safureJpft. • \ ,nc:'~v::. 

•jft.ll the political evils which fo. gfeatly diftorfr the pafBng gene- 
ration, have been reduced un^er ttfo d#Te» — the uncertainty and 
coftof civil juftice* and the expense required for the fupport of 
government. In, what, manner theie caufes of complaint may be 
removed^ lies far beyond the feope of this Undertaking :« biat by the 
hiflory of Scotland in all ages>'k is Certain, that there has. been no* 
period in which the people, higji and low, of every rank, led their 
lives in mdre fecure or nw^e comfortable ckcumftances. The 
eveHtsof the difgu$^hi#oryottbe lavages of AbyiTinJa, rdated^fo 
circumftantially by Mr. Bruce, might, with a littlfr accommodation* 
be paralleled bythe tranfa&iona arpong our own aticeftors, front 
the carnage of Benwic by Edward I t -in the year 1^93, to the mat- 
{acre of Gleneo by ,King William in %6i)Or. The Kings and great 
men led their whole lives in an uncomfortable insecurity, and were 
for the moft part cut off by a violent death ; and the condition ot 
the inferior ranks; muft have been extremely miserable. While 
thfe mind* of all were debafed, under the dortrination of oppreffivw 
prieftcraft and gloomieft fppetftitipn, the fortunes, perfons, andr 
lives, of the people were fabjeft to the uncontrolled difpofal p£ 
their petty, though arbitrary chiefs-: their habitations, in cleahlinefe 
and accommodation, were not fnperior tcf the huts* of the moft fa- 
vage tribes ; thair furniture,. clc*hipg> and victuals, were mean and> 
wretched in the extreme ; and they were continually haraffed by 
the ^predatory and cruel wars of their rapacious and capricious 
lords'. This, parifli in. the year 15JJ4 was diflinguiflied by one of 



tbdfe events, the battle of' Gtenlivet, which in the prefent times 
would be accounted peculiarly outrageous. The extremely imbe- ' 
cile adminiftration of James Vl; had at that time involved the na- 
tion in the complicated misfortunes of the moft inveterate anarchy. 
The Church r with the prefumptibn not uncommon among upftafts, 
weairy intc*pof«d in the affairs of ftate> which- were at the fame 
embroiled by the contending interefts of difcordant nobles, and the 
imperious but fel&flv politics of the-Englilh Queen. Three noble- 
men^ the. Earls of Huntly, Enrol,' and Angus, from caufes unne- 
ceffary to be ftate&.hese, had ftill periifted in the religion of* their 
anceflors. 'By nbe incredible calumny of a confpiracy with the 
Spanifli Monarchy the King; obKged to fubniit'to the ne.ceflity of 
the times, relu&antly decreed their hiamflbment and forfeiture;, and 
excommunication, for the good otth^ir fouls, was added by the 
fentence of the Church. From a previous enmity to Huntly, the 
Earl of Argyle is appointed Tiis Majefty/s lieutenant to execute this 
mild correction, and hi& preparations for this holy war are aided 
and (purred on* by 'the pious endeavours of Bruce of Kinaird, a 
clergyman of Edinburgh. By their united influence, and the hope 
©f the plunder of the north, almoft 10,000 rapacious warriors from 
the Weftern Ifles, and all the eoaft from Cantyre to Lochaber, take 
the field. Elated with their own numbers, and gaping for the 
fpoil, they haften; on through Badenoch towards the richer region 
gf Strathbogie. In the vale of Glen-Kvet, their march is intercept- 
ed by a little band of fcarce 1200 cavalry, which Huntly and Er- 
idl were only able, on the fpur of the occafion, to mufter. It is 
rather common than furprifing, that an army prefumptuous from 
their number mould, by the refoloftion and caution 'of their con- 
temned foe, be foiled. The field of battle was the fouthern decli- 
vity of the valley, through which the brook of Aultchoilnachan 
winds its courfe, at the bottom of a heathy precipice almoft per- 
pendicular, upon the margin of which the forcfes of Argyle were 
marihaled, having the advantage of, their enemy oh the floprng 
ground below, which was however compenfated by the effect, of 
two fmall field pieces, almoft equally unknown among the forces 
of Argyle as among the p9wers of Montezuma, or the armies of 
Peru. The diforder which thefe occafioned was completed by the 
van, >of 400 of the moft- gallant horfemen, led round the end x>f the 
precipice by Errol, charging the footmen furioufly with the fpear. 


Cka}. m.J parish of knockanso. 283 

The left wing had been with6ut confederation entrufted to the com- 
-raand of a chief among the Grants, yet the vaflal and friend of 
Huritly/who, by a previous concert, turned, at this crifis of the 
Engagement, againft the centre, which was led on by Argyle him^ 
feif ; notwithstanding of which the battle for more than two hours 
was maintained : but the centre at laft gave way, under the vigour 
of Huntly's attack : their rout left the van or right wing,, which 
had commenced the fight,, unfupported, which retreated unbroken 
and in order, though their leader, the chieftain of the Macleans of 
Mull, was flain. The attempt of Argyle to rally was in vain ; and 
the whole of their baggage, the greater part of their arms, and more 
than 700 flain, were left upon the field, while 12 only of the op- 
pofing party fell. The carnage of tHe purfuit was prevented by 
the roughnels of the ground. The whole country around was by 
this viftory delivered from rapine and deftruclion. The anceftdr 
of the Abyffinian traveller was grieved, and thd King fecrctly re- 




Situation, Soil, Climate."]- — The parifh extends 15 niiles along 
the north fide of the Spey, from Cromdale at the weft to the lower 
Craig- Eiachy, which terminates the diftricl: of Strath fpey at the 
eaft, on the borders of the pari(h of Rothes. It is fcparated from 
lnveravon by the river, and extends northwards into the hills 
about 6 miles, to the limits of Dollas and Birnie. 

The foil, along the banks of the river, and by the fides of the 
brooks winding through the hills from the weft and north, is a 
fandy gravel ; in other fituations, it is a deep wet clay ; a very 
great proportion is of moorifh quality, and wet : there is naturally 
to little mixture of calcareous earth, that no part, without the ap* 
plication of lime, will produce bear, clover, or peafc. In the 
higher part of the diftrifl, a boll of bear, in common, is but half 
the weight of that quantity raifed upon the coaft; and if requires 
two bolls of the oats to yield one of meal. 

The climate is -healthful: but, from its general elevation, and the 

Q a fwarapy 


fwarapy quality of fo great a proportion of the furface, it is fcvere 
and cold ; heavy nmis falling in the fpring and autumn, and much 
froft and fnow prevailing in the winter months. 

State of Property.] — The valued rent of the parifh amounts to 
L.1987. 18s. lod. of which Robert Grant Efq. holds L.1247. 
7s. 4d. for Wefter Elchies, Ballnatorn, and Knockando. The 
family feat is at Wefter. Elchies ; where improvements have been 
for fometime begun, and are making a gradual advance. A village 
was built on the moor of Ballnatorn, about the year 1760, by Sir 4 
Archibald Grant of Monymufk, and fome improvement, to the 
extent of about 24 acres, at the fir ft was made : but inftead of con- 
tinuing progrefliye, it has for feveral years been rather retrograde; 
the roads, only formed, not completed, have fallen into fo much 
difrepair, that to a wheel carriage the village is only acceflible 
from the eaft ; by the fouth and weft roads, the approach on horfe- 
back requires the moft careful cincumfpe&ion. By an accidental 
fire, fome years ago, many of the iioufes were confumed, and their 
naked rooflefs walls fuggeft the idea of Tadmor in the defert, or of 
fome other eaftern city, on which judgment denounced by fome 
ancient prophet hath been in part accomplished, for it dill retains 
the number of about fourfcore worthy inhabitants. 

General Grant of Ballnadallach has Kirkdales, Glenarder, Pit- 
croy, and Delnapot, at L.426. 10s. and the Earl of Findlater has 
Eafter Elchies., at L.314. is. 6d. Knpckando and Eafter Elchies 
were onGe the manfions of their refpeclive owners, and are flill 
embellifhed by manor houfcs, gardens, and plantations. Some of 
the farms are of confiderable extent; but, in general, they do not 
much exceed 30 arable a£res. The real rent, including 
arifing from the falmon fifhery, may be eftimated about L.2000 
jfterling: cultivated by 150 ploughs: and the beft arable acre is 
valued at 14s. The parifh fupports about 300 hones, 3000 cattle, 
and 5000 flieep. 

State Ecclejiajlical.~\ — The parifh of Macallan, that is, St. Colin, 
comprifed in Eafter and Wefter Elchies, was united to Knockando 
during the regency of the EarJ of Morton ; they were again dif- 
joined during the eftablifhment of prelacy, for 16 years prior to the 
revolution : fince which, they have made one parifh under the name 
of Knockando, (ignifying in the Gaelic the market hilL The fti- 
pend is L.93. 5?. 6d. and 27 bolls of meaL The glebe is 16 acres, 

Chap. III.] *AMSH OF AB&RLAUfL 285 

of which 11 arc arable. The right of patronage appertains to Sir 
James Grant of Grant. The falary of the parochial fchool is 10 
bolls of meal, and L.2 fterling, the value of the office of feffion 
clerk, and the cuftomary fees of about 40 fcholars. The Society fur 
Chriftian Knowledge have eftablifhed a fchool in Ballnatom, for 
the accommodation of the eaftern quarter of the parifh. The num- 
ber of the poor on the feffion roll is so : *he fund for their fupport 
arifes from the contributions made by the families in their aflemblies 
for public worfhip, about L.6 fterlirxg in the year, and as much, 
the intereft of a bequeathment under the care of the feffion. The 
whole inhabitants are of the national Church, amounting to 1500. • 
Mifcdlaneous Information.'] — The people are, in general, fober, 
difcreet, and very ^economical, but deficient in the article of in- 
duftry. The navigation of timber in rafts* from Strathfpey to Gar- 
mach is frequently undertaken by fome of them. They make a 
journey to the foreft, and conduft the raft by 2 men to Garmacb, 
returning home generally within the week, at the medium hire of 
2 guineas for each trip ; of *which js. and maintenance is allowed 
by the-mafter-floater to his coadjutor, generally a young man learn- 
ing the bufinefs, »At the rock of Tomdow, in this parifh., the 
river dafhes with fuch rapidity at right angles again ft the cliff, that 
by the violence of the collifion the rafts were lhattered. To avoid 
this charybdis, the York Building Company, when eftablifhed at 
Coulnacoill, cut a new channel along the hypothenufe, and by this 
courfe the floating bufinefs is ftill carried on. Capt. Shank of the 
navy refided at Knockando-houfe in the year 1786 ; after having 

* maturely confidered the courfe of ».he Spey, he would have under- 
taken to render the river navigable, for flat -bottomed veffels of 40 
tons, from its influx up to Grantown : but there being no trade 
or manufa&ure adequate to the expence, the execution, if practi- 
cable, muft be deferred till fome future age, when the fuperior im* 

jprovement of the country may require fuch accommodation. 



Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — Aberlaur extends 9 miles from the 
borders of Inveravon on the weft, along the fouthern tank of the 

Qoa Spey 


Spey, to the influx of the Fiddich at„the eftft, on the bQrders-of 
Boharm; there fprcading backward about a mile of Arable ground, 
it rife* to the fummit of the Conval hills, by whkh it is feparated 
from Mortlach ; it gradually increafes its breadth to the weftern 
frontier, where it i6 nearly equal to its length. The narrow vale 
of ,Glenrinefs may be regarded *s a continuation of the parifli of 
Mortlach ; it is detached from the body of -this parifh by the moun- 

m tain of Benrinefs, between which and the Convals a narrow pafs 
opens a level communication ; the bro&k Dulnan winds in its bot- 
tom, apd its northern fide only appertains to the parifli of Aber, 
laur. • ■ . . x . 

... The foil uppn the river is a light mould upon a bed of fand* 
and as the country extends back toward the hills, it becomes a deep 
clay. The clirnate, on the whole, is temperate ; along the river it 
is warm, a^nd the. harvefts are more early than in Glenrinefs, where 
there is neveT accafion to complain -for want of rain, 

Siate of Property.'] — The parifli appertains to five proprietors. 
The only family feat is Aberlaiir, the eftate of Patrick Gordon Efq. 
and the manfipn of his anceftors ; it is embelliftied by a garden, en- 
clofed fields, with fome natural and fome planted wood. The 
valued rent is* L-250 Scots. Edinvillic is the property of David 
•Macdowal Grant of Arndilly ; it isalfo improved by a commodious 
houfe, well cultivated fields, and fome natural wood. The valued 
rent is L.35Q. The eftate o£ Carron is the property of Robert 
Grant of Elchies Efq. from which it is feparated only by the river: 
having been once a family feat, it Hill difplays a handforrie manfion 
houfe, gardens, enclofed fields, and plantation. The valued rent 
is- L.4C0. Except the Earl of Findlater's property of Mudhoufe, 
valued at L.50, the reft of the parifli appertains to the Earl of Fife, 
at the valuation of L.1167: extending the total valuation of the 
parifli to L.2217 Scots. There are feveral farms of confiderabfe 
extent, from 1^40 to aboutiL.70 fterling of rent : but the parifli is 
generally occupied in fmall poffeflions, from about L.5 to about 
L.16 fterling of rent ; and the mean rent of the acre may be efti- 
mated at 14s. ' 

State Ecclejiaflical.~\ — The ancient name of the parifli was skir- 

-durst an, literaljy St. Durftan's Jhire, or divijton, from the ! 
original Gaelic, Signifying to cut, there being no word in that Ian- ] 
guage anfwering more nearly to that of parifli. The xhurch, ? j 

mean I 


dap. HI.] * PARISH OF ABERLAU*. , *9f 

Bean ancient fabrick, is fituate^ near the influx of a considerable 
A rumbling dream, as its prefent appellation imports. 
The ftipend is L.,58. 6s. 8d. and 18 bolls of rncal. The glebe is 
raw 6 acres, of which nearly 5 are under the plough. The Earl 
rf Fife is the patron. 
In the valley of Glenrinefs, there is a miffionary eftablifhmenf, 
r the accommodation of the remote extremities of Aberlaur and 
tfortlach, with an appointment by the royal bounty of L.30 yearly, 
he fchool is in the vicinity of the church, a commodious building, 
oored arid -finifhed within. The landholders of the parifli have 
teen in the ufe of paying to Mr. Hall, the prefent incumbent, 
bout L. 11 fterfing 0/ falary, which, with L.i as the- fee of the 
fcffion clerk,, and the perquifites of that office, and the cuftomary 
ttes of payment, makes the appointment equal to about L.20 yearly; 
is the fchool retains about 30 fcholars. 

tThe Society for Chriftian Knowledge once eftablifhed a fchool 
Glenrinefs, adding thereby a great accommodation to that fe- 
qeftered diftriQ ; but the landholders refuting to countenance the 
(tablifhroent, by the petty . conveniences which the rules of the 
Society require, it has been for fome time wholly withdrawn. 
Tfie number of the poor enrolled is 21 : the provifion for their 
import arifes from the money contributed by the people who at- 
end the church, about L.5 yearly; and fundry bcquearhments, 
fith favings by the feflion in times of plenty, have created a fund 
It interett producing yearly L.4. 8s. and 3J bolls of meal, and a 
bail fum retained for anfwering urgent exigencies. The mem- 
bers of the national Church are 910; and the DifTenters 11, of 
ke Church of Rome, 

. Mifcdtaneous Information.'] — On the ftream which pafles by the 
fhurch, a little farther up, there is a pretty water-fall, of confidcr- 
tion in this quarter of the country. The dream precipitates itfelf 
torn an height of 30 feet, and, broken in its fall, dairies into a 
loomy circular pool of unknown depth, environed by a rocky 
bound more than twice the height of the fall. The bafon below 
Is eafily acceflible ; and the furrounding rock, by reverberating, 
tncreafes greatly the din. v 

L The people, with anticipated fatisfaelion, contemplate two great 
tiromifed accommodations — a poll office at Aberlaur, and a bridge 
►ver the Spey, a little farther up than the church. By thefe, it 



is certain, the ftate of the country all around will, in a {hort time> 
be improved in a variety of circumftances, beyond what could be 
at prefent believed. • > 

The fentiments and. manners of the people are in no refpefi dif* 
ferent from thofe of their neighbours in the adjoining parifhes. 


Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — The principal part of this parifh is 
a valley nearly parallel to the courfe of the Spey, extending eafl- 
ward from the eaftern quarter of Inveravon, along the fouthern 
fide of Aberjaur, from which it is feparated by a ridge of moun- 
tain, raifed into three high rounded fummiu, named *he^ Conval 
Hills. Through this valley, the ftream of Dullan hold* a ilraight 
and, as its name imports, a rapid courfe, until near-its termination . 
in the Spey ; where, bent almoft into a right angle, it turns acroft 
the end of the Conval Hills from fouth to north : but having run 
about tworthirds of its courfe, it rcfigns its name to another ftream, 
the Fiddich; which, rifing near the eaftern borders of the parifb of \ 
inverayon, occupies the bottom of a woody vale, as its name im- 
ports, nearly parallel to that of Dalian : at the diftance of 3 miles oa 
the fouth, acrofs this fpace, turning tlireft, it haftens to join its 
neighbour with both its water and its wood, forming the country 
together into the figure of the letter [la] inverted, as thus [q]. But 
to the parifh another vale appertains, ftretched toward? the foutb- 
eaft, from the other fide of the hill which bends the courfe of the. 
Fiddich : through this vale, the brook of Marky winds down to the 
river Dovern ; which there, for almoft a quarter of a mile, forms 1 
the limit of the parifh, and bounds the county of Banff with that of I 
Aberdeen, enlarging the form of the parifh to fom^thing refembling i 
the capital letter [K]. Its greateft. length, along the courfe of the j 
Dullari, is about 12 miles ; and the breadth, over Glenfiddich and I 
Glenrinefs, is not lefs than 6. No alteration either in the natural i 
appearance of the country, or in its name, has taken place for more 1 
than 8co years, Iji the charter granted by Malcolm H, about thei 

vcar j 

Ciap.m.] . PARISH OF MORTLACH. 2%$ 

par ioio, to the.firft biihqp of this ancient fee, its name is written 
IURTHLAG, nearly the fame as at prefent ; but its etymology is not 
fcertained. Mortis lacus, the death lake, is intitled to equal 
ifpecl only with the burlefque derivations of the Dean of St. 
Wrick : the more probable Gaelic fource, which makes the name 
(Dply the great hollow,, is neither fatisfaftory in found conftruftion 
tor in comparative fignifi cation, as the hollow, in all of the fix fur- 
Winding parifhes is of as great or greater extent than here. The 
rable fields may be from 4 to 5000 acres : they lie, in general, 
Hetty high along the Dullan and the Fiddich, and the banks of the 
rook of Marky, disjoined from the reft of the parifh. The (loping 
ties of the rills which fall into thefe ftreams, and the more gentle 
fcclivities of the mountains, are alfo partly under cultivation* 
here are fpme little plains along the windings of the ftreams, but 
cy are not confiderable. The extent of meadow grafs.and coarfer 
tfturage, with the moor and heath- covered hills, may amount tq 
irenty times as much as the cultivated field. The foil, for the 
&ft part, is a deep fertile loamy clay ; the exceptions of its in- 
jning in fome places to a fandy or a mooriih foil, fcarcely merits: 
lice. The air is pure and wholefome, though rather moift than 
fair weather is f6metimes" enjoyed on the farms below, whea 
;«, or /bowers of rain, or of fnow, are gloomily chilling on the 
punding heights above. Its political fituation places it in the 
rtty of Banff: in the ecclefiaftical view, it is under the jurif- 
on of the prefbytery of Strathbogie, the commiflariot of Aber- 
n, and the fynod of Moray. ' 

x tate of Property^ — The parifh is the property of five proprie- 
The Earl of Fife has the lordlhip of Balvenie, on which there 
ample handfooe regular modern feat, fituated in a wide ppen-t 
of the vale, upon the banks of the fiddich, after its union with 
Dullan, in a plain at the bottom of the eminence which is oc- 
ied by the old caftle. To his Lordfhip alfo pertains Glenmar-. 
Erdinglaffy, and Dullanfide, valued altogether in the cefs roll 
he county of Banff at L.1920 Scots. . The Duke of Gordon, 
the lordlhip of Auchradun, Glenfiddich, with a commodious, 
►ting feat, and Glenrinefs, amounting altogether to the valua- 
of L.1620 Scots. James Leflie Efq. holds the barony of Ki- 
le and the lands -of Tullich, a valuation of L.450 Scots, and 
teles in the manor houfc of Kininvie, the coicmydious habiu-, 


2<p PRXSEtft StArt OF THfc PR<*VINCE. .{Cfia'f* lit 

lion of his very remote anceftors. The final! property of fiuchi 
fame is a part of theeftate of Andrew Steuart of Auchlunkart £f<j< 
valued at L.90 Scots; and the farm of Lochend, on the confine! 
of the parilh of Bcgriphnie, a part of the eftate of Duff of Drurnuirj 
is valued at L.20 Scots ; making the whole valued rent of the pa 
riih amount to the fum of L.4100 Scots. The farms are uneqitil 
in extent, from a rent of L.g to L.80 fteYling. The mean rent d 
the acre is about 15s, 

State Ecclefiajlical^ — The church is fituated on the bank of th 
Dullan, a little above its confluence with Fiddich. It is venerabfi 
merely on account of its age. It is the cathedral of the feconi 
bifhopric of Scotland : its walls are fuppofed to have flood finci 
the beginning of the eleventh century, and they are flill deemed ti 
be more durable than any building of the prefent day. They havi 
hone of that magnificence or elegant decoration of the cathedral 
of fucceeding ages: the fimplicity of the doors and windows, am 
of the whole edifice; bears witnefs to its age : the windows are naf 
row flits, 6 feet in height, and only 10 inches wide on the outfit 
but Hoped fo much as to raeafure 12 feet wide within. It is gi 
feet in length, and «$ in breadth, having 27 feet in the eaft ed 
where no doubt the choir and altar were, a few feet higher than th 
reft of the building. The bodies of Bean, the firftbiftop, Donoi 
tius/the fecond, and Cormac, the thh'd,. are fuppofed to be her 
interred. Nefian, the fourth, in the 14th year of his incumbencj 
.was tranflated by David I. to' Aberdeen, which, then becomingtl 
feat of the diocefe, aflumed alfo the name, having remained i 
Mortlach for the fpace of 129 years after its erection in the yea 
. ioio. Its revenue here was but fmall, comprehending only tl 
^churches of Mortlach, Cloyeth, and Dalmeth, with all their lam 
The glebe on which the manfe is placed is clofe By the church, ei 
tending to 6 acres, and comprehending a fmall orchard and kitcfa 
garden. The patronage belongs to the Cfown, and the ftipendf 
L.63. fis. fterling, and 16 bolls bear and 32 of meal, in which 
.allowance for the communion is included. The whole emof 
ixients of the fchoolmafter (the falary, an annual donation, bequeaf 
ed by Duff of Dipple," the fees, and the perquifites of the office 
' feflion clerk,) do not exceed 20 guineas a-year, for which 40 fcfo 
lars have a refpeftable mediocrity of education. Dr. Alex. Md 
of St. Croix, a n,ative ; and for fome tftne the fchoolmafter of i 


Chap. Jtl.} * PARISH OF taORTLACfr.' *<)1 

parifh, bequeathed L.6ck> fterlingi to the care of the Profeflbrs of 
King's College, Aberdeen, for completing the education in that 
Univerfityof 4 boys taught in this fchool, which muft be certified 
by the minifter, the donation being fo adjufted as to have one of 
the 4 boys beginning with it each year ; and if 2 or more apply to- 
•getherj the bell fcholar is preferred. This endowment has conti- 
nued alirioft 40 years, and though inadequate now to defray the 
whole expence at Aberdeen, has been of important fervice to matiy 
♦ of the youth of this parifh. 

The fund for the fupport of the poor confifts partly of the fum 

* of L.4. 3s. 4d. being the yearly intereft of a capital bequeathed alfo 

by Dipple, who, by his endowments for the fupport of thefchools, 

and provifions of this kind in the parifhes in which his property 

lay, fhowed the kindeft and raoft liberal attention both to the minds 

and to the bodies of the poor. To this fum, which was of great 

1 confideration in the ?ge in which it was bequeathed* the tenants 

and their families who attend the church make, hy their weekly 

contributions, the addition of about L.16 more; from which, not 

what can be fuppofed a fubfiftence, but a fcanty aid, is derived for 

the fupport of 60 of their indigent neighbours, the number of poor 

on the roll of the books of the church feffion. The members of 

the EftabliQied Church are 1837; and there are 43 Seceders, 37 

. Roman Catholics, and 1 Epifcopalian, 

Mifctllanibus Information^ — The people, with a few excep- 
tions, are and long have been honeft, induftrious, fober, and 
humane, attached to the Britilh conflitution, and decent in their 
attendance on the ordinances of religion : in general, they are dif- 
pofed to cheerfulnefs and contentment, but keenly alive to the 
fenfe of injuftice' or oppreffion : they are not fond of a military 
life, and the bufinefs of a foldier is in low eftimarion among them, 
being regarded as diffipated, flavifh, and poor. It is frequently ob- 
served, that there was greater plenty of all kinds of game befor« 
the legal prohibitions had effeft, as every one had then an interred 
in deftroying thofe\ animals that prey upon them fo much more 
fuccefsfully than man, and in taking care alfo of the eggs, and of 
the young, about which they are now carelefs, at leaft, and indif- 
ferent. In the vicinity of the Duke of Gordon's feat in Glenfid-* 
dich, there is a great extent of fine natural birch wood, the refi- 
dencc of more than 1000 deer and roe, the natural and ancient in- 

Pp habitants 


« habitants of the foreft* Balvcnie Caftle, in tfce Jower end of the 
country, is embellished alfo by much natural .wood on the banks of 
the Fiddich, chiefly aller, among which the elm, plane, and oak, 
profper; the afli alfo (hoots luxuriantly, and feems natural to the 

.foil; and a great variety of flowering fhrubs appear arpopg tftf 
trees, the natives of the place. There are, befides, feveral exten r 
five plantations of Scots fir upon the property of Buchrome, and 
on that of the Earl of Fife, on the whole nearly 400 acres. An 
arable and very fertile field, a (loping bank in the park around the 
caftle, planted with fir, when if was built about 70 years ago, \$ now 
become fine timber full grown. In that agc„ it was the opinion thaf 
rich foil was requifite for fuch plantations; but the other grpves* 
"which at pre fen t decorate fo much of the inarable wafte around, 
fefem no.w to require that this field, denominated from its ferti^ 
lity the granary of. the farm to which it appertains, fhould be again, 
reftored to the more indifpenfable productions of the plough. There 
are feveral chalybeate fprings : one, near the old caftle of Auqhna- 
dun, has been found by a chymical examination to referable th$ 
Peterhead water, and to be as light as it : they are of ufe ip gra- 
velifh complaints, andjn diforders of the ftomach. In the wood 
alfo about Kininvie-houfe, there \s a fpring of a petrifying quality. 
On this eftate alfo, in the banks of a brook a.t TuHich, there is the 
appearance of alum, vitriol, and lead. There i$ every -where, plenty 
of ftone for building, and fome quarries ajfo of pretty good flate, of 
a grey colour, and over all the country exhauftlefs treasures of lime^ 
ftone, locked up almoft from the farmer, merely by the expence of 
fuel. There is marble alfo in the banks .of both the ftreams, an4 
in one place a laminated roxk is fit for whetftone and hones. It 
was in this parifh that Malcolm LL in the year ioiol, gained that 
v:6tory oyer the Danes ^Yhich terminated their depredations in the 
kingdom. This event, fo important then, makes the place to be 
refpefted as claflic ground. In the preceding year Malcolm ha4 
been wounded, defeated, a.nd Qbliged to leave the Danes in poflef- 
fion of the coaft of Moray. Returning with a more powerful 
army, the intruders, , informed of his approach, folicitous to pre- 
vent his arrival in the open country, move forward to oppofe him- 
in the hills. The battle is begun near the church of Mortlach l ia 
the beginning of the attack, wh^n puihing on with over-ardent im- 
petuosity, three thanes, Kenneth of the Ifles, , Du.n^ar of Lothian, axid 

. • v GraeniQ 

£hafin.] frAftisa ofr MdRtLACH. . *93 

Graeme of Strathem, are flain ; and the Scots, thereby {truck With 
panic, are hurried into flight. The King, relu&an'tly boi*ne alon'g 
'by the frighted crowd, paffes by the church dedicated to St. M'd- 
Jocus, and gains the heighjt of a fteep and narrow pafs, near its 
wefteru end. Here, by the fituation of the ground, he is enabled 
to fcop, affd to colleft his broken hoft, which reanimated by confi- 
dence ra the aid of the faint; procured on the occafion by the King's , ^ 
vow of enlarging the chapel by three lengths of his fpear, and hav- 
ing* now alfa the advantage of the ground, they turn with' e nth tifr- 
afm on the foe difarrayed by their puffuit. Eriecus, their" leader, 
is* flain by the prowefs alone of the King, and the Danes in theft: 
turn- fly; but their rout is final and complete, although they alfo 
attempted to rally on the eminence oppofite on the eaft, near to'the 
old caftle of Balvenie, a fjort .being mentioned as near the field of 
.of battle. Many monuments of this victory remain : an retrench- 
ment, yet diftinft on the ldWeft fummit of the Conval hills, is' ftill 
known as the Danifti camp : a bulky cylindrical ftdne, placed over 
the grave of Enectls, was only of late rolled a few yards off its fta- ■ 
tion at the corpfe, for building the fence of a corn-field. At a 
very little di dance" from the chieftain's grave, on the foutb, near to 
the, north- weft v corner of the plantation of Tomnamuid, a fmalL 
fquared fpot of ground has be'en ever recognized as the common. 
grave of the Slaughtered Danes. The addition to the weft end of 
the cKurch, 24 feet in length, the triple meafure of Malcolm's 
fpear, in the performance of his vow, is ftill obvioufly diftincl: ; 
and three holes in this votive addition ftill record the barbarous 
Tiuroph with which the heads* of three Danes of diftin&ion haft 
>een there originally placed. It is hardly 30 years ago fince the* 
aft mouldered' aWay. An oibelifk, raifed on the glebe on the bapk 
»f the Dullan, about 6 feet in height, the fculpture on its two op- 
ofite fides now nearly by time effaced, hath almoft ceafed to tell 
fie purpofe of its own %r eft ion : and to thefe it may be added* that 
uman bones, broken fabres, and pieces of other ancient armoury 
ave from time to time been accidentally difcovered; and about 40 
ears ago, .a chain of gold, fuppofed to have been the ornament of 
uxie chieftain's neck, was by the plough turned up on the glebe, 
* .the ftratagem of damming up the Dullan, where its channel 
rough & rock is contracted, to the fpan of the ftream, for difcharg* 
gp an artificial torrent on the unfufpe£iing Danes below, and 
.' . . P f 2 . , thereby 

294 present state; or the province. [Chap, m- 

thereby dividing their ftxength, had been at any time pra&i fed, k 
xnuft,have been on fome other occafion than that of this engage* 
ment : if an enemy could be by thefe means furprifed, the facility 
with which it might be accomplifhed might, naturally fuggeft fuch 
a fimple expedient. 

Inihe hiftory of this pariflx, another occurrence may be mentioned. 
Although the intereft of King James in Scotland became evidently 
defperate, qn the death of Vifcount Dundee in the battle of Killi- 
cranky in 1689,' yet, in a council of the Jacobite chiefs in the be- 
ginning of the year thereafter, it was determined to attempt another 
campaign; and until the feed fcafon fhould be completed, when 
.greater numbers might be raifed, a party of 1500 men was fent 
down to employ and fatigue the revolutionary troops. They plun- 
dered the country through "which they marched, and burnt the 
houfe of Edinglaflie, at, that time the property of Mr*. Gordon, who 
lying in wait, for their return, a few weeks afterwards, feized at 
random 18 of the flragglers, whom he immediately hanged on the 
trees of his garden. They were buried together in a corner of the 
r.careft wafte, ftill diftinguiflied by the name of the Highlandmen s. 
mojjie. The mild and equitable fentiments of the pafling genera- 
tion may be fhocked by fuch inftances of unjuft and favage barba- 
rity ; but the many examples of the deepeft calamity which have 
now been fo long exhibited in 'France, prove, that in the convni- 
fions of civil war and internal diftra£lion;< rage and the moil atro- 
cious cruelty will for ever prevail, and the moil unfeeling and re- 
lentlefs barbarity will be- the certain portion of -numbers, hot only 
of the unprotected or of the bafe, but of the moil refpe&able alfo 
and moft worthy of the people, without diftin&ion, in ,every na- 
tion whom Providence may fee meet to chaftife with the- horrible 
vifitation of 'a. revolutionary civil war. 


Situation, Soil, Climate.'}-— Bocharn, the ancient name, in the 
Gaelic denotes, in Qne refpeft, the fituation of theparifh, the beni- 
ing ahut the hill, lying around the eaftern fide of the hill of Be- 


Chap\ III.] , PARISH OF BOHARM* 555 

ncagen, from the river £pey at the fouth, till it meets the river 
again on the northern end of the mountain ; it$ breadth ftretches 
back to Botriphnie and Jyeith, and its length extends to Bellfe, 
from the confines of Mortlach. and Aberlaur. The country behind 
the mountain may be conceived as an extenfive valley, having all 
the arable land hanging on the acclivities of both fides of the rivu- 
lets which wind their courfes from the middle of the dale to the 
river at either end of tHe mountain. The foil on the banks of the 
river may be accounted fandy, light, and warm; on the eaftern 
fide of the hill", it is a ftiff, deep, wet clay, generally on a bed of 
lime-ftone. The climatd alfo, like the foil, is cold and wet: the 
• clouds, bprne aloft from the ocean, appear fometimes as if attra&ei 
by the mountain, and at other times as if dafhed upon its fummit 
by the winds from the north, or from the north-weft. The feed- 
time can feldom be commenced till the fpring be well advanced: 
and, in general, the feafon of harveft encroaches far upon the 

State of Property.'] — The parifh is poffeffed by 4 proprietors. 
In its fputhern quarter, (heltered from the eaft and north, by a cur- 
vature of the mountain, is the family feat of Arntfilly, the property , 
of David Macdowal Grant Efq. a magnificent modern houfe, mak- 
ing the front of a fmall court of lower buildings ; it is pleafantly 
fituated on an elevated ground, riling from a pretty extenfive plain, 
which has the river winding around it; the plantations ftretch be- 
hind upon the (ides of the mountain, farther than the houfe on either 
quarter commands, prefenting a pleafant riding of feveral miles, 
diverfified by the different fweeps of the river, and the fertile 
plains of Rothes on the farther fide ; while the ornamented banks 
of a brook, gufliing from the angle of the mountain, with the gar- 
dens and enclofed fields, add to the natural beauties of this elegant 
fituation. The valued rent of the whole domain in the parifli, Pa- 
peen, Newtown, Galdwal, and Auchrnadies, amount to L.840 Scots. 
The barony of Auchluncart, with the family feat, recently improved 
into the elegance of modern fafliion, with the convenience of a. 
kitchen garden, and the fhelter of a little grove, is the property of 
Andrew Steuart Efq. writer to the fignet, amounting" to the valu- 
ation of L.i 000. The farm of Knockan, a part of the eftate of 
John Duff of Drummuir, which has run over the hill from the pa- , 
rifli of Botriphnie, is valued at L.100. The reft of the parifli ap- 

ft9$ , PRESENT STATE- OF THE PROVINCE. \Ckap r . lift 

pertain* to tho> Earl of Findlafer, of which the valuation only of i 
the lands of Boat of 'Brigg, amounting to L.too, is within the 
county o£ Banff; the lands of Cairnty, Auchroflt, Muldferies, and 
Mulbcn, amounting to L. 1437. 9s. 2d. belongs to the county of 
Moray : extending the total valuation of the pariih to the fum of 
L.3577. 9s. 2d. Scots, The farms are, in general, of confiderable, 
though of various extent. The average rent of the acre of the 
arable land may be eftimated at 18s. 

State EcclefiafticaL — In Roman Catholic times there were 'three, 
chapels in the parifh of Boharm: St. Nicholas at the Boat of Brigg; 
the chapel at the.Caftle of Galival, and the third at Arndilly, then 
named Artendol. St. Nicholas, it may be prefumed, was fupprefled 
and added to Dundurcos about the Reformation; and there i$ rea- 
fon to believe, that Arndilly and the diftrift of Galival were 
formed into the parifh of Boharm prior to the y£ar 161?. In the 
year 1682, Dundurcos being, fuppreffed, the territory of St. Ni* 
cholas was then conjoined : and of late a new church has been 
built, about 3 miles eaftward from the old iabrick, in a fitOatipn 
pretty centrical to the prefent parifh ; where the glebe, about 3d 
acres, has been alfo allocated, and the refidence henceforth fixed* 
The value of the living, as prefently conftitutedi is L.44, and 7a 
bolls in bear and meal. The right of -patronage, appertains to the 
Earl of Fife,; hut the Crown has obtained a (hare by the annexa- 
tion from Dundurcos. The fchool has not been in a floUrifhing 
ftate for many years; a forry cottage,, is incommodioufly fituated 
behind the old church* The faiary is only a wretched pittance of 
L.£. lis. about half the wages of an ordinary, farrrt fervant, as the 
fees of teaching, and the whole emoluments of the office of feflion 
clerk, about L.3. 10s, do riot defray the expence of daily bread 

The number of the poor is about 26 : andthe provifion for their 
fupport, contributed in the church in the ufual manner, with jos. 
ar^ancient yearly endowment in the pariih of Duncturcos, amounts 
to nearly L.7 in whole. The number-of the people is about 1300; < 
and, except thofe.who occafionally fupport the vagabonds that' ply 
about the old church of Dundurcos, they- are all of the national 


Chafim**] • f»A$isu o* keith* * - £<# 


Stuqtioii, Soil, Climate."] — This parifli f weeps in 'the feftion of 
an oval ajong tfie'eaftern fide of Bo harm, and the fouthern border 
of Bellie; rnaking the church the centre, a radius of 9 miles will 
nearly defcribe its boundary. Ghaith, the name in the original 
CJaelic, fignifies, wind; in fome old charters it is written gith; 
vrbich word, corrupted differently in the pronunciation,^ enters 
into the corapofitioirof the names of many places ; fuch as the Bog 
of Gight, the original name of Gordon Caftle, Gight, Airdgay, 
Edmgejth, and Ballnageith: there is- however nothing. in the na- 
tural fituarion G f any qf thefe places which makes fuch a denomi- 
nation peculiarly appropriate. Similar to its neighbours, Boharm* 
and Beliie, Keith is alfo parted* between the counties of Moray 
and Banff: and it may be noticed, that where the highway toEdin- 
• burgh and Aberdeen is cqnxlu&ed by the church, and through the 
village, nfcar the centre, as has been faid of the parifh, the county 
L of Banff cprnpreffed on {he north by Moray, and on the fouth by 
Aberdeen, is limited to the breadth of only 3 miles, and in ks ge- 
neral outline would refemble an hour glafs, fave that the eaftern 
divifion from Keith to the fea is every-way of greater extent than 
the others which is terminated among the mountains on the weft, 
where the county of Inverness borders, with that of Aberdeen. 

v The foil of this parilh, in general, may be accounted a deep fer- . 
tile loam, and, firnilar to the greater part of the county of Banff, 
incumbent on lime-'ftone; inclining in fome places to clay, and in 
fpme of the higher grounds to moorifh gravel. The parifh may he 
4efcribed as a feSion of a long valley called Stratbifla. In fuch a . 
Juuation, as the^hiU on the fouthern ffde rifes pretty high, the 
climate, in general, Is moift: rain frequently falls. The foil is 
extr;e*r\ely retentive of water ; and, in the winter months, the fnow 
jften lies for feveral weeks together. The roads, though not ' 
wholly negk&ed* are always much broke; and during open wea- 
ker in winter, and in the fpring, they are for wheel -carriages al- 
h^oH impaffable. 
$ta,£e of Property..'] — Thfl extent of the parifh is fliared among 5 



proprietors. The only family feat is that of Birkenburn, the pro- 
perty of John Steuart Efq. where a neat houfe, the habitation of 
his anceftprs, is embelliflied by a garden, enclofures, and a natu- 
ral wood along the fteep banks of a winding brook, improved by 
inter fper fed plantation. The valued rent is,L-8o. John Gordon 
of Grievefhip Efq. of the parifli of Forres, holds Edintore, the in- 
heritance of his remote anceftors for many generations, valued at 
L.ico. To the barony of Milltown, anciently the property of 
Lord Oliphant, comprehending alfo the villages of Old and New 
Jyeith, the Earl of Findlafter has conjoined Kempcairn, Ardneedly, 
Auchoinany, and CraigdufF, in the county of Banff, valued at 
L.1215. 7s. 8d. and the lands of Mulderies arid Allanbuie, in the 
county of Moray, valued at L.605. 7 s - 2C ^ Andrew Steuart Efq. 
, writer to the fignet, poffefTes the eftate of Pitlurg, of which the one 
half, valued at L.250; is in the parifli of Cairny; and the other 
half, with the property of Nether Auchanacy, makes his valuation 
in this parifh equal to the fum of L.450. The reft of the parifli is 
the property of the Earl of Fife, valued at L.2894. * 2S * 4^* extend- 
ing the valuation of the whole lands to L.5345. 7s. 2d. But from 
fuiidry of thefe eftates, which either had been the property, or 
were burdened wkh certain payments to the abbey of Kinlofs, 
Mifs Brodie of Lethin ftill continues to draw particular (urns, 
chiefly from the eftates of the two Peers, to which it is probable 
that flic could not now inftruft her right from the abbot, nor thofe 
their original obligation to pay, though long fanftioned by indubi- 
table prefcription. Thefe fums feem to have been always fub- 
jefted to a proportion of the public burdens of the ftate, and ac- 
cordingly Mifs Brodie ftands charged in the cefs books of the 
county of Banff with the valuation of L.100. The bifhpp of Mo- 
ray had alfo fome lands in a fimilar fituation to thofe whkh apper- 
tained to the. abbot ; and though the bilhop rents are now account- 
ed for to the Exchequer, as part of the revenue of the ftate, they 
are alfo ftated in the cefs roll at the valuation of L.50 : by which 
means the total valuation of the parifh, liable in all the public bur- 
dens but the ftipend, amounts to the fum of L.5495. 7s. 2d. Scots. 
Other peculiarities in the ftate of the property ought not perhaps 
to be omitted. , When vaffals and tenants were in the praftice of 
performing military and perfonal fervice, attending their refpefiiv* 
lords in war, and in all engagements from home, the people en 


the family of Gordon's lands in Strathbogie, Cabrach, Kirkmichael, 

Invexavon, and Mortlach, rendezvoufed in general, mufter with 

their chief and his friends, from Enzie and Grange, in a grafly 

bank, open to the fouth, upon the river Ifla at Keith r on this ac- 

' count, though now cultivated, it is ftill diftinguifhed by the name- 

* oi tkefuit-roll-crqft. The original proprietor obje£led n,ot to fuch 

occalional occupancy; but his own right, through prefcription, 

feenis to have been thereby loft: for this fmall tenement, not ex- 

| ceeding 3. acres, has been the fole property of the family of Gordon 

I in this parilh, from the eldeft antiquity. It cannot, therefore, be 

, included in the valuation of any other eftate ; it is not charged by 

itfelf with any valued rent in the cefs ibooks of the county ; and it 

is peculiarly diiiinguiflied. by the honourable exemption from the 

burdens of land-tax, ftipend, fchool falary, and mill thiflage, and, 

though no doubt holding of the Crown, from all (hare in the re- 

prefentation of the county in parliament: with other lands of 

greater confideration, it was transferred, about the year 1780, by 

excambion to the family of Fife, 

With this may be^contrafted the property of Craigduff, an eftate 
of not more than 3 acres alfo, yet paying a proportion of the land 
tax correfponding to a valuation of L.90. About the year 1667, 
when this valuation was made, its real' rent exceeded not 10s. or 
L.6 Scots. The traditionary explanation is, its proprietor at that 
.time was a fortune-hunter: that to pafs himfelf as a man of opu- 
lence in the county of Buchan, where his rent roll was not accu- 
rately known, he exhibited an extraft of the valuation of his eftate, 
certified by the clerk of the commiflioners of fupply. Traditioa 
iias not recorded that his ftratagem was fuccefsful: from the colour 
of the narration it may be inferred, that his plot was difcovered. 

There are 4 villages in the parifh : thofe of Old and New Keith, 
upon the barony of Milhown, are the mod diftinguilhed. The old 
town is of unknown antiquity, not lefs than 500 years : by its trade 
and jurifdi&ion of regality ^ it was of fuperior confequence to 
Banff*, Cullen, or Fordyce, then the only towns in the county. 
The court of regality fat in the church : it judged of every civil 
caufe, and took cognizance of every crime, including even the four 
pleas of the crown. The baillie was, in general, aflifted by fome 
of the bawns of the regality as his affeffors. The pannels were 
placed in a window, ftill recognifed by people acquainted with N the 

Q q church 



church under the name of the bofs window. The fleeple on the 
middle of the front wall, and communicating with the church, 
was the jail : and the flocks remained to the paffing generation. « 
The place of execution was the uncultivated hill yvhere the new 
town of Keith now ftands. The bones of the criminals who were 
executed there, were dug up in clearing out the foundations of 
fome of the tenements ; and they were buried again in the peat 
rnorafs upon its eaftern fide. The lad criminal wis Gilbert Dal- 
lachy, a parifhioner, hanged for theft about a centurj^ ago. But 
old women, who .were found guilty of familiarities with the devil, 
were drowned in Gaun's Pool, where the new bridge on Ida is 

But this little town, fcarcely covering the extent of 3 acres, 
was Hill more diftinguifhed by die great fair, which was continued 
for a week about the middle of September. To it the whole mer- 
chants of Aberdeen, leaving their (hops almoft empty, with all their 
goods repaired, and very little unfold was carried back. They 
were tranfported on horfeback, in packs of facking, each making 

' one load : no carriage or carriage road' was heard of in the country 
before the abolition of the heritable jurifdi&ions. All the carriers, 
and many of the fmaller farmers in the vicinity of Aberdeen, were 

«. employed for 16 or 12 days before the, market: they travelled in 
caravans, from a dozen to 40 together; their approach was announ- 
ced with joy, when firft defcricd upon the brow of the diftant hill — 
" There comes fumnier eve, and the foremoft troop of the packers.** 
Numbers of trading people, and manufacturers from Glafgow, 
Perth, and Dundee, and from other towns in the fouth, were met 
by all the merchants in the weftern Highlands, and northerly parts 
of the kingdom, from the diftance even of Kirkwall and the Orkney 
Iflts, for fettling accompts and arranging new com'miflions. To 
this fair alfo was brought the whole manufacture of coarfe woolen 
cloths, with all the hlack cattle and horfes, feyeral thbufands of 
each, from all the country far and wide around. For cattle and 
horfes, it is Hill by much the greateft fair in the north. It is pot 
now to be conceived in what manner fuch a vaft concourfe of 
people, and fuch flore pf merchant goods, could have been lodged 
in fuch a little place, where more ftrangers in black coats from the 
Highlands and I (lands alone affembled than now make up the whole 
market together. Male and female, with fuch mutual accommo- 


clarions as circumftances allowed, lay together in dozens and (cores 
upon ftraw, with' blankets, in all the pantries, barns, and kilns of 
the town, and of the farms, to the diftance of miles all around :r— 
fuch was then the fimplicity of manners ! 

It is not difficult to account for the fupejriority to which Banff 
has attained. Fordyce remains the fame ; and Cullen is but very 
little improved. v Though its conftitution as a burgh royal is not 
common, that could have no influence on its. manufactures or trade. 
Its charter of conftitution, granted by Charles II. about the fame 
date with that of Banff, conftitutes it a burgh of conltabulary, with 
the powers and privileges of a burgh royal. The principal raa- 
giftrate has not the title of Provoft, but fimply the common discri- 
mination of Prefes, with 3 Baillies, a Dean of Guild, and Trea- 
k jurer; he is cbofen out of the whole council, which confifls of 19 
members: they all continue in. office during the pleafure of the 
majority of themfelves. The Earl of Findlater is always the Pre- 
fes; and one of their Baillies is now more than in the fortieth 
year of his dignity unchanged. 

The town of Old Keith, however, has declined confiderably 
fince the eftablifhment of the New, which was begun about the year 
*75° ty 4 ^ e ^ ai *l of Findlater, upon a barren mpor,,feued off in 
tenements, containing 15 by 60 yards, at the duty of 10s. yearly. 
It is formed on a regular plan of three parallel ftreets, interfered 
by narrower lanes, and by one fpacious fquare, to which the fair of 
fummer-eve has been transferred. Thefe villages contain about 
1267 inhabitants, of which about 2do only appertain to Old Keith. 
As a rival to this thriving village, the family of Fife eftabliflbed 
,alfo a new town in the vicinity of an old little village named New- 
. mill. Both villages contain only about 400 inhabitants, for the 
raoft part poor people, who have .fettled there for the accommoda- 
tion of peat fuel and a fmall croft of land. 

There are a few farms of very refpeftable extent, from L.60 to 
JL.100 of rent : the greater number rent from L.20 to L.46. Be- 
etles what may be accounted the burgh lands of Keith, there are 
many fields enclofed : the farm of CrofTairdly, on the Earl of Fife's 
eflate, and that of Drum, the property of the other Peer* may be 
accounted as completely enclofed. The rent, by the acre, varies 
from 5s. to about 15s. according to the quality of the foil ; around 
{he villages, it rifes to about L.i. 10s. The- land is cultivated by 

Q q S » about 


about 38b oxen and $23 horfes ; befides which, it maintains about 
1600 black cattle, and more than 2000 fheep. 

State Ecclejiafticat.']— -The church is a large awkward incora. 
-modious building. The walls, though fbttr, require the fupport of 
many buttreffes, and the number of the doors is equal to that of the 
•windows; and as a fingular difplay of Caledonian tafte, the fteeplc 
was lately lowered one ftorey in height, to make way for the bel- 
fry, at once the fign of Ihe poverty of the church, and of the thrift 
of the landholders of Scotland, The ftipend is L.88. 17s. 6d. and 
32 bolls of oatmeal, ihe expence df the communion included, A 
fmall part of the village of Keith is placed upon the glebe ;'but the 
rent drawn from the houfes now is fcarcely equal to the value of 
ihe crops which might be raifed upon the la*d. The right of pa- 
tronage appertains to Sir William Forbes, Bart, of Craigievar. 
The fchool has been long in a very flourifhing ftate: theTalary is 
12 bolls of meal, and about L.6 as the emoluments of the office of - 
feffion clerk, which, it has been faid, is by the ftatute of King 
William annexed to the office of parochial fchoolmafter, although 
the feflion, if they fee caufe, may employ another clerk*' to be paid 
by another fund. Befides this eftablifhmenfc, Alex. Ogilvie Efq. . 
writer to the fignet, in the year 1647, deftined his mill arid Jancfcof 
Edindiach, a. part of the barony of Kerhpcairn, for *' building and 
♦•upholding the fchool-houfe, and maintaining a fchoolrriafter in 
- *' the parochin of Keith,*' appointing the minifter and elders truf- 
tees for this endowment. ' They, after a ten years* litigation in the 
Court of Seflion refpefting a claim of abftrafled tithes, exchanged 
the whole property for the yearly payment of Ihe furri of L.16. 14s. 
iterling, which the prefbytery of Strathbogie and the fynod of Mo- 
ray ratified about the year 1757. It is now a part of the eft ate of 
the Earl of Firtdlater, with the burden of this payment: and fince 
the fabric of the parochial fchool became ruinous, the parith has 
been accommodated with the town-hall, in the great fquare of : 
Keith, in confequence probably of the claufe of Mr. Ogilvie's def- 
tina'tion, " for building and upholding the fchool-houfe;" but by 
this arrangement, the mailer is obliged to provide lodgings from 
his own funds. The mean number of fcholars which the fchool 
retains may be eflimated at 60. The number of poor upon the 
roll amounts to 40, and the money contributed by the people in 
their affemblies for public worfliip amounts to L.40; befides wlwch, 

they 1 

Chap. lit .] TARWH OF KfcifH. 309 

they have a capita? of X.100, fettled at 4* per cent, mtereft; and 
about the fum of L.t2 is farther raifed by fines for fornication artd, 
irregular marriages, including L.4. 4s. as rent drawn for the pew* 
in a gallery let by the feffion. Befides thefe contribution!, trjey 
colletl: about L.6 fterling in the year, including a fmall contingent 
from* the Roman Catholic chapel, for the Infirmary Hofpital of 
Aberdeen, which procures the benefit of that endowment for any 
fef the inhabitants that may apply. The! members of the E flab lifted. 
Church amount to 2838: the difltnters of the Church of "Rome 
ate rtsa, thofe of the Epifcopalian Church of Scotland 59, and 131 
are Antiburger Seceders. ' . (' 

Mifcellaneous Information.] — Tne people in general are fenfi- 
tie, fhrewd, and intelligent : all ranks are regular in their attend- 
ance on the ordinances of religion*, they maintain great decorum 
of behaviour, and value themfelves'ori refpe&ability of chara&eT? 
they have no paftime or holidays, except dancing about Chriflmas. 
The arrizans and manufacturers appear more cheerful, and feem 
iappier than the farmers, as many among them find difficulties in 
living,- and are not improving their circuraftances. 

The principal branches of manufa&ure are flax-dreffing, fpin*. 
jiifig, and weaving; but the prevailing predile&ion for cotton- 
cloths, the importation of Irifli yarn to Glafgow, which is the prin- 
cipal market for the yarn of Keith, and the high price of Dutch 
flax, have contributed to deprefs thofe branches of manufacture ; 
and the manufacturers, from fome fpeculation of monopoly in their 
tfwn favour, difcourage raifing flax in the parifli, by bringing what 
they work from Holland. Almoft every farmer, however, has a 
fmall proportion, Seldom exceeding an acre, under flax; and the 
flax-furveyor appointed by the Tfuftees at Edinburgh has generally 
from 16 to 18 acres of flax, which over the whole parifli is a thriv- 
ing and profitable crop, and its whole ceconomy is fufficiently un- 
<Jerftood. The parifli is accommodated with 3 'flax-mills, a tan- 
nage, a diftillery, and 2 bleacheries on the banks of the Ifla, with 
well defigned and very complete machinery. 

Tradition records an encounter in Old Keith about 150 y carat 

ago, between Mr. Gordon of Glengerack, one of the proprietors^ 

and Roy McGrigor, the head of a band of robbers, who, after a, 

defperate refiftance, was defeated and taken, and the band com, 

•pletcly difperfed, » 

A party, 


A party, about 100, of the troops in the rebellion of 1746, al- 
lowed themfelves to be furprifcd in this .village, and were defeated 
by the rebels with confiderable flaughter. \ 

The Druid circles are the tokens, that a country had been peo« 
pled in times extremely remote. In the county of Banff, there arc 
large trafts in which none were ever fcnowri to be feen'. Severals 
however in this pajrifh have of late been removed, for the. ufe ©f 
the ilone : one remains very entire on the fummk of a mountain 
named the cards* hill,, denoting in the Gaelic the hill* of friends, 
where the Druid brethren maintained their focial worihjp. There 
is a pretty waterfall in the river of Ifla, a little below the village 
of Keith: it is only about 14 feet in I>eight, but it fpreads out in 
the fhape of a fan to a confiderable breadth, before it reaches a 
large circular deep pool. On its bank the, ruins of Lord Oliphant's 
•caftle remains, of which there is a pretty, though merely imaginary, 
drawing in Cordiner's Scenery of Scotland. Tradition relates, 
that a part of this edifice projected over the pool of the, ia 
which the plate was depofited; the foundation failed, and the whole 
fubmerged to the bottom. His Lordfhip brought experience.d div- 
ers from England, the firft of whom, liaving gone down, floated 
after a confiderable time to the furface, his bowels torn out : none 
of the reft had refolution to make another eflay, and the plate was 
loft. Were this certain, a fmall furn could yet get the river dam-*, 
med up between the rocks of the fall, and the pool wholly emptied. 

The oldeft records of the feffion are dated in 1686. Sir James 
Strachan, Bart, of Thorntown,, was at that time the mini iter. In 
the year 1690 he was deprived of hisr living, for not perceiving at 
the firft the advantages of the revolution. Mr. Lachlan Rofe was 
engaged by the people to fupply his place: in 1694 fome complaints 
were made of him to a committee of the General Aflembly, then 
fitting at Elgin : they declared him an intruder, and proclaimed 
the church vacant; in which condition, it was allowed, during 
thefe pureft times of prefbytery, to remain for nearly feven years, 
till the adntiflion of Mr. John Chriftie in the year 1700. 


Chap. l\\!\ PARISH Of ROTHES* gOJ 



v Situation, Soil, Climatb.~\—Tm river Spey has been defcribed 
as holding a courfe nearly from weft to eaft, and almoft parallel to 
ibe Frith, through the^diftrifts of Badenaugh and Strathfpey. Had 
ibis courfe been continued, it would have fallen into the fea near 
Ifartfoy, or have probably conjoined its ft ream with the waters of 
the Duyran. The mountain of Beneagen, lying acrofs this courfe 
at a little diftaace from the lower Craigelachy, bonds it into a 
dire&ion nearly from fouth to north ; in which, fave fundry fhort 
inflexions, it haftens more direfily, and almoft at right angles, to 
the fea. The plains of Rothes lie in the fame direction for 9 miles 
along its weftern bank ; the eftate of'Oakenwall only occupying 
t abouj the fpace of a mile, in the form of a peninfula, at the bottom 
of the mountain, on the other fide. Befides the defile called the. 
<Gien of Rothes, opened through the hill towards Elgin, which has 
4een already noticed No. vin, there are two other valleys ftretching 
along the fides of their refpe&ive ftreams weftward into the hills, 
where many improvements have within the fpace of 50 years been 
made, now yielding a rent, with others on the banks of fmaller' 
brooks, of more than L.150. The hills, at certain diftances bend- 
ing near to the bank of the river, have (haped the country into four 
/tetached plains, Dunnalietb, Rothes, Dundurcos, and Ortown. 
Befides the plains, the Dopes along the bottom of the hills are clofe-* 
ly cultivated : the banks of the river in many places are fringed 
with ftripes of natural wood ; and extenfive well difpofed planta- 
tion's occupy the uncultivated fides of the hill. The northern fron- 
tier of the parilh fldrts along the confine's of Dollas, Birnie, Elgin, 
St. Andrews Lhanbryd, and Speymouth. 

The foil along .the river may, in general, be defcribed as a fertile 
oam; in fome places, a purer clay; and in others, rather furcharged 
vith fand, fuperinduced by the floods : along the bottom of the 
*iJls, it i$ a fharp gravelly mould, a little incumbered by the 
mailer loofe ftone : in the improvements, within the limits of the 
mountain, it is moorilh, in fome places inclining to clay, in others 



The climate below Craigelachy, though more rainy, is not colder, 
than in the open plain of Moray ; ye£, being more diftant from the.; 
fea, the fnow lies deeper, and the harvefts are, in general^ more , 
late. , 

The Gaelic name rathuish fignifies the bending of the water, , 
rath, or roth, Signifying a wheel, nearly as in the Latin. 

State, of Property.] — Six proprietors poffefs the partfl). Tha j 
only family feat is at Ortown, the property of the honourable j 
Arthur Duff of the family of Fife. A level plain of fertile corn- j 
field fpreads backward about a mile from the river ;. a green bank j 
fweeps circular upon the other fide, prefenting near its margin 
above an elevated enchanting fituation for the houfe, a modern, 
large elegant building of four fiories, with a neat pavillion roofs 
befides the hall, a parlour and 3 bed-chambers occupy the ground 
floor : on the firft floor is a magnificent fuite of public rooms ; the 
paintings, though pretty numerous, are for the moft part family 
and other portraits ; there is a fpccimen or two of the polygraphs 
art, landfcapes no way distinguishable from common paintings r< 
on the third floor the library occupies a fpacious room, fitted up: 
in an elegant and commodious manner. Eaftward on the fame 1 
plain wkh the houfe, is a thriving orchard, within the fkirts of: 
a Sheltering grove ; under the bank is the garden, and a confider* 
able extent of wall for the more delicate fruitage : the bank offers 
an inviting walk, with its ornamented Shrubbery; groves judiciouSly 
difpofed, and circling belts afford their Shade and Shelter to the cir- 
cumjacent fields ; and a great extent of flourishing plantation, fir* 
larix, and foreSl trees, clothes the fide of the mountain behind.; 
On one prominent intermediate height, a neat modern watch tower- 
commands the courfe of the river, Gordon Caftle, and its decorate! 
environs, and all the plain northward, and a great extent of the fea* 
The valued rent is L.412 Scots. Garbity on the fouth of Ortown, 
and Inchberry on the north, the property of the Duke of Gordon, 
are valued at L.324. 3s. Inchberry is connected with his Graced 
property of Speymouth, and parted from his lands in Bellie onlf 
by the river. 

To the Earl of Findlater, cortnefled witfc his property in S|i 
Andrews Lhanbryd, Elgin, Birnie, and Knockando, appertains til 
lordShip of Rothes, amounting to the valuation of L.*62i. 14s 
lod. Scots. In the year 1766 a village was begun to be built ©I 


tkap. Ht.J PARISH OF ROTHES 3^7 

Ibc plain of Rothes, upon leafes of 38 years, and the Hfe-rent there- 
tfter of thepoffeffor, after which the building becomes the property 
if the landlord : each tenement is the eighth part of an acre, at the 
pent of 10s. yearly : from an half to two acres of land, at the rate 
tf a guinea the acre, fave where the fait .is greatly inferior, i* oc-. 
tupied with each tenement, but without anyJeafe. The village at- 
wefent accommodates about 300 inhabitants* In the year 1796 
here were fet off 41 additional tenements, for its farther .enlarge-. 
Bent. The eftablifhraent of no manufaclure has been yet propofed',, 
bough a conflderable ftream, working a corn and fulling mill,, 
tfrfhes the Whole length of its ftreet : a few artizans only fupplyr 
be exigencies of the country. Pitcraiggy,^nd the glen, in which- 
fcere is a fnug commodious houfe and garden, on the margin of a 
ittle brook under the fide of a hill, covered with a conflderable 
Stent of birch, called the Torwood, is the property of Robert 
timing of Logie Efq. The valued rent is L.74. 1,5s. The eftater 
if Auchnaroth, on which there is a great extent of various planta- 
ion, and many fmaller rifing groves, is the property of William: 
kbertfon Efq. merchant of Elgin. The valued rent is L.33; Scots- 
Sakenwall, in the county of Banff, the property of David Mc~ 
towai Grant of Airndilly Efq. adjoining to -his other property, is 
Sued at L.130 : extending the valuation of the parifli to L.2^97^' . 

jocL Scots* 

There are-feveral farms of very commodious extent, rifing to the 
Went of L.80 of rent : feveral are from L.10 to about L.40: the; 
nts of the generality of the pofleffions in the newer lands in the 
(ills are even under L.10. The whole number of acres under cui- 
trcarc about 2500, and the prefcut real rent does not, much ex~ 
A the fum of L.1200 fterling. 
r State EcdefiaJlicaL~] — Although a chapel in Roman Catholic 
|mes ftood, no doubt, on the farm of Chapeihill, yet the parifli re- 
ined unaltered in its extent, from the firft eftablifhment of paro- 
ial diftrifts until the year 17S2, when the fuppreffed parifh of 
undurcos was divided between thofe of Boharm and Rothes. — 
xperience hath fhewn, that the general accommodation of the peo- 
ie hath ; not been thereby in any degree impaired. The church, 
loved from its ancient Ration in the burying ground, is commo- 
ufly placed. in the village. About the year 1630, Mr. John 
emyfs, brother to the Earl of Wemyfs, and rmniller of the pa- 

Rr . rith> 


rim, made a private agreement with the proprietors, fixing the ftii 
pend at L.20. 12s. and 45 bolts of oatmeal, and which was firft 
changed by the annexation of part of Dundurcos. It is now efta. 
blifhed by a decreet in 1794 to be L.54. 4s. 4d. 63 bolls of meal, 
and 35 of barley, the communion allowance included. The whole 
glebe at Dundurcos was by excambion annexed to the glebe of Ro- 
thes, which now conftils of about 16 acres. One third of the right 
of patronage, by the annexation from Dundurcos, appertains totbc 
v Crown, and the other two-thirds to the Earl of Findlater. The 
falary of the fchool has been lately, with feme oppofition, augment- 
ed from L.i. 12s. and 6 bolls of meal, to an eftabliflunent of L.11. 
2s. c|d. with the cuftomary fees from about 40 fcholars, and the 
perquifites of the office of feflion clerk. The number of poor is 
30 : the provifion for their fupport, raifed from the people in com- 
mon form, aided by two endowments, amounting together to Li, 
is equal to an annual dividend of L.15 ilerling. The members ol 
the national Church are 1450. The Di (Tenters, about 50, aflame 
the profeflion of any preacher who pleafes to officiate injtheold 
church at Dundurcos, which, when firft vacated on the fuppreffion 
of the parifh, was occupied by an infane preacher, and, fince he 
wandered off, by perfons generally unknown, profefling to be Mc- 

Mifcellaneous Information.] — The people are in every cafe oblig- 
ing, frugal, induftrious, and>difcreet, and much attached to the na- 
tional religion and government. In Roman Catholic times, the*parilh 
was under the peculiar protection of St. Lawrence. The rights of 
his fair were long ago, by purchafe, tranflated to the town of For*! 
res; but his well, a fountain diftinguifhed by the purity and HgfeJ 
nefs of its water, is ft ill recognifed. On the eft ate of OrtowiJ 
there was a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. There alfo m 
a facred well, which, like the patent medicines of the paffing timeq 
was for many ages of the moft diftinguifhed cckbrity, for the ; 
raculous cure of all manner of difeafe. The paffing generate 
have feen pilgrimages from the moft remote parts of the Highlan 
and from the Weftern IQes ; but they are now wholly difcont inn 
The tomb-ftone of the firft minifter of the Prefbyterian eftablif 
mentis ftill entire, in the tomb of a family of the fame lineage: 1 
fimply relates, that " Here lies ane nobleman, Mr. James Lett! 
41 parfon of Rothes, broiher-german to George, umquhile Earid] PARISH Of BELLI£. ! 309 

i 1 the fame, who departed in the Lord, 13th G&ober 1576." — 
*he copy of the Solemn League and Covenant, which was fub. 
cribed at Rothes in the year 1643* is ftill extant ; by which it ap- 
>ears, that in this quarter the fubfcription of it was not rigoroufly 
^forced. It is printed at Edinburgh by Evan Tyler, printer to 
ie King's Majeftie, on two meets of fmall coarfe paper, in quarto* 
&e firft contains the approbations of the .General Affembly and 
if the Convention of Eft at es, both dated on the 17 th Aug. 1643, 
A the ordinance of the Eftates for fwearing :and fabfcribing the 
lovenant, dated nth Oft. thereafter: and the. blank pages are for 
fub formers' names, which are, Mr.. Rob. Tod, minifter of the 
"pel at Rothes — Leflie— ^Patrick Leflie, elder — Walter Leflie-*- 
bert Leflte~Wm, Innes-r-John Guthrie, elder— Wm* Farqti- 
We, who fubfcribes alfo for nine others, elders, adding a doc* 
fct, " Thir are in name of the elders that could not fubfcribe 
Jthemferves, who profefled their confent formalie, and that I, 
William Farquhare, clerk to the fefiion, fhould fubfcribe for 
Kthcm" v - . , 




i Situation, Soil, Climate.'] — By this long progreffion, the furvey 
f concluded in the parifh of Bellie, upon the fea more, at the 
I^Hith of the Spey, from whence, upon the other fide, the circuit 
fegari. The name is Gaelic : three etymological explanations have 
(iBen fuggefted : one fuppofes it bealidh, fignifying broom; very 
ftlike ly to be right, confidering that when the names of places 
iere anciently impofed, the parifh could not have been peculiarly 
tftinguifhed by that flirub : another, which fuppofes the name to 
I BfcULAiTH, the ford mouth, is more unfortunate ftill; the hardy 
habitants of ancient times found the river aimoft every-where 
prdable ; the parifh on the other bank mud 1 have had an equal 
him to this Jignificantly figurative epithet ; and the channel of 
)t river, Jhifted aimoft by every flood, has in every age made the 
fallow to-day the whirlpool to-morrow. But as ancient record 
incurs with prefent appearance to eftabliflx, that the fea once 

R r 2 flowed 



-flowed farther in upon the (hore, it having retired* almofl half a 
mile on the coaft of this parifli, even within the memory of people 
flilJ alive, it can be hardly doubted that the curvature in the bank; 
where Gordon CaftJe Hands was once a bay of the ocean ; it mufti 
be pre fumed, that the camp near the church of Beliie, already no* 
ticed, was formed by the Romans in connection with their fleet,; 
avhen under Agricola they made the circuit of the ifle. Whether aj 
barbarian town exifted upon their arrival, or whether their general 
practice of reconciling thcmfelves, like the adventurers of prefentj 
times, to the favages whom they vifited* might have induced aj 
fettlement in this vicinity ; fuch an eftabliihment, in that fituationJ 
-would naturally be denominated by the natives ball- li, or BAXL-j 
-LITH, the town of the flood: and the tradition, that Fochabers oncd 
flood near the church-yard of Beliie, and the Roman camp, corJ 
roborates this explanation of the name. \ 

The parifli is in the form of a. triangle : the one fide, from foutl 
to north along the Spey, is about 5 miles ; the other along the coa 
eafterly, from the influx of the river to the mouth of the brook ol 
Tynete, is about 4 ; and the returning, fide, from the mouth of thai 
brook back to Ordyfifli on the bank of the Spey, is nearly equal ta 
6. From the angle at Ordyfifli, the furface of the parifli fee mi 
divided into three different flats, each rifing about 20 feet abovJ 
the other, and fpreajjing like the quadrants of the concentric cir-j 

. cles which the fall of a ftone forms in a pond : the loweft is along 
the bed of the river, and fo little above the level of the ftream, thai 
much of it is laid under water by every flood : the fecond flat beJ 
gins alfo near Ordyfifli, and continues. fpreading like the firft as a 
tends towards the qoaft ; but the firft encroaches upon it in tfa 
curvature where Gordon Caftle Hands : and the third, or highei 

' flat, from near the fame corner, is lefs regular than the others, en 
croaching alfo in fome places on the fecond, where the mountain 
«feems as if projected on the plain, 

Upon the bank of the river the foil is thin, upon a fole of gra 
vel, the bottom either of the (hifting river or of the retiring ocean 
near the coaft, where the more flill waters had depofited more fedi 
rnent, it is a deep and fertile loam ; upon the higher flats the foi 
is of a kindly mould, fave where it ftretches back into the moua 
tain, where it is moorifh, wet, and fpongy : in forae places it is 6 
a deep red colour, by a ferrugenous or ocreous fuBftance, fupen 




Chnp. III.] PARISH OF BELLtE. 31 1 

induced by theftreams from the mountain, which in this quarter, 
under the moor,ifli furface, is compofed of a vaft deep bed of clay 
gravel, of -that quality and colour; and each rill, during heavy- 
rain, or a fudden thaw of fnow, appears a wondrous torrent of 
thick deep red gore. The air, though healthful, is rather cold and 
dry, yet temperate on the whole, and the winters generally mild* 

State of property."] — Of all this parifti, the valued rent of which 
is L.3082, 8s. . Scots, v the Duke of Gordon is proprietor, excepiu 
ingOne farm in its out-fkirts belonging to the Earl of Firidlater. 
Towards the fouthern end of the parifti, on the fecond flat, is the 
town of Fochabers ; a Gaelic name, which, like the parffh, has re- 
ceived more than one explanation ; the moft probable refers it to 
the numerous fountains, where the village was lately placed : the 
other, which to the. field deflined for the weapon Jhew, 
will be generally rejected, on the confideratipn that it muft ha\<e 
obtained its name before either the practice or the ftatutes requir- 
ing meetings for the exhibition or the .exercife of arms ivere in-* 
Produced. The turbulent ftate of foeiety in ancient times generally 
x^ifed a village in the vicinity of every caftle, for the mutual fecu«- 
rity which both the fortrefs and the.people afforded to each otherr; 
but in the peaceful fecurity which the wifdom and energy of the 
|>refent conftitution has fo long maintained, it is more pleafant to 
have the palace environed by the ornamented grounds of an ex* 
tenfive park ; in this regard, the Duke of Gordon, feveral years 
ago, purchafed the property of the town, then fituated not far from 
,his gate, and the prefent village, at a handfome yet com- 
modious dfftance. This hew town is a clean neat burgh of barony • 
all its ft reets are ftrajght, cr offing each other at right angles ; and 
the great .road to London conducted through the cent re of its grand 
fquare; three fides of which, pretty uniformly buflt, are the man- 
lions of the inhabitants ; the fourth is occupied by the public build- 
ings, the church, detached in the middle between two large hand- 
fome houfes of uniform exterior, one occupied 'as the manfe, the 
other containing the parochial fchool-and town-hall. 

Off the highway, between the town and the river, is the great 
gate to Gordoti Caftle ; a lofty areh between neat domes, elegantly 
finifbed, and greatly ornamental to the fcenery of the environs ; its 
front bears fome refemblance to the outline of the caftle, and it i* 


31 3 PRESENT. ST ATE O* THE PROVINCE. [Chap, lit* 

fimilarly embelliffied by a handfome battlement within the gate j 
the road winds about a mile through a green parterre, ikirtcd with 
flowering (hrubbery and groupes of tall fpreading trees, till it is loft 
in an ovaj before the front of the caftle. There, is befides .this, 
another approach from the eaft,.fweeping for feveraj miles through 
the varied fcenery of the park, enlivened by different pleafant 
views of the Country around, the river, and the ocean* till it alfo 
terminates at the great dooroLthis princely manfiop. 

The fituation of the caftle is on the lo weft of the flats that have 
been defcribed; it commands a long extended view of the whole 
plain, with all its wood, and a variety of flieet&of the river glitter* 
ing onwards to the fea, comprehending alfo the town and (hipping 
of Garmacb, and a large handfome edifice that terminates the plain 
oft the fhore, the hall and other buildings for -the accommodation 
of the falmon fishery. 

The! caftle was originally built by George II. Earl of Huntly • 
altered and enlarged in every fucceeding age: it has of late been 
almoft built of new by his Grace, in all the elegant magnificence 
. of modern architecture ; it extends in front to the goodly length 
of 568 feet, from eaft to weft; being however of different depths, 
the breaks make a variety qf light and fhade, which takes off the 
appearance of excefs in uniformity. The body of the building is 
of 4 ftories ; and in its fouthern, front ftands the tower entire of the 
original caftle, <by much, ingenuity making a part of the modern 
palace, and riling many feet above it. Thfe" wings are magnificent 
pavillions of two lofty ftories, connected by galleries of two lower 
ftories; and beyond the pavil lions, buildings are extended, equally 
to either hand, of one floor and an attic ftory. The whole of this 
vaft edifice, externally, is of white hard free-ftotie, fmoothly cut in 
the moil elegant manner, and finifhed all around, like the gate, by a 
rich cornice arid a handfome battlement. 

The hall of this magnificent ftrufture is embellifhed by a copy 
of the Apollo Belvidere, and of the Venus de Medicis, beautifully 
executed of ftatuary marble, by HarWood. Here alfo, by the fame 
ingenious, ftatuary, are bulls of Homer, Caracalla, M. Aurelius, 
Fauftina, and a Veftal. At the bottom of the great flairs, are bulls 
alfo of J. Casfar, Cicero, and Seneca, all raifed on elegant pedef- 
|ah of Sienna marble ; withthefe laft, ftands a buft of Cofmo III. 


Chap, in.*] ^ PARISH OF BELUE. aijj. 

duke of Tufcany, a connexion of the family of Gordon, on an 
elevated pedeftal of painted timber^ The flairs and paffages are 
kept warm by a ftove placed in this fumptuous apartment. 

Two fpacious halts for the different ranks of fervants, with two 
baths, cellars, and other requifite accommodations, occupy the, reft 
of the ground floor. 

The firft floor contains the dining room, drawing room, break- 
faft room, the bed-chamber of ftate, with its dreffing room, and fe- 
veral other elegant apartments. All the rooms are judicioufly. 
proportioned, fumptuoufly finifhed, and the diftribution of light 
managed to the greatefi advantage. The fide-board is within the 
recess of the dining room, Separated by lofty Corinthian columns 
of Scagliola, in imitation of verd antique marble. 

In this room are copies, by Angelica Kauffman, * of Venus and 
Adonis, and of Danae\ by Titian ; of Abraham and Hagar, of Jo- 
feph and Potiphar's wife, by Guercino ; of Dido and St. Cecilia, 
by Dominichino ; befides feveral portraits. 

In the drawing room is a portrait of the Duke by Raeburn, and 
of the Duchefs by Sir Jofhua Reynolds, and fome beautiful fcreen$ 
done by the young ladies. 

In the breakfaft room is a copy, by Angelica Kauffman, of the 
celebrated St* Peter and St. Paul, the mafterpiece of Guido Rheni, 
efteemed the moft valuable in the Sampiori palace at Bologna-, and 
one of the beft paintings in the world : 10,000 fequins, it is faid, 
had been offered for it. It reprefents St. Paul rebuking the apoftle 
* for his bafe diflimulation with the Jews, refpefling the obligation 
of the ceremonial law, and concealing his communications witU 
the uncircumcifed, related in the Epiftle to the Galatians; and the 
apoftle is reprefented as much alhamed of his mean hypocrify. By 
the fame matter, there is alfo a copy of Herodias and the BaptifTs 
Head in the Charger ; and a copy by Guercino of the Perfian Si- 
byl. On each fide of the chimney is an original painting by Kauff* 
man, Ulyfles and Calypfo, Bacchus and Ariadne, Oppofite to 
^thefe is a highly finifhed full length portrait of the Duke, leaning 
on a horfe, a gun in his hand, and dead game lying near, by Pom- 
peijo Battoni of Rome. A fine finalf original of the- Abbe d'Au- 
feignie in his ftudy, and a ftrikingly expreflive head of St. John re* 
ceiving the Revelation in Patmos, contribute alfo their embellifh- 
ixient to this magnificent room. 



. The upper ftories are occupied by bed-chambers, except the li- 
brary in the third, ana\the mufic room in the fourth floor, both di- 
re&Iy over the dining room, and of its dimenfions. In all thefe 
numerous apartments are valuable paintings, many of them family 
portraits, defcriptive of the drefles of their refpe&ive times ; fome 
fine hunting and paftoral pieces by Rofa de Tivoli ; beautiful ruins, 
and a curious caricature group of Scots and Englifh travellers, ac- 
quainted with the Duke, who happened to meet at Florence. 

The library contains feveral thoufand volumes, and is well fur- 
niflied with geographical and aftronomical inftruments. There is a 
folio MS. of the Vulgate Bible, and two MS. Miflals, elegantly il- 
luminated* There is alfo a very clean MS. of Bernard Gordon's. 
Lillium Medicina*, mentioning at the end the names of the copiers, 
and the year 1319. 

Gordon Caftle being fituated on that range of flat ground where 
the fea had formed a femicircular bay, or where the river had wind- 
ed in a wide-bending fweep, is of courfe environed on one fide by 
the fecond range of higher ground. This bank, where nature has 
done much, is alfo highly ornamented by the embellishments of 
. art, being on the fide of a great park, containing 10 or 12 fquare 
miles. The wood, without the appearance of defign, is prettily dif- 
pofed upon the plain, and on the fide of the mountain abo\-e: it 
fpreads a boundlefs foreft, affording cover for vaft numbers of 
mountain deer, and containing in its fkirts an- ample inclofure* 
flocked with fallow deer. Thefe ornamented grounds,, which fpreadb 
fo far on every fide around the cajtle, occupy the upper part of the 
parilh, the town of Fochabers included, with what may be called 
its borough lands, but. which are held from the Duke only from 
year to year. . 

The lower part is parcelled out into fmall farms, partly occupied? 
in detached acres, intermingled with each other's pofleffions, and 
feveral of the tenants along the river pay their rents by the wages 
of their employment in the fifhery. In the higher ranges of the 
diftrift, the farms are lefs hampered, but none fo large as to admit . 
of the moil advantageous fyftem of agriculture. The average rent 
from the acre, including the lands and meadows in the park of 
Gordon Caftle, may be eftimated at L.i. 3s. fterling. 

State EtclefiafticalJ] — The church, until of late; was near the 
Roman camp, about a mile northward from the tajlle, , and nearer 


\£faf. Ill*] PARISH Of BELLIED ~ frig 

to the fca: it is now placed in the town of Fochabers : a building 
bthat woaid be ornamental to anjN city of the empire. It was d#- 
mgned and executed by the celebrated architect Mr. Baxter of 
[Edinburgh : it is built of free- ft one from the Drainy quarries, neai- 
fo cut. In its front fe an elegant portico, raifed on Doric columns, 
and from behind the pediment fprtngs- a light and handfome ftee- 
gple, about 100 feet in height. Within it is provided with a dove, 
pnd fitted up and firiimed in the moft complete and neatefl manner 
lor the accommodation of 1200 people, and at the coft of L.2000 
ierlin.g. The ftipend, including the allowance for the communion, 
SJBL.72.6s. 4^d. and a glebe' near the town of 13 acres. It is 
Hardly .neceffary to mentidn* that the right of patronage appertains 
lo his Grace, or that the burying ground is continued where the 
pd church flood. 
To this parifh appertains a portion of the Enzie million. The 
iapel is fituated about 5 miles from the town, on the confines of 
parifii of Rathven. For this eftabhfhment, two general contra 
ttons were made over ail the church of Scotland, before or about 
year 17307 and though at p relent the amount would be account- 
trifling, yet by the thrifty management of the prefbytery of For- 
e, under whofe care it was originally placed, it accumulated to 
capital fumcient to purchafe a glebe of 8 acres, with a houfe, and 
provifion of L.50 yearly, for the minifter, befides a fund for keep- 
the buildings always in repair. The Duke of Gordon fold the 
nd for this accommodation, and gave fecurity for the capital, 
which pious concern the General Affembly voted to him*the 
k;s of the Church,! The management has been fince prepofle- 
fly pjaced under a committee of 7 clergymen, moftly of Edin- 
Ittrgb, and 7 laymen of the profeffion of the law, continued from 
e General Affembly to another — unconnected with this country, 
acquainted alfo and unconcerned about its particular interefts. ^ 
In the town of Fochabers there is a neat Roman Catholic cha- 
, and another about 4 miles diflant, where the clergyman of this 
munion refides. His income is fuppofed to be paid in part 
funds in the difpofal of foreign univerfities* 
^ Schools, a radical branch of the ftate of this realm, both civil 
Ll ecclefiaftic, may be regarded as the workfhops in which man- 
hd are formed of the raw material. Much, therefore among the 
jddle and lower orders of fociety mull ever depend upon the dif- 

S { cretiont 


cretion and abilities of a fchooknafter. But how tittle ought rt> 
be expefted in the man, whofe moft aflidnous toil fcarcety earns 
L..20 in the year, and wbo, although the efficient parent of all that* 
diftinguifhes civilization from barbarifm, and government froto 
anarchy, is neverthelefs negleded, defpifed, ftaxved. The &lan/ 
of the parochial fchool is 14 boils of meal, with the other itatutwy 
dues ; the number of Scholars generally 60. 

In the vicinity of the Enzie chapel, the Society for Cbriftiaa 
Knowledge have eftablifhed a fchool, with an appointment of L.ifc 
yearly to the mailer, and a temporary allowance of L.5 yearly tc 
his wife, for her attention to the female pupils. The fcbotart ia 
all are accounted about 100. The Darke beftows the accoarraoda* 
tions which the Society require. 

The provifion for the poor is con deferable. Befides the x mone) 
contributed by the families which -attend the church, there is a-fim 
bearing yearly intereft : both are divided' among the poor, without 
regard to their being dhTenters from the national church : and il 
/addition to thefe, there is a penfion by the Duke to 10 decayed h 
bourere, who had been employed in the fervice of his Grace. 

The members of the Eftablilhed Church are noo; thofe of til 
Church of Rome are 6,50 ; there are a few of the Scots Epifcopa 
}ians, and fame Antiburger Secederfc, amounting together to til 
-number of 20. 

Mifcdlancous Information^ — The Roman camp has been jasi 
ticed in a preceding chapter. Upon the farm of Upper Dalfactq 
about a mile from the fliore, there lately was a low conical mouti 
It was known by the name of the green cairn. Tradition recoj 
nized it as the tomb of a chief of ancient renown ; and it remain* 
unviolated, through all the changes of many generations, until a fa 
years ago. It confided of about 12 feet deep of rich mould, h 
cutnbent on an accumulation of fmall fragments of (tone, nearly 
the fame height, furrounded at the bafe by a double row of fto 
ereel, fimilar to the circles of the Druid temples. Among 
great accumulation of fragments, was a ftone coffin of unpolift 
flags : a fmall quantity of black allies was its whole con* 
Near the circumference, about two feet under 'ftie furface, 
alfo found an urn, the rude workmanfhip of the -potter, about ei 
inches in diameter, and one foot in height ; and on {baking out 
tnould with which it was filled, a piece of poliihed gold appea* 

Chap. UI.] PARISH 01 BELLUE. 3*7 

in form like the handle of a vafe : it was 3-ioths of an inch thick, 
its ends about an inch afunder ; on them the folder, or the appear- 
ance of filver, remained,, which by the application of aquafortis was 
diffolved. To form a conjefture of its ufe is in vain : its value 
in bullion was about L.12 fterKng. 

Befides the falmon fifhery in. the river, which by its valued rent 
ftiuft appertain to Speymouth, although the buildings for its ac- 
commodation are on the coaft of this parith, there is alfo a ftiH fal- 
mon fiftery in the fait water of fome confideratioh. 

A fmajl proportion of the parifh, anfwering to L.242. 8s. Scots 
of the valued rent, on which alfo a part of Gordon Cattle Hands, 
is in the county of Moray : the greater part of the Caftle and of 
tne parifh are within the Iheriffdom of BanjF. In its ecclefiaftical 
jurifdiQion* it is in the fynod arid commiffaript; of Moray, and in 
thfi prefbytery of Strathbogie. 






i , 

THE bufihefs of agriculture, though complicated, is fo much 
dependent on-the weather, that the pra&ice rrwift in a great 
meafure be regulated by its general conftitution, and its fuccefs 
will in proportion to the Ikill and care with which the 
pra&ice is adapted to the temperature of the climate. 

In the mild and urfiform clime of Afia, where agricujture, with 
the firft generation of man, commenced, its operations were Am- 
ple, and their effe£k were fure ; whilt , partly from the accident of 
experience, and partly from refleflion, i{ mull have alfo been pro- 
greflively improved: but under the variable and inclement £ky of 
the northern regions, the firft emigrants found their unflcilful ope- 
rations encountered with fuiph infurrpountable obftacles, that agri- 
culture was totally abandoned, and in a Ihort time completely for- 
gotten, and a miferable exiftence was for forae generations fupport- 
cd by fuch fcanty and infufficient aliment as the earth fpontane- 
oufly fupplied, Where any region afforded game, man lived prin- 
cipally by hunting— an animal pf prey, with the carnivorous beafts 
of the foreft. Where the country afforded little (helter for the 
larger quadrupeds, fimilar to Cape Horn and Van Diemen's Land, 
they had little for their fupport, fave fuch fifli and eggs as they „ 
could gather on the fiiore. Thtu in the age of Julius Caefar, aboat ■ 
1800 years ago> the Dutch, who inhabited the iflafids formed by ' 
the mouths of the Rhine, knew neither how to prpcure milk or j 
flelh, but futyfifted entirely on the eggs of wild fowl which chance I 
prefented, and on the fiflies they could catch in the fhallow^r wa- 
ters. Com. lib. iv. cap. 10. But in that fame age, the favages of', 
the interior of Germany had advanced farther in the progrefs of 
civilization: having even got beyond the. hunter Rate, they had do- 
rnefticated the animals which have been found the fitteft for the oc- 
cafions of the herd f man. 

." They regard not agriculture," fays he, lib. 6. cap. 22. : " they 
«* fjibfift rnoftiy on milk, cheefe, and flefh : nor have any a certain 1 

•■• extent 

! ' 

[<**/♦ IV-3 STATE 6F AGRtCtJLWffK. ' 319 

*• extent of land, 01* peculiar boundaries; but the magMtracy, or . 
; * € chieftains, aflign yearly to each tribe or family, lands in fuch m 
I " diftrift and in fuch cyiantity as they pleafe, and oblige them ia 
1 " the year following to remove, left, attached by habit, they fliould 
: 4t change their warlike genius for agriculture, left they fliould en- 

" deavour to extend their boundaries, the more powerful expelling 
[ " the weak, and left they fhould 'build too delicately igainft either 
j 1" cold or heat*" It had been mentioned, on another occaflon, ia 
j the preceding chapter, that ** they are clothed in hides, and fliort 
1 4i mantles of Ikin, a great part of their bodies being naked." The 
i.'Jtafe of fociety in Britain during that age was in every refpeft fimilar: 
Among thefe," fays he, lib. v. cap. 14. " they, who inhabit Kent, 
)f* wholly a maritime country, are by far the moft civilised, differ- 
;•• ing but little from the manners of Gaul. The inland people in 
v general do not fow corn, but live on milk and'flefh, and are 

41 clothed taflkins." It mult therefore be prefumed, that feveral 

twndreds of years muft have patted after the age of Julius Caefar, 
>before the leaft knowledge of agriculture could reach the province 

of Moray. *• The knowledge of this, and indeed of all the other 
** arts/' fays Dr. Henry, Hift. of Britain, book i. chap. 5. " en- 
^ tered- Britain at the fouth-eaft corner, and travelled by flow and 
'"** gradual fteps towards the north- weft. With regard to agricul- 

** ture, we are alfured by a contemporary and well-informed au- 
jr" ihor, that it had advanced no farther .than the wall of Hadrian 
■ ** [between the Solway Frith and the mouth of the TyneJ in the 
I ^beginning of the third century ; for when the Emperor SeverUs 
^invaded Caledonia, A.D. 207, we are told that the Maaeatae and the 
>■* Caledonians, who inhabited all the ifland beyond the wall of Ha- 
^•-drian, inhabited barren .uncultivated 1 mountains, or defert marfhy 
f* plains, and that they had neither walls, towns, nor cultivated 
r f % lands, but lived on the flefh and milk of their flocks and herds, 
f* and on what they got by plunder, or catched by hunting, and on 
►* the fruits of trees." It is probable that the knowledge of agri- 
culture was introduced with the light of the gofpel, and that the 
jfirft preachers of Chriftianity were the firft ploughmen, and when 
Ihey converted our anceftors from heathens, they changed them 
jyife from indolent herdfmeti into induftrious hufbandmen, and 
|hewed there were Therbs, the feeds of which would maintain the 
people, and the items ox ftraw fupport alfo their cattle. 

/ ik> From 

2~? .STATE OF AGRICULTO&*. [Chap, flj, 

From the time that the Pope was regarded as the feptefestetjre 
of Jefus upon earth, the clergy of this country were induced, on 
-various accounts, to make frequent journeys through Flanden, 
Trance, and Italy, as far as Rome. Befides the lands which them- 
felves had every- where obtained, they had alfo, by the, tithes that 
were drawn in kind, an intereft in the crop of every layman* AU 
though the ftate of fociety was the fame, in thofe ages, on the CoaJ 
tinent as here, yet, from the fuperiority of the foil and climate, 
agriculture had been advanced farther there, and the clergy brought | 
back the improvements of the Continent: for the chieftain* of; 
Britain in thofe days, far different from the great men of ancient | 
Rome, would have thought them felves vaftly diOjonou red by any 
connexion whatever with the cultivation of the foil. Similar to 
the uniformity of religion which the clergy Were then able to main- 
tain, they fpread alfo one uniform praftice of tillage, with the fame 
implements over all the ftate. Simple as this praftice was, H was! 
not however fkilfully adapted to the variation of climate which i 
takes place in the oppofite fides of this quarter of the ifland; and 
although in fome years corn was in great plenty, yet feafons of 
fcarcity were alfo frequent, and the tnoft difaftcous famine front 
time to time prevailed. From them it is fuppofed that we *re novr. 
exempted, by the extenfion of the feed feafon almoft through the; 
whole year, and by the variety of grain, roots, and leaves,, which 
the prefent improved fyftem affords. In the interior of the,, coun- 
try, by the word corn oats only are uhderftood; from which, among 
other confiderations, it may be inferred* that this fpecies of gram 
was at the firft only cultivated Barley, however, was alfo at a* 
early period introduced ; but comparatively it is only of late years 
that wheat, rye, peafe, and beans, were cultivated; and it is fl iH 
within the remembrance of the pafling generation, that the culture 
of potatoe, turnip, and clover, with feveral kinds of garden ftufjj 
began to be praflifed. 

The generality, feeling the prefliire of the prefent times, bavf 
fondly believed that former ages were better; yet, though many in> 
conveniences of the prefent age were not then' known, our ancefc 
tors were fubjefted to numberlefs heavier grievances, to which wl 
are happily (hangers. Murders, robberies, and thefts, were amonj 
them extremely common. Their cattle could only be fecure bj 
being lodged under the ftme roof, going out a*>d in by the fan* 


thaf. iv.] srari of * AcaiGOLWm; $2 * 

door with their emitters ; and tlje only mode of guarding againft the 
die devttftatWMi of wilful fire, was having their houfes and furniture 
©f the teaft poflible valafe. There was no variety of ranks, running 
infenfibly into each, from the loweft up to the higheft, as educa- 
tion^ rammerce, and a variety of occupations-, have now produced : 
there were ho pariih fdhools, no public maifs for correfpondenc^ 
er inteHigence ^ and many even of the clergy -cotild rieitlier re2d 
aor- write; they were however the only lawyers and phyficians : 
fcurgefies were of no refpettability : merchants were but poor ped-i 
law : and wheA 1 all the farmers hekl t Jieir lives, as w,ell as therr 
lands, at the capricious pleasure <of the haughty lantitords, no othetf 
diftinSion could be known among them but -that alone of matter 
and tenant. Poultry, with. the improvement of capons, t gee fe, ani 
a,4 comprifed the whale variety of fotol ; the fwine was/ 
reckoned ftill unclean ; and* beef, like venifon, was eatable only ai 
onefeafon of' the year. The clergy and great men had a few of 
the :lefs delicate kinds of rwiit ; but- gardens of e\*ery kind were 
wholly amanir;the common people unknown : they only cultivated 
barley and oats ;. bread and water was their chief fubfiftence, and 
meal and:milk their higheft ilnxury. ■ Agriculture bad 'made no faf* 
titer advance at tbeaera of the -Reformation, when the Wheat in th6 
BiOiopof Moray's, rental was only. 1^ bolis, and the barley equal 
■40-12:321." By 'the- cony ul Sons ^which then enfued, all improve-, 
merit was fuipended : highanfl foweatered fo' deeply' into the re- 

• formation of church aind itate, that they had neither leifure nor in* 
clication to improve. the foil : and except fome beneficial laws, re* 
gulating the valuation and the purchafe of tithes, dividing com- 
mons, and eftabliSiing parlfli fchoofe, preferving incjofures and 
woods, and making roads, '{the advantages of which the prefent ge- 

-Deration feetn .firA, though not fully, to have • perceived), every 
thing refjpe&ing tillage tended with accelerated 'progrefs to decay, 
during a,ftruggle perMed in ;by four fucceffive monarchs with 
|heir people, for prelacy inftead of f>refbytery, agriculture fell fo 
low by the end of the laft century, as to be wholly unable to with - 
itand the feven unfavourable tea fons 'which then took place. In 
the higher parts pf the country, the praSice of agriculture was in 
jthat fii©rt iperiod* wholly abandoned: thousands df the people, leav- 
ing their homes, periflied in thehighways.a«d(ireets, merely through 
insupportable -hjuDger. The roagiftracy .of Elgin ^ftablifixed a po- 

J22 STATE OF AGHtCULtURE. {Chap, ft* 

lice, for burying, on every difmal morning, the bodies of thole 
miferable wretches that had fallen a prey to the famine under the 
, piazzas, in the courfe of each melancholy night. The ftraight ridge* 
of equal breadth, whicjb flill remain in their dun xobe of fieri le 
heath, demon (Irate that neither the population nor ikill in agricul- 
ture which once prevailed have been yet fully reftored. The Ikilk 
however of the mod advanced period, previous to the prefent 
times, confided in the careful nefs of the execution rather than in 
theoretic fyftcm ; and faving where the diftinftion between croft 
and out-field had been, adopted, little variation in that fyflem took 
place for many centuries. By that fyflem, the whole of each farm 
was managed in four pretty equal allotments ; one of which wa» 
yearly prepared in rotation, by two or three plowings and manure r 
for a crop of barley, fucceeded by three fucceffive crops of oats, 
raifed by one plowing only ; varied in forae cafes by a crop of rye^ 
where the foil was fuitcd to that grain. The whole of every farm 
was under com by the firft of June, when the plough with all its- 
tackle repofed* upon the joifts till the conclufion of the harveft. 
The live flock, which on every farm confiiled of black cattle, hor- 
fes, and fheep* were maintained during the winter on the firaw from 
which the corn was threlhed, and in fummer on the uncultivated 
paflurage which nature prefeniedon tiie farm itfelf ; or, where that 
was inefficient, upon the more diftant common pafturage of the 
mountains, from which they were brought back in harveft, little 
improved in weight or figure. Plowing and threfhing corn was 
the great bufinefs of the winter: fecuring the flock of fuel, and 
making a collection of earth, moorifh turf,, fand, or clay, for mix* 
ing with the dung produced from the fodder, formed the principal 
fummer occupations. It was accounted difgraceful to want a fufc 
ficiency of this compoft dung for the quarter allotted for barley: 
3,nd it is flill remembered of one horieft hufbandman having bribed 
his fervant with a pair of breeches to fupport his chara&er, by {train** 
ing the inefficient dung-hill over the whole allotment* 

The rents, during this fyflem, were almoft wholly paid in grain* 
with mutton," lamb, fowls, eggs, and variety of troublefome but 
infignificant fervices, exa&ed from every farm. Little grain how- 
ever feems to have been exported from Moray ; where it was not 
known that a boll of oats at Leith was lefs>than their own provin- 
cial meafure of £ firsts. A refpe&able landholder, about 60 years 


Citfi fcV.U ffATK fit 4#MWVt1fX& 3flg 

ago, fold 490 boils, deliverable at'tl&t port. The price had fallen 
confiiteraUy .before the cargo ajrrivW.- The mwbaRt in that (itua,- 
t}QH complained <pf the addition pf a frith n>p*e than the quantity 
Jkought; but after feme, epiftolary correfpoadepce, imputing rjo^ 
jtual hrcaeJbt of bargain, the beholder's, law-agent difcovered: tl>e 
firapHcity of the! miftajue, and the bufisefo was accomia^ie^keift- 
tirely to the merchant's fatisfa&iofi* Had this cqttotry at that time 
djfpofed yearly, <as it doss, at prftferu, q£ 9&arjy *6,opp.b.oJU qf 
grain, this mifunderftaading could not have happened. 

It b evident then, that thase> is more corn raifpd at jHFefe^ and 
that the people are in .every, refpeS more w^ahhy, ii^re futnptijwsr 
in, their huiliiug^ fuxoij-ure, ajad attire, mom. delicate and plentiful 
in their tables, vaftly more enlarged in their civil right* and libera 
ties, and alffr in their mental powers, both as to religious and com- 
. mon irfwination, than tbm anceftor* were, during any period of 
,4he ages that are paft. Even their cattle (hare in foxne of thefe im- 
provements* tbegr. are in general. better treated in every refpe& 
than was« practicable in former times. > 

•; It is eftablifliedhy Offian and:by Caefar,tbat in this. ifland wheel- 
c^arrt^gea feom.tbe naoft reroate antiquity .were jufed in vwy al- 
though, qohfidter&g. the raughnefi and fteepoefs o| the gjround* the 
heroes of. Mcjcvjen nwaft have beea often ftayed in their career. It 
jrjay be howsver pxefutoted, that the application of carriages to the 
piirpafes of h#fl>andry was. nc* introduced early into this country: 
Iwhen the whole of the infixuments ofagricujture were fabricated by 
:the band* whipkalfo nfedthem, they mutt have, been fimple in their 
r de£gn, and rude in their conftruftion. The inftrqmejits ftill ufod 
-by the poorer tenants in the Highland are, for the mod 
-part, fabricated by the raf elves,, iri their priftine rudenefs; unlefs it 
4b>e the timber fpade, with the edge only of icon, and the ba&etsin 
which the dung was carried to the field, which of late have d if ap- 
peared : they were hung upon the horfes\fides by the hooks of the 
paddle ; their bottoms were only conneQed by a kind of hinge, 
and -by the turning of a latch, they opened downwards, to discharge 
the load. The kdiack however is {till frequently to be feen lit is 
alfo a ba&et, formed pretty accurately into a cone, having the apex 
its 'bottom, fufpeaded in a frame, pcoje&ing two flvafts from the 
axle- of two ill-formed wheels. It is conftrufted wholly without 
\XQVy and,.thaugh of late doubled in its price, may be Ail! procured 

Tt from 


from 78. to 9$. Carts alfo, which feem to be formed upon the firft 
unimproved idea, are ftill common : the wheels, about two feet dia- 
meter, are compofed only of three pieces of plank, fome inches 
thick, having a fquare hole in the centre, to which the axle is fitted, 
which of courfe turns round with the wheels, within wooden bows 
fixed under the fides of the body of the caft ; the (hafts, are formed 
of the larger, and the body of the carriage of the fmaller branches, cut 
into J>ars or batons, of the birch or aller tree. Without prolong- 
ing this defcription> it is only neceffary'to mention the board fad- 
tile, the timber crupper, and the flraw collar, diffegarding the dif- 
ference between the load that can be drawn in fuch fprry harnefs, 
and that which could be- drawn by the fame power in a cart of 
moj-e perfeft conftruftion. „,-...: 

' Although iron is now almoft umverfally fubftituted for the tim- 
ber teeth of the harrow, which is generally four feet fquare, and 
for the moll part furnifhed lyith ao iron teeth, it isftill a very im- 
perfect inftrament-; the teeth bging fo difpofed as to make only u 
different ruts, as fevcral follow each other in the fame track, and 
two in the corners make a flight and interrupted impreffion : it 
covers only about three feet of the land, and cofts about 12s. or 
14s. Several however are under, and a few above thefe general 
dimenfions. ' An improvement has been fuggefted, by arranging 16 
teeth in a harrow of the fame fize, fd as each mjght move in a fe- 
parate track, not quite four inches afunder. By a flight alteration 
in cutting the mortifes, the^ fecond bull is projected fo far behind 
the others, as that the path of a teeth in its extremity is exactly in 
the middle between the paths of the two laft teeth of the firft bull, 
or that by which the harrow is drawn; and by the reverfe, in plac- 
ing the mortifes of the third bull, its end is protruded as much be- 
fore as the fecond is extended behind, fo as to have a teeth in its 
foremoft end making a rut between the tracks of the two foremoft 
teeth of the fourth bull. By this arrangement, the foremoft teeth 
of the fecond bull riafles through the fecond fiot; and the laft teeth 
ofi the third bull pafles through the third (lot. In making this har- 
row, it is obvious that the projecting ends of the two bulls muft be 
guarded by plates or hoops of iron. 

The moff ancient fafhion of the plough ftill maintains its credit 
among the poorer tenants in the weftern and higher parts of the 
country. It is in many cafes formed by the tenant : in general & 


Ckap.'tV^] STATE tt* AGltlCtJLTURBi 335 

clumfy Snftrument, of great weight, though moftly without iron,- 
except the coulter and the (hare, exdufive of which it may be (till 
procured for 4s. or 5s. The greater part however of the ploughs' 
are of the'moft approved form, although of various conftruftion : 
when complete, neatly painted, and mounted with iron, it cofts> 
about two guineas. 

The cart in fome cpfes is drawn by two horfes in a line; but it 
is' more generally conftrufted for the draught only of one. With 
an iron axle complete, it cofts L.8 or L.10 fterling. Though 
wooden axles are more generally ufed, there is jio difference either 
in the price, or eafinefs of the draught; only the wooden axle 
•hardly admits of being repaired. The proper fiiape of its arms is 
either not generally known, or not fufficiently regarded. The rol- 
ler is not very generally ufed, though its ufe in moft cafes is pretty 
well afcertained ; and it is only in the courfe of the laft 20 years; 
that the application of the fanners has been familiar. 

The operation of feparating the corn from the ftraw requires 
much labour, and has exerted no little ingenuity. Although the 
ancients were acquainted with the fimple inflrument the flail, 
which has been fo long and fo generally ufed, their cuftomary prac- 
tice was more complicated and more varied : it depended greatly 
upon the threjhing floor ; and from the manner in which it is al- 
ways mentioned in the bible, and by the ruftic writers of ancient 
Rome, its conftruftion alone muft have been a matter of import - 
' ance. The threfhing floor of Atad was fo diftinguiihed, as to be a 
proper halting place for the family of Jacob, when conducing his 
funeral from Egypt to Canaan, though attended by a numerous re- 
w tinue of chariots and horfemen, all the Court of Pharaoh, Gen. 1, 
*o. The threlhing floor was circular, raifed towards the centre, 
that any water might run quickly off, frooothed by the roller* and 
confolidated by the moft binding clay : in fome cafes it was itfelf 
covered; in others, a Covered place was built near, for the protec- 
tion of the corn from a fudden fliower. Hither it was carried di- 
refily from "the field, where it was attended till completely win- 
nowed. Boaz, in the book of Ruth, ch. iii. according to the ufual 
practice, is reprefented as fupping, drinking, and fleeping, by the 
heap of barley on the threlhing floor: the addrefs of the handfome 
widow is the only peculiar circumftance. Araunah fold his 
threfhing' floor, with the oxen, and all the timber inftruments of 

T 1 2 f threlhing, 

Jt6 STATE OF AGRICUlTtfRE. \tkap. IV, 

threfhing, to David* for 50 fbekel* of filver, about L.8 fteriing* 
tut it being for the public good, it is prefumed the King was ra- 
ther undercharged. The corn, was fometimes trampled out by the 
oxen, or by horfes, and fometimes by their turning a loaded wheel- 
carriage on the corn. The law of Mofes prohibited the muzzling 
of the ox when engaged in this work, Deut. xxv; 4*1 and by 
Ifarah and Virgil hvis eftablifhed, that horfes were employed in the 
feme fervice: V Fitchew," fays the prophet, 'Xxviii, 27, " are not 

V threflied with a threQiing: inftrutfieat,. neither is a cart-wheel 
fi turned about upon the cumin; but fitches are beaten out with 
*' the flajl, and cumin with a rod: Bread corn is bruited, becaufe 
#r he will not be ever threfliing it, , nor break it with the wheel of 
" his cart, nof bruife it with his horfemen." — " Often," fays the 
poet, Gepr, hi. line 132, " they (hake the horfes with running; 

V and fatigue them in the fun, when the floor groans heavily by 
** the threfliing of the grain, and the empty ears are toffed in the 

V rifiny-zephit." The rainy climate of thefe northern regions pro- 
hibits this optration in the operi air* though hay is generally threfh- 
<d in the field, 

- The flail in England is cdhfiderably different from that in fir u- 
ment as ufed in Moray, The Englilh flail is of lefs weight ; the 
Jiaff is not turned about in the band; but the fwingle is fa con- 
nected by a fwivel as to move round by itfelf, which is no doubt 
an improvement of this fimple inftrurnent. 

We are, it has been faid, indebted to England for the general 
knowledge, and. for .many particular improvements in agriculture; 
repayments from Scotland of late are begun to be made. The im- 
provement of tile harrow that has been mentioned, the mathema- 
tical principles applied to the conftruftion of the plough, and the 
tyhole, invention of the threfliing machine, folely appertain to 

. The hiftory of this machine is fo generally known, that it is only 
Beceffary to notice farther here, that though beginning but yet to be 
ufed in England, almoft all the extenfive corn-farms, particularly 
in the eaftern quarter of this province, are provided with thefe 
machines : they are turned by 2 or by 4 horfes, or by the power of 
water; and they coft from L.40 to about L.60. It is probable 
they will be conftru&ed in a more fimple form, and of courfe be- 
come lower in price, 

A few 

Cinfi IV .3 state ofr AGRiciTLTmis; $27 

; A few have bfcen conftrufted dn a final! fcate, to be tnrnfcd by 
; one man ; but their ufe and power have not yet been fdtisfaftoyily 
afcerUbed : one particular is eftablifhed, that if they are not turned 
With fteady velocity 4 the corn is not completely expelled from the 
t draw ; in this .regard, it might perhaps be Found an improvement 
ip thefe fmall machines, to add a fly and weight, limilar to what, is 
employed in a common kitchen-jack. 

. Crops of oats., barley, potatoe, turnip, cultivated clovers, and 
rye grafs* and fmall quantities of ilax, are railed over the whole 
province : although, among the poorer tenants in the Highland pa*, 
riihes, the crcfps are reftri#ed t6 oats, barley, and potatde only, 
with a fmall extent occafionally of flax and rye. In the lower part 
of the province the proportion of potatoe is rather lefs f and the 
variety of the crops is inereafed by the addition of wheat, peafe, 
and beans, which the wet climate of the Highlands in a great degree 
prohibits ; although if wheat were fown in the beginning of Sep- 
tember, it would Certainly be found a. very profitable extenfioti of 
the bufinefs of agriculture, and would no doubt be fo far advanced 
by Auguft as not to faffer by the frofly mildew, which, in fevewd 
1 parts of that country at that' feafon, blafts the barley and the datSi • 
! Peafe and beans are rendered fo precarious a crop by the fame 
vappur> and by the frequency of the autumnal rains, that they cart 
never be generally and regularly cultivated in that quarter. In 
the low country it begins to be an eftablifhed maxim* that it is 
impracticable to maintain cattle through the winter without turnip: 
in the higher diftricl, the fheltef among the natural Woods, and on 
the Hoping banks of winding brooks, continues the after-grafs fo 
far through the winter, that turnip, though raifed alfo on many 
farms there, may be fomewhat more eaffly fpared. On the bare 
pnfheltered plains of the champaign of Mora"y, the fields afford no 
fuftenance for cattle from the end of Oftober to the firft of May ; 
,aad where turnip ate not provided, dry fodder is their fole fupport. 
; The fame kinds of crop are cultivated, nearly in the fame man- 
iter over the Whole province ; oats and barley may be reckoned 
t)ie ftaple pr.indifpenfable produce. Over a great part of the pro- 
vince, nearly the half of each farm, or 4-ioths, may be fow n with 
pats; about 1-ioth with barley; 2-ioths in peafe, turnip, andpo- 
fcatoe; and the remaining 3-ioths in fbwn grafs. In the low part 
pf the country, about 3-ioths only may be fuppofed in oats; 



l-ioth in wheat; l-ioth in barley; 3-ioths in fown grafs; and 
s-ioths in turnip, peafe, beans, and potatoe. 

But as thfere never was any fixed or fteady rotation, fince the an- 
cient general fyftem of bear and oats only has been abandoned, and 
as it is well eftahlifhed, that the variableness of the climate, con- 
joined to the different kinds of foil of which every farm confifts, 
wilt* for ever derange any fyftem that may be propofed ; thefe pro- 
portions are Gated to give an idea of the general courfe of manage- 
ment on the larger farms, but not any accurate account of the par- 
ticular circumitances. 

Oats are fown after wheat, barley, peafe, and grafs, from about 
the firft of March to near the end of April, and in general after 
one plowing in winter or fpring, at the rate of 4-<jths of an Englifh 
quarter to the acre ; which', at an average, returns about 4 quarters, 
or but little more, each of which yields about 9 ftone of irieal, 
avoirdupois or Englifh weight. In the higher parts of the country,- 
, where the climate is fevWe, the foil wet, and the harvefts late, a 
proportion of the fmall black hairy oat is ftill cultivated ; it is not 
equal to half the value of the white fpecies, and, with a little more 
frill in the management of the foil, it might be wholly given up. 

For barley, the land is reduced by three repeated plowings to a 
ftate of high cultivation ; manure is alfo applied, fave where this 
grain fucceeds to a green crop, turnip, potatoe, or hoed beans, that 
had been manured ; the quantity of feed about 4 buihels the acre; 
is fown in the month of May ; the medium return about 5 quarters, . 
There are only two varieties of this grain cultivated : the barley, 
with Two rows of grain in the ear; and the bear, which, in a fhorter 
ear, has four rows; it is reckoned. a hardier and an earlier grain; 
but it feems to be a variety in the barley produced folely by the 
climate and the foil ; for if the pureft Englifli barley be repeatedly 
fown in the higher parts of the country, although kept feparate 
with the greatell care, in a very few years it becomes pure un- 
mixed bear. The return from the acre is foifiid in general equal ; 
but its weight and quality is deemed inferior to barley : though 
there are not wanting inftances of the bear yielding more meal, or 
more diftilled fpirits, than equal meafures of barley. 

Wheat is in general fown upon land prepared by fallow, or by a 
green hoed crop, manure being always applied. The feafon ol 
fowing is from the end of Auguft to near the middle of December; 

* in 

Chap, iv.] state or agriculture. 329 

in fomc cafes it is fown as late as February ; a little more than 3 
bufcels is the quantity of feed allowed to the acre ; the return about 
5 or 6 quarters. The feed is always prepared ; it is either for fome 
time fteeped in pickle made fo ftrong as to float an egg ; in fome 
cafes it is juft plunged in ftale urine, and the light grains floated 
off, as in the pickle ; and fometimes the urine is only fprinkled by 
a befom on the heap ; it is alfo wafted in fair water, a fmall quan- 
tity at a time put into a- little tub, and the water changed, and 
the light grain floated off, until the water be no longer defiled, 
which in general requires three changes of the water. # The feed 
in all thefe cafes is dried by the fprinkling or mixing it with lime 
- juft at the time of fowing. If the dung has been properly rotted; 
and the land fufficiently prepared, all thofe methods are found ef- 
fectual to prevent, fmut. 

But, with all this care, the quality of the grain will be greatly 
.impaired if the feed be not frequently brought down from the Lon- 
don market. What then are we to think of the utility of that law 
which, upon a flight alteration happening in the price in Moray, 
between the time of the commiffion being given and the arrival of 
the feed upon the coaft, abfolutely prohibits its being taken en ' 
ihqre, after every thing has been anxioufly prepared for its being 
. fown ? 

Peafe are pretty generally cultivated, but rather in final] quantities* 
. over the greater part of the province. There are only two varieties 
of the fpecies cultivated beyond the gardens : the early grey kind is 
mo& generally cultivated; the fmall black pea is only cultivated as 
an ameliorating crop, in the earlier parts of the country. This 
grain is generally fown, after two plowings, at the fame feafon with 
oats: they are occafionally interpofed between a crop of wheat and 
one of barley : the quantity of'feed about half a quarter to the acre : 
the return its extremely various, from a little more than the quan- 
tity fown to nearly 5 quarters from the acre. 

Beans are only fown in the low part of the country : when not 
tmixed with peafe, they are generally fown in drills, and for the 
Ynoft part hand-hoed: in fbms cafes, they are horfe-hoed. The 
time of fowing, quantity of feed, and the returns, are accounted 
the fame as that of peafe/ 

Turnip of late are cultivated pretty generally in drills, and they 

liave always been twice carefully jiand-hoed: they are but feldom 

-"'* s cultivated 

339 WATS OF AOTlCTJTUBte. [£*<#. nfc 

cultivated in tic harfp.hoeing mode. ( The ground is. well pulver- 
ized by three or four plowing* and barrow ings, and plentifully 
dlanged in the month of June : the fowing is reckoned late, if d^ 
fcrred till • the middle of July. They are gdherajly consumed by 
cows and young cattle. Feeding for the butcher is pot now at- 
tempted upon any fteady plan, or to any confkterable amount. 

Potatoe were introduced into this country af)out the year 1740* 
At the firft, like celery or ajparagus, regarded only as a luxury, 
they were cultivated with care, it\ the molt favoured fttuation of 
the garden : they were put under the landlady's care, witfi her flock 
of winter fruit, and ferved up at the tables of the opulent as a ve- 
getable of the greatefi delicacy : the fervants and the poor afpired 
cot at fujeh dainty fare. Now t<hey are raifed in fuch quantities, 
that, though ftill retained at the tables of the rick, they are eaten 
only through neceffity, not through choice, by- the poop; and. in 
many families thte fervants do not eat them at all* They are cul- 
tivated, however* in fome proportion, upon every farm t they are 
Jmt little ufed as the food of cattle ; by a very few they are; given 
occafionally to borfes and to. poultry: they are planted in the 
month of April, fometimes in drills 3 or 4 feet diflant, and fome. 
jimes in deeply trenched ground, in irregular and clofe rows. 
Dung is feldom applied : the medium return from the acre may be 
/Boo ftone avoirdupois : the white kidney- fliaped potatoe is mod 
generally cultivated for the table ; yet feveral varieties are raifed. 

The fowing of grafs feed was hot introduced £0 early as the cul- 
tivation* of potatqe. In the higher part of fhe country, the land doe* 
not produce red clover, on many farms, until lime or marl be firft 
applied; on this account the cultivation of grafs has not been ge- 
nerally in fuch long practice as that of turnip. Among many of 
the poorer tenants it only occupies a quarter of the garden, and by 
many it is not cultivated at all ; though even among this clajs its 
cultivation is fpreadipg farther every year. There-is not a great 
•quantity of hay {lacked, either for the market or private confurqpt. 
Grafs feed is generally fown with the crop of .barley, fornetimes 
-With oats, and rarely with wheat ; it is principally conCumqd in 
.pafture ; a proportion, frefh cut, is confuroed in the flails : but it 
is not the praftice to maintain either horfes or cattle wholly in the 
ftables through the fummer. About 12 or 16 lb. of red clover is 
the quantity. of feed, generally allowed to the acre, befides a pro- 

Chap.\V\\ StATB DJ ACRICXTLT0Rf!.' 83* 

portion of rye grafs and white clever, all carefully rffxed and fown 
together. White clover is feldom fown alone, but fometiines for 
pafturage, with a proportion of rib grafs and rye grafs. 

On the farms which are confidered as of proper extent, the 
plough is managed by a pair of horfes, or a yoke of oxen, conduced 
only by the ploughman; even in the fmaller farms of the law- 
country, this mode is almoft univerfal: in the higher parts of the 
country, for the fame extent of land, 4, 6, or 8 oxen, conanfted 
by a ploughman and driver, are required ; in feveral cafes, a pair o( 
horfes are conjoined with one or two yokes of oxen. The com- 
parative value of cattle, from contingent and unknown caufes, 
varies fo frequently, that it is only neceffary to obferve, that it ex«< 
tends over the whole fcale, nearly from the higheft priced draught 
. cattle in the kingdom to the lowefl : a yoke of oxen bring from 
50 to 60 guineas, many above 40, and they fall as low as L.12 or 
L.20; pairs of horfes rilp to about the fame value; cows bring 
from L.g to L.12 each. When the breed of black cattle began to 
be attended to m this country, a cbarfe Dutch breed was firft in- , 
troduced: they were more weighty than the native breed, but lefs* 
liandfome, and more difficult to maintain and feed. They gradu- 
ally difappeared ; and the Lancafhire breed became for fome time 
the greateft favourite. They have alfo been for fome time given 
'up, being accounted lefs handfome and more delicate than the. true 
Scots breed, which is now only raifed. Very handfome bulls of 
this kind have been introduced from the ifle of Sky and the 
weftern Highlands. 

In the low part of the country there are now but few flieep J 

-except on a few farms, this fpecies of flock is abandoned to the 

* poor people who refide in the ikirts or among the hills ; they are 

.generally of the fmall white-faced breed. The wool is fine; but 

the animal is fo fcantily fed, and fo poorly treated, that neither the 

wool or mutton is of much importance. 

In the higher parts of the province, fheep are of more confidera- 
tion : the breed is, generally of the black-faced fpecies ; and in 
common they fell for about 12s. or 14s. each. They are for the 
xnoftpart fliut up in the houfe every night, and are never fmeared. 
On the fheep farms in the parifli of Laggan, the treatment of this 
ilock is the fame as on the flieep-farms in the fouttuweft of Scot* 

U u keafes 

*$£ , , STATE OF RfrAlW. pSfcajfr. IV. ' 

ieaTes are generally granted Fofr 19 year*, f'hfe pofleffion oTtSe 
honfes, garden, and arty Natural pafturzfge, commences at thie tttto. 
of Whitfunday, on the 26th df May ; arid to the arabte -land, after 
"reaping the crop which is then laid dowto. On fome eftafes the 
rents are paid wholly in cafh ; but more generally, partly in money, 
tmd partly ih grain. 

The ancient condition of the farm-houfes has been already "men- 
tioned. At prefent, on every farm of confiderable fexttent, the 
huiidings are fufficiehtly commodious and neat, of fubftantial ma- 
fonry, ftorie and lime, and fbr the moft part flated, two ftdries m 
height, ahd completely "fin iftifed within, and furnifhed nearly in the 
fame ftite as the houfes of the ^proprietors. The farm-Offices ate 
Troth in the fame jubffontial manner, Very fufficiently thatcted 
with a thick neat cover df, ftraw, generally difpofed in a handfoTrte 
fquare, judicibufly connected with the manfion-houfe. "T^hfcy *e 
btriit at the «expenceoT the tenant, who is allowed a proportion^ 
the coltat hrsTctnoval. 

The dwellings of the mechanics atfd labourers begin to aifiume 
the fame neat and fubftantral form,. A turf cottage, withotft win- 
dows, is be feen in the low Country : but On the weftera 
ifide of the river Finderti, and in the Highland pariftfes, the lodg- 
ings of the footer tenants and labourers'canrtOt have received toucIi \ 
improvement fince the firft peopling of the country; they are 
triean Tqualid dark hovels, reared -with Ynoorilh turf, and often im- j 
perfeRly thatched, fometimes with nothing elfebut fods. In many i 
cafes the proprietors of the land afford the great timbers fdr tbe j 
couple's and rafters, which the tenant re-delivers at his removal ; 
of equal value. Whether from the remains Of Roman Catholic i 
ideas, 6r from fome frugality in thelmiTding, Or fome accoramoda- ; 
tion m the inteYhal arrangement, thefe black 'man fions are generally i 
in Wie form 'of a crofs, having the tranfverfe extended fometimes j 
over the door, and fometimes acrofs the weft ern end. 

It only remains to clofe this undertaking by a brief furvey of 
the principal roads connected with the province, and fuggeft a few 
hints for its improvement. 

Thepoft road, directed eaftward, in a pretty direft courfe from 
Invernefs to Spey, nearly parallel to the Frith, may be regarded as 
the bafts of all the other roads, and naturally -prefents itfelf firfl foe 
conuderation* By this courfe, in which poft-chaifes and horfes 


Chap. iv. J 8xm or roads. 233 

may be njore certainly procured than upon any other, the diftance 
from Invernefs to Edinburgh is in whole 236. miles; the ftages of 
which are in miles and furlongs. 

M. F» 


Froip Invernefs to Nairn, — . -rr-rr IS 

From Najrn to Forres, — 1 . -r— . 1 q £ 

-* — T7 — to Elgin, — — — 11 5 

* »i«" -. to Fochabers. ?nd S pey, — g 6— 46 7 

t — rr — : to Cullen, — - 12 p 

— -— to Banff, — ,— 12-3 

■ to Turriff, — ■ 9 7 * 

— , — j— to Oldmcldrum, ■ ; « . » 16 5 

^ = — to Aberdeen, — — 17.0—114 6 

1 ■ » ■' to Stonehaven, • 14 4 

' ""I ... * — rr-r-' — tQ I^uyencekirk, 13 7 

■ ■»" ■ •. .:■» • ■ — tp Brechin, — ■ l\> % 

■ «.» ■» * ■ .'■ ■ .' .. tP Fqrfer, ^ r-r-r- li 6 

: rrrrrrr tQ (Ooupitf of Angus, — 17 2 

-^m 1— 1 to Perth, — 12 6—196 o 

* ' ■■ ■! > .u • ■ • to Kinross, -r- ■ — r- 15 4 

■? .-. -.-. ■■- ., , — — to North Queepsfery, ~ 14 7 

■ 236 o 

The firft branch from this road may be reprefented as fpringing 
off from its root at Invernefs j it ftretches up Lochnefs upon either 
fide to Fort Auguftus: the fouthern fide only, being paffable iqr 
wheel-carriages, is to be noticed here. 

M. F. 

*. The firft ftage from Invernefs to the General's Hut, 

war the fall of Foyers, ia — *-r— - i-j 6 

St. And to Fort Auguftus, — • — — * $4 2 

32 o 
Where it is parted into three diverging courfes: one, bending 
foutherly over the mountain of Corryarigch to Edinburgh, makes 
the diftance from Invernefs to that capital ;6i miles and 6 fur- 

V u 2 Th$ 

g<j4 ' STATE O* ROADS* \€hap. IV* 

The remaining ftages continued from Fort Auguftus, 

diftant, as above, from Invernefs, — • 3& o 

Stage 3. From Fort Auguftus to Garvamore, ■■ 18 o 

4. n» to Dalwheenie, • 13 4 

£ % to DalnacardochV — — 13 1 

6. , . to BJair of Athol, — 10 3 

y. ■ ■ . ... to Dunkeld, or Inver Inn, — 20 1' 

8. ■ ■ to Perth, — 14 5 

126 6 

From Perth to Edinburgh, as above, — — 40 o 

161 6 

The middle courfe lies weftward to Fort William, continuing 
jiearly in the original direftion from Invernfefs. The diftance from 
Fort Auguftus is 29 miles, accommodated with an inn at Leittcr 
Findlay, at the diftance of 14 miles from Fort Auguftus. 

The third courfe bends nearly oppofitfe to the firft, in a northerly 
direftion, from Fort Auguftus to the ifle of Sky, terminating at 
the Barracks of Bernera, the ferry to that ifland. The road is firft 
conduced up the river of Morrifton, and afterwards down the 
valley of Glenelg, 

l. From Fort Auguftus to Unach, ->- — 

2. ■ to Raatachan, — ~* — 

g, . _ to Bernera, <— ; •— 

43 5- 

The fecond branch from the great poft road fprings alfo from 
Invernefs, making the diftance to Edinburgh in all 355 miles. 
The ftages are, 

M. F. 

1. From Invernefs to Dalmagerie, •— ■ 12 5 

2.- to Alviemore, — — — 17 5 

3. • * to Pitmain, — t 13 1 

$. r- ■ < to Dalwhecnie, " — » 13 4 

Carried over, 56 7 








Xhap. IV.] STATE OF ROAD*. 335 

m. r. 

Brought over, 56 7 

From Dalwheenie to Perth, as above, — • 58 1 

And from Perth to Edinburgh, — " 4a o 

. The third branch from the poll road turns off at the diftance of 
10 miles eaftward from Invernefs, where it meets the military road, 
at the diftance of g miles from Fort George. The diftance by this 
route to Edinburgh is 167 miles. 

M. F. 
The firft ftage is to the river Findern, at the Bridge of 
Dulfie, diftant from Invernefs, — ? ■ ■ ■ 20 o 

(But it is only 16 miles from Fort George.) 
2. From Dulfie bridge to Grantown, — — 

0. > to Toman toul, — 

4. ■ ' to Curgarph, — - — 

£. ■ to Braemar, — «— 

6. ■! , ■ — to Glenfliee, — — 

7. — ■ to Blair Gaurie, — 

















By Coupar of Angus to Perth, , — — — 

' From Perth to Edinburgh, above, — » 

\66 7 
There is alfo a new road lately formed from Dulfie-bridge, reach* 
ing direftly to Aviemore, by one ftage of the length of 18 miles. 
This is alfo, from Forres through Badenaugh to Edinburgh, the 
moft direft road, the firft ftage being 9 miles ; .befides which, the 
road from Forres to Edinburgh by Glenfliee is through Grantown, 
at the diftance of 22 miles, by the route of Edinkiellie. 

A fourth branch fets off from the great road at Fochabers, con- 
duced up the river Spey. The firft ftage, from Fochabers to Ro- 
thes, is 9 miles, where it alfo is joined by a road from Elgin, through 
the gle$ of Rothes, of the fame length: the fecond ftage, from Ro- 
thes to Aberlaur, is 7 miles; and the third, from Aberlaur to Gran- 
town, is *g miles; from whence therpute may be continued either 
by Aviemore, or Tomantoul, as above: befides which, a road of 
the length of 12 miles is conduced from Aberlaur, through Glen- 
rinnefs and Glenlivat, direQly to Tomantoul, 

A fifth 

83^ *TATfe Of ROAftfr I Chap. Vti 

A fifth branch fets off alfo from Fochabers to Edinburgh, reach- 
ing that capital by a route of 158 miles 6 furlongs, by which the 
diftance from Inyernef* to Edinburgh is aoj miles, $ furlongs. 

a. From Fochabers to Keith is — — — 

a # ■■ to ^untly — — • 

2 # to Boat of Alford on the river Don 

4. » - * toKincardine O'Niel — 

g m ■ to Cuttie's Hillock — — 

6» ■ , ■ Acrofs the Grampian hills to Fet- 

tercaini — — 

8. .__—•—— to Brechin — . — 

From Brechin to Edinburgh, as by the great road 





















Mi *• 

1. From Huntly to Aberdeen, the firft 

flage to Oldrain is — ~ 12 _ 1 

2. From Oldrain to Inverury — 85 

3. To Aberdeen by Kintore # ~ 1$ 4 -fi "3^ B 

The fixth branch, which is the courfe of the poft, leayes th$ 
great road at Stonehaven, keeping nearer to the fliore. 

M. F, 

io. From Stonehaven to Inverbervie is — • — 9 * 

1 1> ■■ *> to Montrofe — — ta 6 

12. i ■ ■ ■ ' ■ to Arbroath — — 12 Q 

j j. / to Dundee ■ — — 17 o 

5 1 ° 
From Dundee, at the diftance of 133 miles 3 furlongs from In* 
vernefs, the poft proceeds through the Carfe of Gowrie to Perth, 
by Rait Inn, 12 miles 1 furlong, and from Rait to Perth, 10 miles 
5 furlongs ; but the direS route to Edinburgh croffes the Frkh at 

*4« From Dundee to Cupar of Fife is —90 

l£. ■ ., — ^_ to New I«n — — 8 5 

46. x ■ » to Kinghora — — 1a $*— ^9 f 


tkap. IV.] "STATE OT Rt)ABfc 53JT 

By this route, the diftance from Invernefs to Edinburgh, with 
tie Friths of Dundee and Kinghorn, is in all about 172 miles; and 
it is the Ihbrteft road from Spey : yet the expence and delay of 
crofling the ferries is more than a counterbalance for this advan- 
tage, and experience hath Thown, that the roads by the Queefts- % 
ferry are generally more eligible. The fhoTteft road from Inver- 
rifefs to Edinburgh, through Badenaugh, is alTo greatly fuperior to 
ally b'f the others, in the complete repair in which it is always kept t 
in the fatisfaftory accommodation of almoft every neceflary bridge, 
and in the ingenuity and care with which the acclivities are in ge- 
neral avoided. The fnow however in winter is often fo embaraf- 
'fitog, that it is but little frequented during that feafon : the inns of 
courfe are then'btft poorly provided : the Arivering traveller is re- 
ceived in a rdOTii comfortlefs and cold, and moft of the articles 
ih the bill are charged ohe-third higher, on the pretence of the 
fliHant hmd- carriage, than in the taverns along the coaft. The 
f other roads are not always in fo good repair, as with little care and 
Hull might be attained, and little or no ingenuity has been exerted 
ifi avoiding the acclivities. 

The fliorteft road from Elgin might be direfted through the 
Martach hill to iCnockando, thence through Inveravon to Toman- 
tdul, and continued for 10 miles farther, by Inchrory, Lochbuilg, 
" and Xilengairn, to Breztmar, and thence by the third branch to 
Edinburgh: by this route one whole day's journey would be faved* 
A bridge might be built on the Spey at the rock of TomdoW 
for about L.1060 fterling, arid a much more direft communica- 
tion opened into an extenfive quarter of the highlands of Moray 
and Banff, at prefent ace edible from the low country by a very 
circuitous route. 

~It friay be alfo proper 'to notice the continuation of the poft road 
from Invernefs to the extremity of the iftand at the ferry of Houna, 
Where the Pentlaftd Frith is crofled to the Orkney Iflands. 

m. r. 

1. The firftftage from Invernefs is along the Moray Tnth, 

to its head at fieaulie, — i — — 10 1 

2. From Beaulie to Dingwall, — . — — 91 
»3- *-- *— to Invergorden, — — — 14 o 

4. ■ ■■ to Tain, — — — 11 5 

*i,t»» 1 

Carrie4«ver, 44 7 

83* STATE OF ROADS- [Ckajf* !tf 

M - T - 

. v Brought otfer, 44 7 

5. Frcm Tain to Dornoch, — — — 9 4 

6. , to Golfpey, — -^ y { 

7. to Helmfdale, — . — — 17 i 

8.^ to Dunbeath, — — — 14 4 

g. ., , to Wick,. — — • — 20 6 

xo. — ,—-*—. — to Houna, — — — 16 7/ 

1 ' 

13° 3 

At Dunbeath a branch fets off from the road wefterly through 
the caufeway raire to Thurfo, the diftance in whole being 22 miles, 
the breadth of the ifland. The firft ftage, from Dunbeath to Au- 
chavainich, is 9 miles ; from thence to Thurfo, 13. 

It ought to be alfo obferved, that, by croffing the Moray Frith 
at the ferry of Keffock at Invernefs, and the Frith of Cromarty at 
that town, the diftance from Invernefs to Tain is leffened 14 miles;' 
and by croffing the Moray Frith at Fort George, the diftance fro«r> 
Nairn to Tain by Cromarty is 30 miles (hoiter, than by coaftufi 
round the Friths by- Beaulie and Dingwall. • . J 

The poft only croffes the Pentland Frith once, in the week: de- 

navigation from Houna to Burwick in the ifland of j m. f. 

South Ronaldflia is — — — 

Acrofs that, ifland, and a found, to the ifland of Burray, 

From Carray in Burray to Hamfound in Pomona, — 

From Jlamfound to the burgh of Kirkwall, where the laft 

ramification of the poft may be faid to terminate* is - 











The whole diftance from Edinburgh to Kirkwall is £20, 
from Invernefs to Kirkwall it is 165. -1 

Upon a general furvey of the ftate of the roads* one circumfbaq 
forces itfelf into confideration-~that it is the poft road only whid 
is deftitute of bridges on all the larger and unfordable rivers 
province, the Spey, Findern, and Nairn, and on ail the rivers north 
ward from Invernefs to Houna. f < 

Another circumftance alfo naturally obtrudes itfelf upon th 
mind of the traveller ; namely, the very confiderable revenue exa&fl 
from him by the different proprietors of the refpeflive ferries, aboH 


rhat is requifite for the fupport and navigation of the boats. Lord 
eaforth, for example, draws a free rent of Lugo fterling yearly* 
torn the pockets of tbe paiTengers at the ferry of fort George, the 
Pitmtn being themfelves bound, befides this payment, to provide 
mi uphold the boat with all its neceflafy tackle; yet few arc fatis- 
td with the pnovjfion made either for their accommodation or theur 
ifety in the pafiage of the ferries. The eafieft mode of redrqfling 
us grievance would be to apply the money granted yearly by the 
government for the roads in Scotland, to the fote purpofe of build* 
ig bridges, where requifite, upon the poft-road from Fochabers to 
oona. By this means only, in the courfe of comparatively but 
few years, Widget might be built on Spey, Fiadern, Beaulie, and 
onan : tbe road may be conduced from Dingwallto the head of 
Frith of Dornoch, and a bridge built over the river Shin, and 
.certain road formed, without the intervention of a ferry, from 
one end of the Britifl) empire to the other. Much* Speculation 
of late been entertained about the building of a bridge on the 
at .Fochabers. It is not neceflary to enumerate the advan-* v 
;es which would refult to the country from the accomplifhment 
this obje£L The fentiments of the people refpeQ:ing it arc fully 
ertained by a fubfeription having been in a very fliort time filled 
ip, to the extent of L.3000 fterling, by the ir^habitants in its vici- 
ity : the eftimate, however, amounted to about L. 13,000. If the 
m, however, which has been fubferibed, were recovered, and 
fee government allowance for loads for one year obtained, a»4 
^ere his Grace the Duke of Cordon to erefi a village along the 
highway acrofs the moor of Mofstodlach, annexing 26 or 30 acres 
(hereof to each houfe, with a growing rent from is. to 10s. the 
fcre, upon leafes of 50 or 70 years, and eftablifhmg the prefent 
fires as a toll, it could be ftewn, that an annual fum might te 
faifed equal to the prefent Tent of the ferry, the rent alfo presently 
fcawn from the moor, which can fearcely be improved -without" 
the bridge, and the intereft ©f the capiul farther requifite for tie 
(rock, and a linking, fund alfo, whereby, in not a long term of 
fears, it would be wholly difcharged. It is unneceflary, perhaps 

E proper, to form minute calculations here; but it may be ob- 
ired, that the expenCe might be confiderably , lowered, by tic 
plication for a few years of the road money annually contributed 
)ky the landholders of the counties of Moray, ai&d Banff, and by the 

Xx ftatut* 


ftatute labour of the people, in the carriage of the^tone which the ] 

one, and the lime which the other of thefe counties offer. 

The eftimate for a bridge at Boat of Brigg amounts only to the 
fum of L.3000 : and if the road mould be. conducled from Focha- 
bers along the bank of the river to that place, and led back again 
by Blackhills into the highway at Elgin, the diftance would be 
only lengthened about 6 miles upon the whole, without greatly al- 
tering the conrfe of the poft, and independent of the formation of 
a new mad from Portfoy, by the mod direft route through the in- 
terior of the country to this bridge. ] ' \ 

Befides thefe, many other particulars have fceen fpoken of, m'i 
effential for the general improvement of the country; a fewfc-; 
lefted from them it may be proper yet to mention. 

Although inclofed fields muft be of great advantage in any Aate 
of agriculture, yet in the ancient praftice the benefits of this im- 
provement were not perceived ; and, excepting the inclofures? j 
about the feats of the proprietors, the whole country may be ffifln 
regarded as altogether open : yet the tenants are now fenfible ofj 
the advantages ofinclofing. Over a great proportion of the coun-H 
try, the cattle are as particularly 'tended during the winter as theyi 
are in fumroer ; and the wages of the boys employed \t\ this fervice q 
are equal to that of the female fervants.' Several years ago, earthen j 
dykes were tried by fome tenants/ and corifiderable fums wcrfj 
expended on this kind of fence: but they were found to be wholW 
inefficient againft black cattle and fheep; and they have been pretty 
generally abandoned. It is therefore not owing to the tenants tlfll 
every farm is not inclofed either by ftone walls, where that n» 
terial can be procured, or by hedges : it is however unneceffaryfl 
Hate the terms here, between the landlord and tenant, upon whid 
this objeft might be accomplimed. Although a great proportid 
-of the moors and uncultivated ground over the country may 1 
covered with thriving plantations, yet their fituation is for t! 
moll part diftant from the corn lands; the country dill appeal 
naked, and the* fields are quite urimeltered. There are irreguW 
patches of uncultivated ground, either fkirting or interfpei 
among the fields of each farm, of no value to the proprietor, 
of very little to the tenant. When the want of natural w 
once fo abundant in every part of Scotland, firft began to be 
the laws in force, which were made for its prefervation, tbouj 

r , pr°J 


&per perfiaps' when originally devifed, are now impolitic and 
preflive: hy one of them, the whole growing timber, including 1 
t plants in the nurfery, are without exception the property of , 
\ landlord. Were they to be ftri&ly executed, the tenant o£ 
ay nurfery would Be yearly fubjefiled to the punifhrnent of a 
pa. And by the effeft of thefe laws the tenant is prohibited 
m planting fttch unproductive ground, and which muft be there- 
pe tranfmitted from generation . to generation with increafing, 
rility. The tenant might ^without inconvenience rear a few 
ks for his own account in. fuch fituations : but he would be in- 
■nmoded by any intervention of the landlord. Ori a lcafe even 
lig years he would find it a profitable ex tenfion of his bufinefs, 
pre he only allowed to carry oflFfuch as the landlord or fucceed- 
te tenant, ascertaining the value above a certain fize by appraife- 
mt, did not choofe to buy : the fucceeding tenant could afford 
jgive 4 proportional rife of rent for the accommodation of tim- 
r from fuch plantations, befides at the fame, time becoming bound 
t every tree he felled to plant another. Jt would be alfo an eafy 
lUer to make it the intereft of the tenant,, without expence to the 
bprietor, to raife fruit trees, apples, pears, plumbs, and cherries, 
th in the garden and* in the fences of the fields. * 

very great decreafq in the value of money has rapidly taken. 
e in the courfe of the palling generation : to the farmer this is 
proportional, upon the value he. receives for corn and the ex- 
ce he muft lay out for labour. . One cjrcumftance merits notice, 
while government have exerted their utmoft endeavours to 
the price of corn low, they have given no attention to the 
prbitant expence of labour. About 40 years ago, the average 
«• of a boll of grain was 42s. and the yearly wages of a plough- 
ahout L.2: at prefent, though Jefs induftrious and more ex-, 
fpfively maintained, his wages have rifen about 300 per cent, and 
p value of grain not quite 30. While fome amufetherofelves ict 
ggefting hints to the legiflature refpefting this circumftance, the 
briers more generally entertain the [peculation of becoming moftly 
ziers : this would no doubt raife the price of corn on the one 
d, and, on the other, leffen the quantity of labour required :fcr 
pi^duftion. The proprietors might make pro vifon againft the%~ 
fe of this evil, by entering into concert with the tenants for ac- 
inmodating a few families of labourers or artizans upon each farm, 

X x 2 whatever 


whatever its extent may be. Were a houfe ere&ed, and ground 
for a fznali garden, and the maintenance of a cow during the tat 
rner, only allotted, it is certain there would be plenty foandtrf foci 
fettlers; and, by the number of labourers, theprieeof labour wooH 
in a fliort time be reduced to the level with that of other articles : 
at prefent it cofts the farmer higher than-if fucK accommodatiofl 
were given without rent. In general, however, it would be found 
expedient that fuch accommodation was held of the landlord rath* 
than from the tenant. 

Betides the exefefs in the expence of farm fervanta, another evil 
almoft univerfally complained of,* is their infolence, idlenefs, urf 
waftefulnefs. This it has been propofed to redrefs by a law, oblige 
ing every farm fervam to produce to the matter with whom In 
engages, and to the church feffion of the parifii when required,! 
certificate from the mafter whom he laft ferved, granted before tva 
legal witneffes, of the wages he received, and of the difcretioB, 
fidelity, and diligence, which he maintained during tbe period A 
his preceding fcrvke; the engaging mafter to forfeit equal to» 
quarter of the year's wages, and the fervam as much, to the pan* 
fund, for every omiffion of fuch formality ; to be recovered atthj 
inftance of the cafhier in Scotland, and of the churchwarden* iti 
England, by the warrant of one juftice of the peace, or other jdgt 
ordinary, in the fame fummary manner in which the penalties art 
levied for a deficiency of the ftatute labour on the roads. It ion 
not appear that fuch a law could be attended with much incea-i 
venience to either ptfrty ; and \^hile it would in general prevol 
impoGtion on the engaging mailer, by an exaggerated account of M 
wages paid by the difmi fling matter, it would in moft cafes bH 
the effeel of making the fervam difcreet, careful, and diligol 
during the term of his fervice, when fo much as a quarter of U 
wages depended upon his behaviour : it would alfo in a great nd 
fure prevent the improper tampering of neighbouring farmers 
each other's fervants. 

The landholders may not at prefent perceive how much they 
concerned in procuring the eftablifhraent of fome police for 
reeling the growing diflipation and profligacy of this clafs of 
ciety, and introducing lefs licentious habits among them,- botA 
the recent alterations in the fentiments of fociety, it is all 
greatly wanted, / 

Js T sn£ 


Numbers have, in the coarfe of the bfft 50 yean, fpecutateA 

deeply in the corn; trade; and confiderable fortunes, by a kind of 

, jnipofition on the farmers, have been rapidly accumulated ; and at 

greater proportion ef the corn merchants have failed than of any 

,, other profeffion. Although the landholders do not now receive fi> 

much of their rente in grain as formerly, k is no doubt as much as 

eyer for their intereft to contribute their influence in the eftabtiuV 

roent and fupport of a fair and fteady com market ; were they heartily 

dtfpofed to attend to this object, it would not be difficult to form 

\ arrangements by which the corn of this country could he brought 

[ to as regular and certain a fale as at Haddington, or any other mar- 

> fret in Scotland* 

^ The application of water as a manure, both for grounds to bo 
[ continued in grafs, and when firft to be converted- from grafs tp 
^ corn, where water can be fo applied, would' certainly be found of 
\ die greateft confequence: but the ufe of water as a manure is 
It wholly unknown, and unpra&ifed by every clafs of farmers over 
j the whole country. 

\. It would be alfo greatly for the intereft of many of the proprie* 
jf tors, to retain one or more labourers merely for the purpofe of 
j; fprepding the rills of water, where practicable, over the fides of 
heathy mountains. By this fimple means, a vaft extent of unpro- 
l dufiive territory would in the courfe of a few years be converted 
[. into a verdant and valuable pafturage and grazing. 
\ Raifing of rorn and cattle are no doubt the important and only 
[ lucrative obje&s in -agriculture. Experience has not warranted 
farmers bellowing much attention upon raifing flax, or other crops 
\, not commonly produced ; but flax is raifed here to irruch lefs ad- 
t . vantage, by the want of a mill for extracting the oil from the feed. 
# . Were there alfo a manufacture of muftard feed, fimilar to that of 
y Durham, eftabliihed in the country, there is no doubt but it would 
; be raifed in confiderable quantities, and to much advantage. la 
the fame view it may be alfo proper to mention a mill for extraft- 
, ing the oil from rape feed, ^hich could be profitably raifed upon 
the, fallows, and taken off in proper time for fowing wheat: it 
would contribute alfo to the maintenance of cattle, and to the aug- 
mentation^ the dunghill. ( 
.1 Swine is the only animal not reared by the farmer, Which might 
be worth nis attention. The rearing of this animal is of confider- 

344 HINTS fOU IMPROVEMEfct* . £ Chap. IVt 

able importance to the comrrrunity at large. In no inftance la* 
nature (hewn her ceconomy more, than in this fpecies, whofe fto- 
machs are a receptacle for almoft every thing which other crea- 
tures refufe, and which in this country is entirely wafled. Where 
the offal of the garden and farm is infufficient for their aliment, the 
deficiency may be made up by potatoe in winter, and by red clover 
in fummer. « At the end of one year, befides the number of pigs 
which may be had,- the value of a fwine in general is equal to that 
of a calf of the fame age; and, if properly accommodated, they re- 
' quire lefs care and- lefs expenfce, 
. Although many bee-mafters appear enthuGafiic in recommending 
this kind of flock, yet it is apprehended the attention which they 
require cannot be eafily fpared by the induftrious farmer ; but bees 
might be a very profitable article to the generality of labourers, 
and to all the country mechanics and artizans. 

Since the price of labour has become fo exorbitant, it may not 
be proper \o attempt the eftahlifliment of any manufa&ure but fuch 
as may be carried on moflly by women. Although a tan- work be 
of little confequence to the farmer, it might however be for the 
advantage of the country, that the hides which itfelf produces were 
manufaftured at home. There was lately a tan -work to a confide- 
rable extent at Elgin,, which the partners in a few years found it 
f onvenient to abandon, chiefly on account of the trouhiefome 
piode of levying .the duties of excife. A foap-work was alfo given 
up by another company, moftly on the fame confideration. 

It might perhaps be found for the advantage of the revenue, that 
in fuch cafes, where the attendance of the officer of excife is almoft 
continually requifite, and the frequent interpolation of oaths re- 
quired, that the duties were laid on rather by licence, and levied 
quarterly, or at fuch other terms as might be deemed expedient. 

In fome places, under a thin layer of light foil, thfe fole is fand, 
but fo firmly concreted as to bear the refemblance of flone, gene- 
rally of a dark brown colour. In the provincial dialeft, this is 
termed Moray coJle 9 and it is in pretty extenfive tra&s over much 
of the low country : in fome cafes, it has imbedded pebbles fimiiar 
to the pudding flone: it is fuppofedto have been indurated by wa- 
ter charged with iron ore, or fome other mineral. Although not 
always able to -refill the fhare, it is generally avoided in ploughing, 
becayfe fuppofed adverfe to vegetation : but as it generally crum- 


bles down when expofed for fome time to the weather, James 
Goull Efq. dodor of phytic, was led to fuppofe that it contained 
no iron, and having brought feveral pieces from different parts of 
the country to the teft of a chymical analyfis, he found this with- 
out exception to be the cafe ; and upon turning it up with the 
plough in the rainy feafon of winter, upon his own property of 
Afligrove, in the vicinity of Elgin, he found that, T)y adding to the 
depth, it tended to improve the foil ; and wherever the ground is 
dry, it is probable, that mingling it with the foil will always have 
the fame beneficial confequenccs. 



The Editor's refideiice being diftant from the Prefs, a\ few Typographical 
; ' Errors have been alraoft unavoidable.-— They arjejiere enumerated and' 
'•* corre&ed. 

,x AGE i, line 10, for original read accidental. 
, P- 4»"'* 3« f° r rational read national. 

P. 4, 1. 26, for Hinder read Hindus. 

P. 4, 1. 30, for Hindees read Hindus. 
i. P. 4, after line 32 add : — This might be proved by analytical fn-- 
veftigation, in as convincing a manner as hiftorical fafts of fo high 
antiquity are capable pf receiving, was this the proper place. Suf- 
fice it to mention, that the Hindus, Greeks, Tit/cans, Scythians', or 
Goths, Celts, Chinefe, and Japanefe, proceeded' from one central 
Country, Iran at large. There is. great affinity between the pri- 
meval languages of Afia and thofe fpoken in Europe, particularly 
in the Britifh ifles- The language of the firii Perftan empire was 
|he mother of the Sanfcrit, as well as of the Gothic, Greek, and 
%atin. Pliny obferved, that the BritiJJi religious ceremonies 
Were fimilar to thofe of Pcrjia* Strabo mentions, that the Samo- 
thracian inftitutions were pra&ifed in Britain. 

It is more than probable that the. Druids of this ifland were the 
Immediate defcendants of a tribe of Bramins* who emigrated from 
Tibet into Tartary, and there uniting* with \\&Celto Scythians* in** 
joduced the Bramin religion, which, mingling with the tenets ©f 
the Ceito- Scythians \ fpread over Europe. .. 

The Bramanic original o£ the Druids appears from their dpc-f 
fine of tranfraigration ; th^ir knowledge of aftronomy ; their ab- 
tioence from pertain kinds $f food^ as unclpan, and belief of the 
teftru&ipn of the worjd by fire, &c. Tho. Druid circles were 
blar temples, of which Stonchc&ge was the moil diftinguifted. 
Fhefe circles were alfo employep\.for public .deliberation, and the 
liftribution of juftice. In Norway and Iceland they are named 

Yy dqm: 


, bom thing, ting, or judicial circles. They were ufed for tbefc i 
different purpefes, as the ancients always opened their meetings (or 
civil affairs with afts oT religion. From this eaftern fource we a/e 
to derive thofe hieroglyphical representations of ferpents, elephants, 
and other figures, on the obelifks in Angus-Jkire. Similar figures 
are carved on obelifks in Japan* 

. P. 5, 1. 30, add : — This emigration of Phoenicians and Iierians 
from Spain probably happened when the Chaldeans under Nebu- 
chadnezzar conquered part blAfricek and Spain, about the year 571 
before Chrift. The irruption of the Chaldeans is mentioned by 
Strabo, who names their king Nauocodroforum. It is alfo related 
by Jofephus. There is the more probability in this expedition, u 
it happened after the Chaldeans had taken Tyre, and fubdued: 
Egypt* wno at l ^ at period carried on an extenfive commerce with | 
Spain and Africa* and had founded Leptis, Utica, Carthage* Gadts, ' 
and other cities, Pliny gives an account From- VarrO, that Ptu 
Jians, Phoenicians, Iberians, and Celts, had fettled in Spain. 

P- 5» 1- 39» *dd : — The Irijh call one of their diak£h B£rla fini, j 
the Phoenician fpeech. 

P. 8, 1. 26, for Scot read Scot. 
P. 8, \i 35, for Tafous read Torfeyf. 

P. 8, 1. 36, for Sigind read Sigurd. . * • 

P. 9, 1. 17, add:— In 1171 there was an infurreftion of the in- 
habitants of Moray, fo4hat Malcolm's policy had not' all theeffefif 
he, expe&ed from it. 

P. io f 1. s6,; for Hugh/on read Hugh fon. 

P. 12, 1, 4, dele alfo after or. 

P. 12, 1. 5, after tie, add alfo, 

P. 12, 1. 31, add : — In 1206 there was a difpute between William, 

Bifhop of St. Andrews, and Duncan of Arbuthnot, anceftor of tfcfc 

prefent Vifcount of Arbuthnot, concerning the property of tie 

Kirktown of Arbuthndt in the Mearns. It was determined by a 

fynod met at Perth that year. One of the witnefles declares oa 

oath, that he had known thirteen Thanes, in his lifetime, to bate 

the lands in queftion, to whom the Bifhops paid tribute. Fnosl 

, this it appears, that Thanes were Collectors of the King's revenue 

and received perquifites of office. 

P« *3» *• 3- after Lyon, add, in the chartulary of* Moray. 
P. 13, 1. 21, for Une read ti?ne. 



. P. i3> h 27 , for Man read Jlfor. 
1 ft 18, L 85> for Hebrides *ead Hefadjss* 

P. 19, 9, i, add ;--This appears to he. confined by aDujtch fur* 
name, which, is promifcuoufly fpelt 4t Groot, or Grand. There 
is a tribe of the name qI Groat, in Caithness, who ^flert they are 

P. S2, 1. sgu for nutters read itfoyr. .■'•••. 

P. 23, 1. 23, tor Macanne read Macane, and (fete tie cprnma 
after Macano. 

P. »5» !• 131 for Charles read Francis* 

P. 25, 1. 14, for Francis read Charles, 

p, «7^i. 32, add:-— By authentic communications it appears, 
lh#t jM» 0*£ Grant % fecoml fon of John/Grant of Gram, by Mar* s 
gam Ogilvie* daughter o£ Sir James Qgilvip of ©eOtford, anceftor 
of the fiarf of Eindlater, was progenitor of $be Grants of Shezoglie* 
Cvrritwnyi & c - in the lordthip. <?f Urqubart, and (hire of Inner- 
nefs ; an4 obtained a charter fr$m King J*9W IV, in 1,509, of the 

* braes of (feat country, from ^b&b hq and his.inimediatft defendant, 
j?oA*, derived, tfeeir loc*l 4dtgn#uon. 4lfiKan4ir x only fon of the 
latter John, by* Marjory, daughter of John Grant, representative of 
fiallindaUoeb, tetfted in Sh^wglie. % his mjfeondyft, and thg 
fearbardus policy of the times, he loft in 1^09 the greateft part of 

• his inheritance, whteh reverb %a the family *<tf Grant. From this 
' Alexander, by Lilias, daughter of Peter Grant of Glenmorifton, 

defcended in the line of primogeniture RtibexL> wbofe fon and fuc- 
treflbr, Ja?nes % is named a c^rnmiflionyer in the fir ft aft of fupply, 
%66op This James was killecl in a ikirmjfh, by thieves in 1689-; 
.and fuce.eedec}* by his only fo*, 4kxandtr % ,tluen an. infant. He 
married, firfir, Margaret, daughter of John Chifitolm of Comar and 
iStratbghfs, and* fecoqdly, Ifabel, daughter pi John Guam of Glen- . 
j»orifton, hy both of whom he left a numerous iflue. Of the fons* 
fourteen in number, James was thesWeft, a»d his immediate fuc, 
: cciTor: moft of the reft were military officers, and of tbefe. was 
.Hugh above mentioned. This James, by his wife, May Frafet. 
^daughter of Frafer of DqhbaUacb, had Janets; hi& only fon, who 
.filled high diplomatic and financial departments in Bengal, and 
purchafed Redcaftle, as mentioned above* 

Of this' family of Shewglte is Charles, a defcendant of Patticfc, 
the younger fon of Robert, fon of the fir It Alexander. He has 

Yya filled 


filled one of the principal departments 6f the Eaft India Company's 
fervice in Bengal, and now is a direftor; and will, it maty be f up* 
pofed, foHow the example of the other branches off his family, and 
become a landed proprietor in the province of Moray; * 
- P. 29, 1. 29; after ifue, add :— The eldeft daughter, Margaret, 
was married to her near relation, Major lnnes; of which marriage 
is Major General Harry lnnes, faid t6 be the heir male of the 
family of Jnnes* : * 

P. 29, 1. 29, dele one of hi* daughters, read,, the other. ' 
P. 30, 1. 32, after nine daughters-, dele to the end of* the para- 
graph, and add : — Anne Brodie, married, 2d OS. 16^9, to William, ; 
Mafter pf Forbes ; Katharine; married 15th Aug. >68a to her 
coufin-german, Robert Dunbar of Grangehiil ; Grizcl, married, ] 
19th Nov. .168,5, to Robert Dunbar of Dunphail ; Elizabeth) mar- 
ried, 16th Feb. 1686, to Alexander €omyn of Altre; Emilia, mar- J 
ried to George Brodie^of AHiflt, on whom the eftate waa'entaitcd 
as heir male; Margaret, married to ! James Brddie *>f • Whitehall* 
brother to George of Aftifk ; Veronica, married to Brodie of 
MuireQt, fonof Jofeph, whofe grtudftm is-Captaifr Brodie above 
mentioned ; Lilias, firft married to Dfcfeor CoaJyn. of Innemefj, 
to whom me- bore Sluy { fhe thereafter married as fecond wife to 
Alexander Chives of Mutrtown, who had been formerly married 
to her coufin-german, Mary Dunbar of Grangehiil; Henrietta 
died when about to be married. • - . • ' 

P. 31, L. 14, add :— His next brother, Alexander, was fortunate 
in the Eaft Indies; and is. Member of Parliament for the diftriflr 
of burghs in which is- Elgin. He married a daughter of Wemyfs 
of Wemyfs, and has iflue. The jroungeft brother, George, is a 
Colonel m'thearmy, and Governor of Fort Auguftus, 
• P. 34, 1. 19, add ;— -i?#A?r/ Dunbar of Grangehiil, defcended of 
David of Durris, was created a k night -bat chelor at the Reft o ration, 
and married Grizel, only daughter of Alexander Brodie of Brodie, 
a fenator of the College of Juftice. The fruit of this marriage was 
Robert of Grangehiil* James of Cleves, and nine daughters. Ka» 
tharine married, firft, Charles Gordon, brother to the Laird of 
Gordonftown, without iflue; (he* married next Alexander Aber- 
cromby of Glaflaugh, the aid July 1675; of this marriage was 
.Captain Abercrombie, father of General James Abercrombie, and 
at daughter married to Frafer of Culduthel; fhe married, kftly, 



James Ogilvie of Bandintoul, to whom (he bore two daughters, 
that. have a 'numerous pofterity. Florence, married, 19th Nov.' 
1674, to Thomas Urquhart of Burdfyards; Mary was married 21ft 
June 1679, to Alexander Chives of Muirtown, wear Xhnernefs ; 
Jean married Alexander Frafer of : Pliopachy ; Gri2el, married, 6th 
May 1694, to John Maxwel of Woodfide, fon to the Bifliop of 
Rofs, and a daughter of this -marriage was mother to FHher the 
player : Anna was married to John Rofe of Blackhills ; her grand- 
ion is John Grant, minifter of Elgin : Margaret, married to James 
Frrafer of Caftleleathers ; her graridfonis Captain Frafer, late in 
Kincorth: Emilia married, 16th Jan -1692, John Gordon of Car- 
bine in Keith pari Qi; her defcendants are the Beat fons at Bridge 
of Earn: Janet, baptized 2^th April 1677, and died unmarried, 
when grown up. 

r Sir Robert Dunbar, father -of this numerous family of daugh- 
ters, had three brothers : David Dunbar of Kirkhill, William of 
Kinteffack, m&:Jahn of Wellhead. . David married a daughter of 
Seton of Pitntedden, a lord of feflion, called Marjory, by -whom ^e 
bad John, who married his coufin Mary Urquhart, daughter of 
Burdfyards. The fons qf this marriage were Robert, minifter of 
Dyke, and David, minifter of Olrick. Robert leift two fon*: 
-John, prefently minifter of Dyke, and William, an attorney at 
London. John Dunbar has two fons, Robert and William. Th$ 
Attorney has iffue. David left no male iffue. 

William Dunbar of Kinteffack bought the eftate of Durn near 
fonfoy, and was created a knight baronet in 1698 . He married 
Janet Brodie, daughter of the dean of Auldearn. Their fons were, 
Sir James Dunbar of-Durn, -William of Kincorth, and George, 
and four daughters. William had a fon, Dr. Dunbar at Dunfe, 
who has an only daughter. George died unmarried. The daugh- 
ters were, Anne, Countefs of Findlater and Seafield: the prefent 
£arl is her great-grandfon. Katharine married Samuel Tulloch 
of Tanachy : Grizel married James Gordon of Letterfury, and is 
grand-mother to the prefent Letterfury: Jean married DuJF of 
JDipple, to whom (he had feveral daughters. 

•Sir James Dunbar married a daughter of Baird of Achmedden, 
.andby her had two fons, Sir William, and James of Kincorth. Sir. 
Williammarritd Clementina, daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, 
t and leit two fons, Sir James and Keith Dunbar, who are both 



unmarried. Jaanaw.of Kincorth married a daughter of Sir Jama 
Abercrombie of Birkenbog; his two fons died unmarried: bb 
daughter is married to James Duff at Banff, andlias iffue. 

P. 4U, 1* jw> { for ^744 read 1748. 

P, 54, 1. it, add:— Captain Shand, who Tome years ago com- 
manded the detachment of the royal artillery at Perth, employed 
hinafelf in exploring the Roman geography frotxj Gamelon to. Stone* 
haven, the limits- of Agricola's progrefs. . He conjeftured, that the 
Romans had penetrated further into the country: and, on a fumy, 
found the great caipp at Gleh~maikn on Ytka& r in Buchan, per* 
baps the Statio ad Ittinam; .a&aUo, the remarkable pnfidium near 
Qldmddrum* and a number of fifcaller works af the fame charafter 
with thofe on the other fide, of tho Grampians,- though not exe- 
cuted with fuch accuracy. \ . 

. P. 73. l r a6, sidd i-r-In 1244, Robert Augufline gave part of his 
lands near Inneralien in Strathfpey to the abbey. In 1255, Robert, 
Etifhop of Rafs, bellowed on it the church of Awach in Rofs. 
Muriel* 'daughter of Peter Pollock, and wife of Walter Murdoch, 
in 4248, give Dundurcas and Freefield out of her e&ateof Rothes. 
King Robert Brtice granted, in 1310, all the fi filings on Findem, 
from Dunduffto the fea, as alfo the church of Ellon in Buchan. 

P. 75,1. *6, add-: — Robert Reid, abbot of Kin tofs, according 
to Ferrerius, was horn at Akynheid in Kirtnedar* His father was 
flain at Flodden-field. His mother was BelfCy Sbenwall. Although 
employed in foreign embaffies and ftate affairs, he repaired the 
buildings of the abbey: and ab#uf 1540 brought from Dieppe in 
France, William Lubias, a gardener, who improved the garden by 
planting fruit trees of the heft kipds, and grafting many more; whipk 
jke did. alfo all over the low part of Moray : fince then the garden of 
Kinlofs has been diftingui&ed for fruit, particularly apples, as h» 
Old Duffus^ This Rohert Reid, when bi&op o£ Orkney, gave to 
the town of Edinburgh L.450 for eftablifhinjj zfihola iltujlris ; and 
they began the College of Edinburgh in 1581. - 

F» 75, 1. 3a, after monajtery, add Ferrerius reports. 
P. 76, after I. 38, add :~*-It gives partial information of the pre- 
vailing furnames in Moray, to mention thofe of fome of the monks 
of this abbey. They are, De Teras, Forres, de Spine, Hunter, 
Tellen, Guttury, Fluture, Boufton, Rannaldfon, Ellem, Bell, Bax- 
ter, Comyn, Merchand, Mar, Bone, Doualdfon, Wilfon, Eliot, 



Butter, Kellie, Richards, Spens, Copland, Weddcl, Childe, Mo- 
ray, Hethone* Perfon, Srnythe, Browne, Maffone, Toud, Lenis, 
Portar, Fof fyt, Lyell, Braidwood, Riddal, Burt, Elder, Baird, 
Lawrack, Dafon, Pop, Gilbert, Gray, Delkij, Galbreith, Haiftie. 

P» J 3 2 » '• 35» f° r Roger re ^d Royer. 

P. 133, 1. laft, for Kay read Hay. 

P* 134, K 17, for have received read have been received. 

P. 148, I. 27, for Jor L.i. 2J. read £.2. aj. " 

P. 169, 1. ii, for parting read purling. 

P. 194, 1. 1, for o/Aefc read wafle. 

P. 197, 1. 1, for arable field read an arable field. 

P. 226, 1. 26, for Farmea read Farnua. 

P. 229, 1. 6, and el few here* for Kilmorae read Kilmorcc. 

P. 230, 1. 9. for z» /i/ffc ^i<28 read in little mere than, 

P. 245, I. 13, for not unpleafant riding read not an unpleafant 

P. 246, 1. 16, for fouthern read eqftern. 

P. 249, 1. 9, {oxjimper xziAJimmcr. 

P. 250, 1. 10, for when read where. 

P. 252, 1. 31, for Drumnachter read Drumuackter. 

P. 256, 1.^23, for refurgitation read regurgitation. 

P. 289, 1. 35, for Auckradun read Auchnadune. 

P. 299, 1, 25, for county read country. 

P. 312, 1. 1,' for embellijhed by a handjbme battlement within 
the gate* read embellijhed by a handjbme battlement. Within 
the gate. 

P- 3*3« 1- 2 8» f° r Sampiori read Sampieri. 

In many cafes particular inquiries were made, and accurate in- 
formation obtained refpe&ing the population. The ftatement of 
the table is not thereby materially affefted. In one inftance or 
two, the difference may be obferved in the account of the refpec- 
tive parifhes. 

r 1 n 1 s„ 







Bo/ - 


c J 

MAR 2 2 1346 

WAR ZZ 1945" 

MAR %l 1946 

MAR 2 2 1945' 

MAR % 2 1946